SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.45Public policy, Special Education and schooling in BrazilProlegomena to Plato’s critique of poetry in the Republic author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand

Journal

Article

Indicators

Related links

Share


Educação e Pesquisa

Print version ISSN 1517-9702On-line version ISSN 1678-4634

Educ. Pesqui. vol.45  São Paulo  2019  Epub Oct 21, 2019

https://doi.org/10.1590/s1678-4634201945218350 

THEMATIC SECTION: SPECIAL EDUCATION

Impacts of the special education policy (2008) in Ceará and Fortaleza *

Heulalia Charalo Rafante1 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7616-1594

Sergio Cristóvão Selingardi2 
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8632-7124

Sonia de Oliveira da Silva1 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5897-6239

Lenaye Valvassori Silva3 
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9259-1212

1- Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil . Contatos: heulaliarafante@yahoo.com.br; sonialiver@yahoo.com.br

2- Pesquisador independente, Mariana, Minas Gerais, Brasil . Contato: sselingardi@yahoo.com.br

3- Pesquisadora independente, Sorocaba, São Paulo. Brasil . Contato: lenaye.lvs@gmail.com


Abstract

This article analyzes the impacts of the National Policy of Special Education in the Inclusive Education Perspective (Política Nacional de Educação Especial na Perspectiva da Educação Inclusiva - PNEEPEI in Portuguese) (2008) in the state of Ceará and in the city of Fortaleza. Bibliographic and documentary research along with examination of the School Census microdata (2010-2017) were conducted regarding enrollment, teachers and schools. The analysis was made in light of dialectical historical materialism, considering the capitalist society divided into antagonistic classes, in which the State / political society, to create and consolidate hegemony, establishes the interrelationship with civil society, which disseminates and articulates elements and influences public policy (GRAMSCI, 2001). In this sense, we sought to understand the different forces present in Brazilian society, which influence the elaboration and implementation of the PNEEPEI. Regarding the School Census, in Ceará and Fortaleza, the results were: increase in the total enrollment of PAEE students in regular education; in relation to Specialized Educational Treatment (Atendimento Educacional Especializado - AEE in Portuguese), there was an increase in the number of students enrolled, teachers, non-exclusive and exclusive schools, but enrollments do not include all special education target audience (Público Alvo da Educação Especial - PAEE in Portuguese) students and there is a shortage of teachers and schools with this service. There have been advances in the inclusion process, but the strength of private institutions is manifested in the expansion of exclusive schools and the partnership established in the organization of the AEE for regular school students, maintaining the parallel system of Special Education. However, it is essential to continue the implementation of the policy and overcome existing contradictions, until guaranteeing the right to education for all PAEE students in the regular school system.

Key words: National special education policy from the perspective of inclusive education; Impact of public policy; Special education; School inclusion; School census

Resumo

Este artigo analisa os impactos da Política Nacional de Educação Especial na Perspectiva da Educação Inclusiva (PNEEPEI) (2008) no estado do Ceará e no município de Fortaleza. Foram realizadas pesquisas bibliográficas, documentais e exame dos microdados do Censo Escolar (2010-2017), referentes às matrículas, aos docentes e às escolas. A análise foi feita à luz do materialismo histórico dialético, considerando-se a sociedade capitalista dividida em classes antagônicas, em que o Estado/sociedade política, para criar e consolidar a hegemonia, estabelece a interrelação com a sociedade civil, que dissemina e articula elementos culturais e influencia a política pública (GRAMSCI, 2001). Nesse sentido, buscou-se compreender as diferentes forças presentes na sociedade brasileira, que influenciam a elaboração e a implementação da PNEEPEI. Em relação ao Censo Escolar, no Ceará e em Fortaleza, os resultados foram: aumento das matrículas totais de alunos PAEE no Ensino Regular; em relação ao AEE, houve aumento no número de alunos matriculados, de professores e de escolas, não exclusivas e exclusivas, mas as matrículas não contemplam todos os alunos PAEE e há carência de professores e de escolas com esse atendimento. Houve avanços no processo de inclusão, mas a força das instituições privadas manifesta-se na ampliação das escolas exclusivas e na parceria estabelecida na organização do AEE para alunos da escola regular, mantendo-se o sistema paralelo de Educação Especial. Porém, é fundamental a continuidade na implementação da política e a superação das contradições existentes, até garantir o direito à educação a todos os alunos PAEE na rede regular de ensino.

Palavras-Chave: Política nacional de educação especial na perspectiva da educação inclusiva; Impacto de política pública; Educação especial; Inclusão escolar; Censo escolar

Introduction

Throughout the twentieth century, Special Education in Brazil was organized by philanthropic private institutions, which, in partnership with government spheres, promoted an education marked by the segregation of persons with disabilities. In the 1970s, this paradigm began to be questioned and there is the insertion of the model of integration and normalization of these people. At the end of the twentieth century, from the 1990s, the discourse of inclusion began to be disseminated in Brazil, and in 2008 the National Policy of Special Education From the Perspective of Inclusive Education (PNEEPEI) was introduced, which has already completed 10 years of existence. Considering this historical process, the objective of this article was to analyze the impacts of this policy on the state of Ceará and the city of Fortaleza.

Starting from the references of dialectical historical materialism, we consider capitalist society, organized into antagonistic classes, in which the state / political society establishes an interrelation with civil society, for the creation, dissemination and maintenance of state power ( GRAMSCI, 2001 ). Therefore, in the analysis of public policy, this interrelation between political society and civil society must be considered4 ( RAFANTE, 2016 ). In this sense, we sought to understand the correlations of forces present in Brazilian society, which interfere in the elaboration and implementation of PNEEPEI.

In light of these references, bibliographical and documentary research along with microdata analysis of the School Census (2010-2017) were conducted, considering the enrollment of the Target Public Students of Special Education (PAEE) in Regular Education, Special Education, Youth and Adult Education and Vocational Education5 , according to the categories present in the school census6 ; in relation to Specialized Educational Treatment (AEE): number of enrolled PAEE students, teachers and schools that have this treatment, non-exclusive and exclusive7 . Results were presented in tables prepared using SPSS software for statistical data treatment. The analysis considered growth, fall and irregularities in each data set.

First, we present the development of Special Education in Brazil, Ceará and Fortaleza, identifying the correlations of forces present. Afterwards, we proceed to the exposure and evaluation of the School Census microdata (2010-2017), followed by the final considerations.

National Policy on Special Education from the perspective of Inclusive Education at the national level

The development of education for people with disabilities in Brazil was marked by the institutionalization paradigm, based on the medical-psychological model that, through medical examinations and psychological tests, applied to children, made the diagnoses to classify and direct them. to specialized institutions ( MACHADO, 1980 ). Sociedade Pestalozzi and Associations of Parents and Friends of the Exceptional (APAE in Portuguese) stood out, establishing an approchement with the governmental spheres, guaranteeing public resources for private institutions, influencing the elaboration of public policies directed to Special Education ( RAFANTE, 2015 ). According to Garcia (2004 apud GARCIA; MICHELS, 2011 ) and Kassar (2011 , p. 67), these institutions are even confused “with the public service itself, in the eyes of the population, for the gratuity of some services”.

In the context of the Military Civil Dictatorship in Brazil (1964-1985), the country’s alignment with the development of international capitalism, remaining in the peripheral position of international geopolitics, led to reforms in the educational field, guided by the agreements of the Ministry of Education. with the Agency for International Development (USAID). Under the aegis of the Theory of Human Capital, education was seen as the path to economic development, since individuals were considered as the gears of capitalism, making their development necessary for the consequent advance of the system. Therefore, the expansion and universalization of education were placed as priorities, which included people with disabilities.

In the First Sectorial Plan for Education and Culture 72/74, Special Education was highlighted by Priority Project No. 35, which was drafted with the participation of representatives of Brazilian civil society, linked to the specialized institutions that, since the 1960s, demanded the establishment of a national body to address issues related to the area. Also participating were two US experts, sponsored by USAID8 , and a member of the United Nations (UN)9 . In this scenario, the goal of educating people with disabilities was to make them useful to society, which required their integration into the regular school system, in common or special classes ( RAFANTE, 2015 ).

This was the insertion, in Brazil, of the paradigm of integration and normalization of children with disabilities, in which education should be offered to them in the regular school system, under the principles of mainstreaming, a movement originating in Denmark, which provides for progressive integration of children based on individual evaluations involving the regular and specialized system. This movement sought to ensure that children could “lead as normal life as possible, benefiting from the service offerings and opportunities that exist in the society in which they live” ( PEREIRA, 1980 , p. 02).

Kassar (2011) and Rafante (2015) showed that the integration paradigm had a close relationship with the Human Capital Theory, by guiding the organization of education of people with disabilities in economic aspects, since the offer of their education in the regular school system it was less costly to the state and, moreover, by making the individual useful to society, it would contribute to its development.

In Brazil, this paradigm met resistance from specialized institutions, which organized themselves and influenced the direction of public policies for the area, resulting in the Federal Constitution of 1988, which determined that the education of people with disabilities would be carried out “[...] preferably in the regular school system.” ( BRASIL, 1988 , p. 01), which kept the possibility of attending in specialized institutions. Globally, multilateral organizations, such as the UN and the World Bank, advocated the fundamental role of education in developing “human capital”, promoting economic development and fighting poverty. In this context, the paradigm of inclusive education begins to be placed, aiming at “building capacities so that the subject has freedom to enter the market, build their life and collaborate with the economic life of the nation.” ( SOUZA; PLETSCH, 2017 , p. 834). As in the 1970s, studies by multilateral organizations indicated that the education of the PAEE in the regular network would be less expensive ( SOUZA; PLETSCH, 2017 ).

In the wake of the dissemination of these principles in 1990, the World Conference on Education for All was held in Jomtien, Thailand, which drafted the World Declaration on Education for All, to which Brazil was a signatory, committing itself to universalize the right to education, including people with disabilities. Especially regarding this student profile, the “World Conference on Special Needs Educational: Access and Quality” was held in Spain in 1994, leading to the elaboration of the Salamanca Statement, which recorded a position against education in specialized institutions, marking the consolidation of the perspective of inclusive education.

According to Kassar (2011) , from these actions worldwide, in Brazil, the discourse of “inclusion” of people with disabilities begins to spread, replacing “integration”. It is in this context that the National Education Guidelines and Framework Law, which culminated in the Law 9394 of December 20, 1996, which, in Article 58, defines Special Education as: “[...] teaching modality for students with special needs, preferably in the regular school system, for students with special needs.” ( BRASIL, 1996 , p. 01). Kassar also pointed out that, despite the international indications, in Brazil, the “complementarity of actions” remained, in which private institutions remained active, a perspective that began to change from the 2000s, when the government of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2006; 2007-2010) began to determine the enrollment of children with disabilities in ordinary schools, with the indication of specialized educational care, “primarily in the form of multifunctional resource rooms.” ( KASSAR, 2011 , p. 72).

Resolution CNE / CEB 2/2001 established the National Guidelines for special education in basic education, in which Special Education was constituted as a pedagogical proposal, which should provide special educational resources and services to support, complement, supplement and even replace the common educational services. Despite allowing the substitution of the common education, the advancement was in the indication that “this support could be characterized as the performance of a specialized teacher [...] along with the conducting teacher of the classes with students with disabilities.” ( GARCIA; MICHELS, 2011 , p. 109).

In 2008, the National Policy for Special Education was launched from the perspective of Inclusive Education (PNEEPEI), which confirmed Special Education as a teaching modality that goes through all levels, stages and other modalities; it offers its own services and resources and guides teachers and students. ( BRASIL, 2008 ). There is the abandonment of the idea of Special Education as a pedagogical proposal, to focus on the availability of services and resources. ( GARCIA; MICHELS, 2011 ), and should perform the AEE in the multifunctional resource rooms.

The Decree 6,571/2008, which provided for the AEE, removed from the Special Education the functions of support and substitution, and should complement and supplement the common school ( GARCIA; MICHELS, 2011 ). It also determined that the Union’s technical and financial support would be directed to public education systems, which excluded funding for private specialized education institutions. However, the locus of schooling for students with disabilities remained a matter of dispute, leading to the replacement of that Decree in 2011 by Decree 7611, which expanded Union support to private institutions ( BRASIL, 2011 ), mantaining the perspective of complementing and supplementing common education.

By Decree 7611/11, AEE identifies, develops and organizes pedagogical and accessibility resources in order to eliminate obstacles for the complete student participation, considering their specific needs, and should be organized in all stages and modalities of basic education, constituting compulsory provision of education systems and performed in the opposite of the ordinary class shift, in the school space or in a specialized center. In the school environment, AEE should be carried out primarily in the multifunctional resource rooms, which are “[...] environments with equipment, furniture, and didactic and pedagogical materials [...].” ( BRASIL, 2011 , p. 01).

PNEEPEI was strengthened by Law No. 13.146/2015, which establishes the Brazilian Law for the Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities (Statute of the Disabled), with the objective of “[...] ensuring and promoting, under equal terms, the exercise of fundamental rights and freedoms by persons with disabilities, aiming at their social inclusion and citizenship. ”( BRASIL, 2015 , p. 01).

Regarding the definition of the target audience for Special Education, Garcia and Michels (2011 , p. 108) report that Resolution CNE / CEB 2/2001 used the terminology “students with special needs”, referring to students who had difficulty learning, whether or not related to organic issues, which broadened the profile beyond “the characteristics of Special Education in Brazil”. In 2008, PNEEPEI considered the target audience of Special Education students with disabilities, global developmental disorders, high skills and giftedness ( BRASIL, 2008 ). According to Garcia and Michels (2011) , this definition takes up the terms of the 1990s, when the integration paradigm was in force.

Until 2013, in the Education Guidelines and Bases Law (Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação – LDB in Portuguese) (Law 9394/96), the terminology to refer to students targeting Special Education was “learners with special educational needs” (Brazil, 1996). Law No. 12,796/2013, modified the LDB, which now refers to this population as “learners with disabilities, global developmental disorders and high skills / giftedness”. ( BRASIL, 2013 , p. 01). Although these terms have roots in the medical psychological model, the Brazilian Inclusion Law (Law No. 13.146/2015) states that the assessment of disability should be biopsychosocial, performed by a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary team, considering: “the impediments in functions and structures of the body; socioenvironmental, psychological and personal factors; the limitation in the performance of activities; the restriction of participation.” ( BRASIL, 2015 , p. 01).

In 2014, Technical Note No. 4 suspended the obligation to present the medical report to guarantee access to the AEE. However, Pletsch’s studies; Paiva (2018) evidenced the permanence of regular schools partnerships with specialized institutions that provide a medical service, “highlighting the striking presence in the school culture of the medical model of disability, to the detriment of the social and rights model.” ( PLETSCH; PAIVA, 2018 , p. 1046). Therefore, with ten years of PNEEPEI, there is a striking presence of these institutions, influencing the elaboration and implementation of public policies.

The following is the course of the organization of education for people with disabilities in Ceará and Fortaleza, considering this national trajectory.

National Policy of Special Education in the perspective of Inclusive Education in Ceará and Fortaleza

The first experiences in caring for people with disabilities in Ceará were isolated actions and in welfare character. In the 1930s, in the scenario of the industrial and urban development process, civil society began to organize itself to serve people with disabilities. ( OLIVEIRA, 2008 ).

In 1965, APAE was founded, with which some municipalities formed cooperative partnerships to offer education to children and adults with mental disabilities, developed in segregated places ( CARDOSO, 2011 ). In this context, special classes were created in state schools, which constituted a landmark of Ceará’s public education, because it tried to insert a significant number of students with disabilities, but the principle of separation between “normal” and “abnormal” caused estrangement in families, who did not allow their children to share space with the disabled. ( OLIVEIRA, 2008 ).

In the late 1980s, the State Constitution (1989), in line with the Federal Constitution (1988), provides for specialized educational assistance to persons with disabilities, preferably in the regular school system. During this period, meeting the demand for Special Education was constituted through the action of public and private institutions.

Based on PNEEPEI, the State Education Council, by means of Estate Education Coucil Resolution No. 456/2016, establishes:

[...] the standards for special education and Specialized Educational Assistance (AEE) of students with disabilities, Global Development Delay and high skills / giftedness, within the education system of the State of Ceará. (CEARÁ, 2016, p. 01).

Article 1 defines that the Special Education is a modality transversal to the other modalities and integral part of the regular education, and must be foreseen in the Pedagogical Project of the school. The provision of Special Education is a constitutional duty of the state and municipality, through public and private schools, beginning in early childhood education.

The AEE should be assisted by the education systems and its function is to identify, elaborate and organize pedagogical and accessibility resources that reduce obstacles to the effective participation of students with disabilities, and may occur outside the school space, that is, in an itinerant way in the hospital and home care environment, in order to provide school education.

It is verified that Resolution No. 456/2016 has officialized PNEEPEI in the state of Ceará. Prior to this Resolution, the state government issued Ordinance 0998/2013, concerning the regulation of procedures for the Permanent Basic Assessment System of the State of Ceará (Sistema Permanente de Avaliação Básica do Estado do Ceará - SPAECE in Portuguese) and for the Escola Nota Dez Award, stating that, in these two cases, some student profiles would not be accounted for in the participation calculation, among them, students with disabilities duly evidenced by an opinion issued “exclusively by a medical professional” (CEARÁ, 2013, p. 01). It is a strategy to receive PAEE students without interfering with the evaluation results of regular schools, confirming the permanence of the medical model and the belief that these students do not learn.

With regard to the municipality of Fortaleza, in the 1990s, the Municipal Secretariat of Education created the Pedagogical Support Rooms, with the purpose of serving students with learning disabilities and / or disabilities and providing access to regular education. ( MAGALHÃES; OLIVEIRA, 2007 ). In 2003, the city joined the Inclusive Education Program: Right to Diversity (Programa Educação Inclusiva: Direito à Diversidade), which has the function of promoting the creation of inclusive education systems, with the municipality as its central focus. ( MAGALHÃES; OLIVEIRA, 2007 ).

In 2013, Resolution No. 010 of the Municipal Education Council of Fortaleza, in line with PNEEPEI, was approved, which set the “[...] norms for special education from the perspective of inclusive education and for specialized educational assistance [...]” (FORTALEZA, 2013, p. 01). AEE should be carried out primarily in multifunctional resource rooms. In municipal, public and private schools, the AEE can be carried out in Specialized Educational Assistance Centers, public or private, through agreements.

In the state of Ceará and Fortaleza, it seeks to guarantee, at least in legislation, PAEE students, an education from the perspective of inclusion, but in both spheres, this legislation maintains the possibility of private institutions of specialized education. From the analysis of the School Census data (2010-2017), presented below, we seek to verify the results of the implementation of PNEEPEI and the impacts of the performance of private institutions.

Analysis of school census data (2010-2017)

According to the National Institute of Educational Studies and Research Anísio Teixeira (INEP, 2018), the School Census is the main instrument for basic education information and the most important Brazilian educational statistical survey in this area. The Census is conducted in collaboration with state and municipal education secretariats, with the participation of all public and private schools in Brazil.

It is necessary to emphasize that the enrollment data may differ from those presented in the statistical synopsis prepared by INEP each year, due to the use of specific filters, which remove the number of enrollments in complementary care classes, specialized educational care (AEE). and the enrollment in duplicate.

In the state of Ceará, between 2010 and 2017, total enrollments, without distinguishing PAEE students, decreased gradually year after year, constituting a 12.85% drop from 2010 to 2017, while the number of enrollments of PAEE students grew 123.31% in the same period. In 2010, the enrollment of these students totaled 0.92% of the state’s enrollment, while at the end of the period, in 2017, this percentage increased to 2.17%.

In the analysis of disability enrollment, there is an irregularity with a tendency towards growth in blindness and HI; irregularity with quantitative maintenance in deafness and deafblindness; drop in enrollment of students with low vision by 53%; increased enrollment of students with PD by 42.4% and with ID by 306%.

Regarding this significant growth in enrollment of students with ID, it is noteworthy that this profile constituted a majority among the deficiencies in the whole period analyzed, corresponding to 38.01% of them in 2010 and 69.13% in 2017. Enrollment of students with GDD and high skills / giftedness, it is noticed irregularity in the analyzed period, with a tendency to increase that, when compared to 2010 and 2017, was 123.10%.

Regarding the Municipality of Fortaleza, in the periods between 2010 and 2017, there was also a decrease in the number of total enrollments by 13.31%. PAEE student enrollment increased by 212.6%. In 2010, the number of students enrolled with special needs was 0.46% of the total enrollment. In 2017, this number corresponded to 1.67% of enrollments. With regard to student enrollment and special needs, there is an irregularity that tends to increase enrollment in the categories blindness, low vision, and hearing impariment; irregularity with quantitative maintenance of enrollment in deafblindness; 179.66% increase in enrollment of students with deafness, 24.38% in enrollment of students with PD and 266.37% of enrollment of students with ID.

Noteworthy is the considerable increase of 728.19% in enrollment of students with GDD and high skills / giftedness. Following the trend of the state of Ceará in Fortaleza, there was a significant growth in enrollment and students with ID enrolled were also the majority throughout the period, and in 2010 it represented 51.40% of children with disabilities and, in 2017, it corresponded to 60.24% of this population.

In a study about the inclusion of students with ID in regular education, in Ceará, Rafante, Oliveira, Silva (2018) expressed concern about the increase of students identified with this disability, which results in the stigma that the student does not learn and may limit their educational background and, consequently, lead to a process of exclusion of these students.

Seeking to understand why schools continue to report students with ID, Pletsch and Paiva (2018) analyzed the evaluation processes of these students in seven municipalities of the state of Rio de Janeiro and found the permanence of the medical model and the performance of decontextual evaluations, with an end in themselves and not as a process. Citing other studies ( PLETSCH; OLIVEIRA, 2015 ; FERREIRA, 1989 ), the authors drew attention to the problem of considering poor school performance as ID, therefore, this deficiency is related to school failure.

Manzini (2018) also highlighted the difficulty, present in the development in Special Education in Brazil, of separating students with special needs from those that are the result of this “social construction of disability, that is, students stigmatized and labeled by the disability of the education system to provide teaching for these students.” ( MANZINI, 2018 , p. 814).

Considering these studies, it is inferred that the identification of students with ID may include many who have learning disabilities, not ID. Misconception corroborated by the special education policy of the 1990s, which included this profile of students as PAEE in that context. Specifically, in the state of Ceará and Fortaleza, it should be considered Ordinance 0998/2013, which states that students with disabilities, with medical report, are not accounted for in the external evaluation (SPAECE), which may be contributing to the classification. of students with learning disabilities among those with ID. In addition to this analysis, students with GDD, high skills / giftedness, who also had a significant increase in enrollment. It is urgent to analyze the evaluation procedures for the classification of PAEE students, in order to ensure that the interpretation and implementation of PNEEPEI does not generate misunderstandings and exclusion, as the School Census microdata points to this problem.

Through this table, which includes enrollment of PAEE students by type of education in the state of Ceará, there is a considerable decline of 80.7% of enrollments in the Special Education modality, while in Regular Education, there was an increase of 123.31%. This data indicates that 2017 have registered 26,137 more enrollments than 2010 in the same modality, a much higher amount than the registered in the drop in enrollment in Special Education, which shows that more students are being considered the target audience of this type of education. In vocational education, regularity was maintained between 2015 and 2017 and Youth and Adult Education registered a 34.72% increase in enrollment of students targeting special education.

In this table, which includes enrollment of PAEE students by type of education in the municipality of Fortaleza, there is a decline of 67.93% of enrollments in the Special Education modality, in contrast to the increase of 212.63% of enrollment of these students in Regular Education, which represented, in 2017, 5671 more enrolled students compared to 2010. Regarding the vocational modality, the regularity was maintained and, in Youth and Adult Education, there was an increase of 183.51% in the student enrollment target audience for special education.

Regarding the enrollment in the AEE, it can be observed that, from 2010 to 2017, in the State of Ceará, there was an increase of 335.33% in the enrollment of PAEE students in this service. In the breakdown by categories, there are irregularities in the enrollment of students with GDD and high skills / giftedness in the periods from 2010 to 2014, and from 2015, there was a gradual increase in enrollment, reaching a growth of 172.44% by 2017; There was also an irregularity that tended to increase in enrollment with blindness. irregularity in enrollment of students with deafblindness disabilities; 174.91% increase in enrollment of students with low vision, 45.77% in enrollment of students with deafness, 115.50% of enrollment of students with HI, 260.59% in enrollment of children with PD and a significant increase of 498.39% in enrollment of students with ID. It can be noted, with the exception of enrollment of students with deafblindness disabilities, that there has been a considerable increase in all other types of enrollment in the AEE.

In the municipality of Fortaleza, it is possible to verify that, from 2010 to 2017, there was an increase of 466.58% in the number of enrollment of PAEE students in AEE. There is an irregularity with a tendency towards growth in enrollment of students with blindness; irregularities, alternating trends for growth and fall in low vision, deafness and deafblindness; 276.08% increase in enrollment of students with HI, 165.98% enrollment of students with PD, 593.01% enrollment of students with ID and 1,132% enrollment of students with GDD and high skills / giftedness in the AEE.

In Ceará, from 2010 to 2017, the number of PAEE students enrolled in the regular school system increased by 123.31%, and enrollments in the AEE increased by 335.33% in the same period, serving more than 50% of students with disability in the regular school system in 2017, which is double the enrollment compared to 2010, which was only 25.79%.

In Table 8 , between 2010 and 2017, the number of PAEE students enrolled in the regular school system in Fortaleza grew by 212.6% and enrollments in the AEE also had a very significant increase, from 466.58% in that same period, serving 58% of students with disabilities in the regular school system in 2017, which represents a considerable growth in enrollment of this service compared to 32% of these students enrolled in 2010.

Table 8 Enrollment of students who have special needs in regular education in relation to access to AEE in Fortaleza 

Year Special Needs Total Enrollment AEE Special Needs Enrollment % AEE Special Needs Enrollment
2010 2,667 853 32.0%
2011 3,089 1,383 44.8%
2012 3,357 1,323 39.4%
2013 3,660 1,898 51.9%
2014 4,211 2,426 57.6%
2015 5,742 3,026 52.7%
2016 6,376 3,737 58.6%
2017 8,338 4,833 58.0%

Source: Data from INEP - School Census of Basic Education.

In the state of Ceará, the number of teachers teaching in AEE increased by 284.30% in the period from 2010 to 2017, which is significant, but did not follow the increase in the number of students enrolled in AEE in the same period, which was 335.33%.

In Fortaleza, the same movement is observed in the state of Ceará, since the number of teachers teaching in the AEE increased 181.41%, from 2010 to 2017, which is significant, but also did not follow the increase in the number of student enrollment in the AEE in the same period, which was 466.58%.

In the period under review (2010-2017), in Ceará, it is observed that the number of schools decreased by 16.47% and schools offering non-exclusive AEE increased by 434.93% and exclusive had a growth of 611.11% and, considering these two possibilities of offering the AEE, there was a 339.87% increase in the number of schools in the state with AEE, revealing a gradual growth in AEE.

However, it is important to highlight that, despite this growth, in 2017, the number of schools with non-exclusive AEE in relation to the overall total of schools is 17.06%, plus 0.67% with exclusive service, totaling 17.75 % of schools with AEE, which still represents a very significant shortage of schools with this service, given that the increase in the number of PAEE students enrolled in AEE in the state of Ceará was 335.33% ( Table 5 ) and only 50% of them had access to this type of care in 2017 ( Table 7 ).

Table 5 AEE student enrollment by type of special need in Ceará 

Year Total Enrollment Special Needs Enrollment GDD, High Skills Giftedness Blindness Low Vision Deafness HI Deafblindness PD ID
In AEE
2010 5,468 5,468 1,027 94 303 343 329 3 571 2,798
2011 10,144 10,144 702 158 555 665 524 5 1,037 6,498
2012 10,857 10,857 610 117 633 562 484 8 1,245 7,198
2013 13,108 13,108 766 114 587 638 527 7 1,431 9,038
2014 16,258 16,258 787 158 706 762 578 7 1,747 11,513
2015 19,077 19,077 1,363 163 751 639 639 11 1,796 13,715
2016 21,100 21,100 1,873 160 832 611 626 16 1,859 15,123
2017 23,804 23,804 2,798 154 833 500 709 8 2,059 16,743

Source: Data from INEP - School Census of Basic Education.

Table 7 Enrollment of students with special needs in regular education in relation to access to ESA in Ceará 

Year Special Needs Total Enrollment AEE Special Needs Enrollment % AEE Special Needs Enrollment
2010 21,196 5,468 25.79%
2011 24,075 10,144 42.13%
2012 25,286 10,857 42.93%
2013 27,343 13,108 47.92%
2014 31,813 16,258 51.10%
2015 38,053 19,077 50.13%
2016 41,418 21,100 50.94%
2017 47,333 23,804 50.29%

Source: Data from INEP - School Census of Basic Education.

In Fortaleza, from 2010 to 2017, there is regularity in the number of schools, and the non-exclusive ones that have AEE increased by 189.55% and the exclusive ones had a growth of 400% and, considering these two possibilities of offering the AEE, there was a 195.65% increase in the number of schools with AEE, revealing a gradual growth in specialized attendance. Similar to what was observed in the state of Ceará, despite this growth, in 2017, the number of schools with non-exclusive AEE in relation to the general total of schools in Fortaleza was 15.03%, plus 0.77% with exclusive service, totaling 15.81% of schools with AEE, highlighting the need to increase the number of schools with this service, given that the increase in the number of PAEE students enrolled in the AEE in Fortaleza was 466.58% ( Table 6 ) and only 58% of them had access to this type of care in 2017 ( Table 8 ).

Table 6 Student Enrollment in AEE by Type of Special Need in Fortaleza 

Year Total Enrollment Has Special Needs GDD High Skills Giftdeness Blindness Low Vision Deafness HI Deafblindness PD ID
2010 853 853 73 1 37 91 46 0 147 458
2011 1,383 1,383 270 2 37 112 78 3 124 757
2012 1,323 1,323 97 13 45 22 46 1 158 941
2013 1,898 1,898 116 16 53 92 87 2 232 1,300
2014 2,426 2,426 91 22 58 171 126 2 386 1,570
2015 3,026 3,026 407 20 89 122 133 1 309 1,945
2016 3,737 3,737 457 22 118 104 143 6 318 2,569
2017 4,833 4,833 900 25 94 75 173 1 391 3,174

Source: Data from INEP - School Census of Basic Education.

Final considerations

The development of Special Education in Brazil is marked by the psychological medical paradigm, which founded a segregated education in the parallel education system offered by private institutions. From the 1970s onwards, this model began to be questioned, under the aegis of the Human Capital Theory, of the country’s alignment with world capitalism and the argument that the education of people with disabilities in specialized institutions was more costly and should be offered in the regular school system, from the perspective of integration and standardization.

Since the 1990s, the inclusive education discourse has been present in Brazilian education, culminating in PNEEPEI, in 2008, which began to be implemented in Brazilian states and municipalities, such as Ceará and Fortaleza. In this inclusive paradigm, the Special Education was not established as a pedagogical proposal, of insertion with the common classroom, but materialized with the offer of services, materialized in the AEE and in the multifunctional resource rooms. It is understood that, despite being re-signified, a parallel system of education of PAEE students is maintained, as a result of the correlation of forces between public policies for education in the regular school system and private institutions, which defend specialized education. The result of this clash is evidenced in current legislation, which guarantees public resources for these institutions, which, while remaining active, contribute to perpetuate the medical model in school culture, making it difficult to achieve school inclusion.

The School Census microdata also explains this contradiction, since, on one hand, in Ceará and Fortaleza, there is an expansion of enrollment in the regular school system, a decrease in enrollment in exclusive schools, an increase in students with access to the AEE, schools that provide this service and teachers working in this modality, there is also the expansion of the number of specialized schools.

Both Ceará and Fortaleza had a drop in the number of total enrollments in regular education (12.85% and 13.31% respectively), and the enrollment of PAEE students, in this type of education, had a growth of 123.31% in the state ( Table 1 ), which represented 26,137 more enrollments than there were in 2010 ( Table 3 ), and in Fortaleza, the increase was 212.6%, from 2010 to 2017 ( Table 2 ), or that is, 5671 more students enrolled in this type of education ( Table 4 ). The percentage of students identified as PAEE compared to the total enrollment increased from 0.92% to 2.17% in Ceará and from 0.46% to 1.67% in Fortaleza from 2010 to 2017 ( Table 1 ).

Table 1 Enrollment of students with special needs in regular education in Ceará 

Year Total Enrollment Total Special Needs Enrollment GDD High Skills Giftdeness Blindness Low Vision Deafness HI Deafblindness PD ID
2010 2,281,851 21,196 2,354 192 5,418 1,057 1,114 19 2,984 8,058
2011 2,226,550 24,075 2,408 231 4,515 1,197 1,168 18 3,304 11,334
2012 2,182,729 25,286 1,948 204 4,091 1,154 1,140 18 3,629 13,102
2013 2,138,491 27,343 1,731 177 3,027 1,044 1,026 16 3,662 16,660
2014 2,109,897 31,813 1,963 186 2,469 1,051 992 19 3,930 21,203
2015 2,029,601 38,053 3,054 213 2,526 1,322 1,102 26 3,997 25,813
2016 2,015,288 41,418 3,774 217 2,471 1,175 1,136 21 3,918 28,706
2017 1,988,510 47,333 5,252 232 2,546 1,058 1,252 11 4,249 32,722

Source: Data from INEP - School Census of Basic Education.

Table 3 Enrollment of students with special needs by type of education in Ceará 

1 – Regular Education 2 – Special Education 3 – Young and Adult Education Vocational Education
Year Total Enrollment Special Needs Enrollment Total Enrollment Special Needs Enrollment Total Enrollment Special Needs Enrollment Total Enrollment
2010 2,281,851 21,196 7,204 7,204 183,887 2,419 -
2011 2,226,550 24,075 4,249 4,249 189,597 2,817 -
2012 2,182,729 25,286 3,630 3,630 199,378 2,710 -
2013 2,138,491 27,343 2,153 2,153 186,796 2,469 -
2014 2,109,897 31,813 1,862 1,862 183,275 2,691 -
2015 2,029,601 38,053 1,580 1,580 162,683 3,235 90,975
2016 2,015,288 41,418 1,338 1,338 165,264 3,095 88,130
2017 1,988,510 47,333 1,390 1,390 169,164 3,259 87,179

Source: Data from INEP - School Census of Basic Education.

Table 2 Enrollment of students with special needs in Regular Education in Fortaleza 

Year Total Enrollment Total Special Needs Enrollment GDD High Skills Giftdeness Blindness Low Vision Deafness HI Deafblindness PD ID
2.010 577.159 2.667 188 17 176 118 184 2 611 1.371
2.011 563.309 3.089 504 24 182 126 196 5 557 1.495
2.012 555.729 3.357 234 23 189 97 179 6 682 1.947
2.013 546.124 3.660 232 20 173 85 153 5 701 2.291
2.014 542.983 4.211 286 21 162 89 150 6 794 2.703
2.015 511.567 5.742 735 51 258 450 224 5 682 3.337
2.016 509.756 6.376 789 63 271 359 261 9 633 3.991
2.017 500.296 8.338 1.557 71 280 330 312 5 760 5.023

Source: Data from INEP - School Census of Basic Education.

Table 4 Enrollment of students who have special needs by type of education in Fortaleza 

Regular Education Special Education Young and Adult Education Vocational Education
Year Total Enrollment Special Needs Enrollment Total Enrollment Special Needs Enrollment Total Enrollment Special Needs Enrollment Total Enrollment
2010 577,159 2,667 2,467 2,467 47,625 273 -
2011 563,309 3,089 1,784 1,784 51,532 319 -
2012 555,729 3,357 1,315 1,315 53,804 350 -
2013 546,124 3,660 1,105 1,105 49,306 378 -
2014 542,983 4,211 968 968 48,430 399 -
2015 511,567 5,742 840 840 43,108 582 35,010
2016 509,756 6,376 809 809 45,944 602 30,594
2017 500,296 8,338 791 791 42,153 774 27,170

Source: Data from INEP - School Census of Basic Education.

Tables 3 and 4 show that, between 2010-2017, in Special Education, there was a decline of 80.7% in enrollment in the state of Ceará and 67.93% in Fortaleza. By contrasting the enrollment of PAEE students in regular education with the drop in enrollment in the Special Education modality, there is a much larger number of students than those who left the specialized modality, allowing to infer that more students are being classified as PAEE and The growth was more significant for students with GDD, high skills / giftedness (123.10% in Ceará and 718.1% in Fortaleza) and ID (306% in Ceará and 266.37% in Fortaleza). In addition, throughout the analyzed period, the students with ID were the majority, which puts the alert to the need for reflection on the assessment and diagnosis processes of the PAEE students.

Tables 5 and 6 showed that there was a 335.33% increase in enrollment in the AEE in Ceará and 466.58% in Fortaleza. In Ceará, in all categories of PAEE students, despite some irregularities, there was an increase in enrollment in the AEE; In Fortaleza, this scenario was repeated, except for deafness. The most significant increase was in the enrollment of students with ID, with 498.39% in Ceará and 593.01% in Fortaleza.

Notwithstanding this significant increase, Tables 7 and 8 show that not all pupils enrolled in mainstream education are enrolled in the AEE: in Ceará, in 2010, only 25.79% of PAEE students in mainstream education were enrolled. in AEE, reaching 50.29% in 2017; in Fortaleza, 32% of these regular students were in AEE in 2010, closing with 58% in 2017.

In relation to the teachers working at the AEE, tables 9 and 10 indicated that there was a significant increase: in Ceará, the increase was 284.30% and, in Fortaleza, it was 181.41%, but it did not follow the increase in the student enrollment numbers in the same period, which was 335.33% and 466.58% respectively.

Table 9 Number of teachers teaching at AEE in Ceará 

Year Not Applicable Hospital Class Socio-educational Care Unit Prison Unit Complementary activity AEE Total
2010 90,289 - 21 67 4,124 465 94,966
2011 90,952 1 6 76 5,643 919 97,597
2012 95,534 2 10 80 7,216 1,136 103,978
2013 98,419 - 27 70 11,401 1,404 111,321
2014 99,160 - 24 61 14,959 1,575 115,779
2015 101,026 - 22 66 13,575 1,738 116,427
2016 102,044 4 14 78 4,088 1,712 107,940
2017 103,095 4 13 54 17,328 1,787 122,281

Source: Data from INEP - School Census of Basic Education.

Table 10 Number of teachers teaching at AEE in Fortaleza 

Year Not Applicable Hospital Class Socio-educational Care Unit Prison Unit Complementary activity AEE Total
2010 20,485 - 19 1 952 113 21,570
2011 20,985 - 6 1,346 124 22,461
2012 21,583 - 10 4 1,355 189 23,141
2013 21,724 - 26 - 454 247 22,451
2014 23,463 - 21 - 1,649 274 25,407
2015 22,707 20 1,128 291 24,146
2016 24,142 - 12 4 430 293 24,881
2017 24,330 1 14 1,328 318 25,991

Source: Own elaboration based on data from INEP- School Census of Basic Education (2010 to 2017).

Analyzes of tables 5 to 10 allow us to infer that the implementation of PNEEPEI has achieved advances in the provision of services and resources, but the infrastructure developed does not keep up with the increase in enrollment of these students in regular education. This deficiency becomes more evident when analyzing allusive data for schools with AEE ( Tables 11 and 12) . It is important to highlight that, from 2010 to 2017, the number of schools fell 16.47% in Ceará, keeping the number of schools in Fortaleza. During this period, there was an increase in schools with AEE: non-exclusive, in Ceará, by 434.93%, and in Fortaleza, by 189.55%; exclusives in Ceará, at 611.11%, and in Fortaleza, at 400%. Even with the increase of schools with non-exclusive AEE, there is a growth of schools with special classes (exclusive), which can be considered contradictory in relation to the propositions present in the mentioned Policy. Considering these two possibilities of supply of the AEE, the growth observed in Ceará and Fortaleza was 339.87% and 195.65%, respectively. Despite this growth, it is noted that, in relation to the total of existing schools in Ceará and Fortaleza, those with AEE represent 17.75% in the state and 15.81% in the municipality.

Table 11 Schools in Ceará with AEE 

Year General Total of Schools School offers AEE Non-Exclusively School offers AEE exclusively Total Schools offering AEE % Total Schools with AEE in relation to General Total Schools % Non-Exclusive Schools with AEE in relation to General Total Schools % Exclusive Schools with AEE in relation to General Total Schools
2010 9,520 312 9 321 3.37 3.28 0.09
2011 8,980 643 24 667 7.42 7.16 0.26
2012 8,858 804 32 836 9.4 9.6 0.36
2013 8,612 958 51 1009 11.71 11.12 0.58
2014 8,272 1,128 52 1,180 14.26 13.63 0.62
2015 8,149 1,257 52 1,309 16,.06 15.42 0.63
2016 8,061 1,269 54 1,323 16.41 15.74 0.66
2017 7,952 1,357 55 1,412 17.75 17.06 0.67

Source: Data from INEP - School Census of Basic Education.

Table 12 Schools in Fortaleza with AEE 

Year General Total of Schools Non-exclusive Exclusive Total Schools offering AEE % Total Schools with AEE in relation to General Total Schools % Non-Exclusive Schools with AEE in relation to General Total Schools % Exclusive Schools with AEE in relation to General Total Schools
2010 1,260 67 2 69 5.47 5.32 0.15
2011 1,258 79 3 82 6.51 6.27 0.23
2012 1,303 88 9 97 7.44 6.75 0.69
2013 1,313 115 11 126 9.59 8.75 0.83
2014 1,311 151 11 162 12.34 11.51 0.83
2015 1,303 156 10 166 12.73 11.97 0.76
2016 1,285 171 10 181 14.07 13.30 0.77
2017 1,290 194 10 204 15.81 15.03 0.77

Source: Data from INEP - School Census of Basic Education.

Finally, it can be concluded that, despite the contradictions pointed out, which need to be better understood and overcome, there were advances in guaranteeing the right to education of PAEE students in Ceará and Fortaleza, but they were not enough to contemplate all these students, thus, marking the need for continuity of PNEEPEI, since microdata indicated a gradual development, which needs to be maintained until it meets all PAEE students. The right to education must be guaranteed in the regular school, definitely overcoming the parallel, segregated and welfare system.

REFERENCES

BRASIL . Ministério da Educação . Política nacional de educação especial na perspectiva da educação inclusiva . Brasília, DF : MEC , 2008 . Disponível em: < http://portal.mec.gov.br/arquivos/pdf/politicaeducespecial.pdf> . Acesso em: 26 nov. 2018 . [ Links ]

BRASIL . Ministério da Educação . Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira . Microdados censo escolar , 2018 . Brasília, DF : MEC , 2018 . Disponível em: < http://portal.inep.gov.br/microdados> . Acesso em: 25 out. 2018 . [ Links ]

BRASIL . Ministério da Educação . Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira . Microdados censo escolar da educação básica (2015): manual do usuário, 2016 . Brasília, DF : MEC , 2016 . Disponível em: < http://portal.inep.gov.br/microdados> . Acesso em: 25 out. 2018 . [ Links ]

BRASIL . Presidência da República . Casa Civil . Subchefia para Assuntos Jurídicos . Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil de 1988 . Brasília, DF : Presidência da República , 1988 . Disponível em: < http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/Constituicao/Constituicao.htm> . Acesso em: 25 nov. 2018 . [ Links ]

BRASIL . Presidência da República . Casa Civil . Subchefia para Assuntos Jurídicos . Decreto n° 7.611 , de 17 de dezembro de 2011 . Brasília, DF : Presidência da República , 2011 . Disponível em: < http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/Constituicao/Constituicao.htm> . Acesso em: 27 nov. 2018 . [ Links ]

BRASIL . Presidência da República . Casa Civil . Subchefia para Assuntos Jurídicos . Lei n° 9.394/96. Estabelece as diretrizes e bases da educação nacional . Brasília, DF : Presidência da República , 1996 . Disponível em: < http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/LEIS/L9394.htm> . Acesso em: 25 nov. 2018 . [ Links ]

BRASIL . Presidência da República . Casa Civil . Subchefia para Assuntos Jurídicos . Lei n° 12.796 , de 4 de abril de 2013 . Brasília, DF : Presidência da República , 2013 . Disponível em: < http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/Constituicao/Constituicao.htm> . Acesso em: 27 nov. 2018 . [ Links ]

BRASIL . Presidência da República . Casa Civil . Subchefia para Assuntos Jurídicos . Lei n° 13.146 , de julho de 2015 . Brasília, DF : Presidência da República , 2015 . Disponível em: < http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2015-2018/2015/Lei/L13146.htm> . Acesso em: 28 nov. 2018 . [ Links ]

CARDOSO , Ana Paula Lima Barbosa . Políticas de educação inclusiva em tempos de IDEB: escolarização de alunos com deficiência na rede de ensino de Sobral - CE. 2011 . Dissertação (Mestrado em Educação) – Universidade Estadual do Ceará , Fortaleza , 2011 . [ Links ]

CEARÁ . Conselho Estadual de Educação . Resolução CEE nº 456 de 01/06/2016 . Fortaleza : CEE , 2016 . Disponível em: < https://www.legisweb.com.br/legislacao/?id=326829> . Acesso em: 27 nov. 2018 . [ Links ]

CEARÁ . Secretaria de Educação . Portaria 0998/2013 . Fortaleza : SE , 2013 . Disponível em: < http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:f14lwXF3ynsJ:intranet.sme.fortaleza.ce.gov.br/index.php/legislacao/category/17-portarias%3Fdownload%3D224:regulamenta-o-programa-spaece-e-o-premio-escola-nota-dez-n-0998-2013+&cd=3&hl=pt-BR&ct=clnk&gl=br&client=firefox-b-d> . Acesso em: 24 abr. 2019 . [ Links ]

CEARÁ . Secretaria de Educação Básica . Plano de educação básica: escola melhor, Vida melhor, 2004 . Fortaleza : SEB , 2004 . [ Links ]

FERREIRA , Júlio Romero . A construção escolar da deficiência mental . 1989 . 168 f. Tese (Doutorado em Educação) – Universidade Estadual de Campinas , Campinas , 1989 . [ Links ]

FORTALEZA . Conselho Municipal de Educação de Fortaleza . Resolução n°010/2013 . Fortaleza : CMEF , 2013 . Disponível em:< http://cme.sme.fortaleza.ce.gov.br/files/RESOL__CME_-_n_010-2013.pdf> . Acesso em: 27 nov. 2018 . [ Links ]

GARCIA , Rosalba Maria Cardoso ; MICHELS , Maria Helena . A política de educação especial no Brasil (1991-2011): uma análise da produção do Gt15 – Educação Especial da Anped . Revista Brasileira de Educação Especial , Marília , v. 17 , ed. especial , p. 105 - 124 , maio/ago . 2011 . [ Links ]

GRAMSCI , A . Cadernos do cárcere . v. 2 . 2 . ed. Rio de Janeiro : Civilização Brasileira , 2001 . [ Links ]

INEP. Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira . O que é o censo escolar , 2018 . Brasília, DF : INEP , 2018 . Disponível em: < http://portal.inep.gov.br/censo-escolar> . Acesso em: 29 nov. 2018 . [ Links ]

KASSAR , Mônica de Carvalho Magalhães . Educação especial na perspectiva da educação inclusiva: desafios da implantação de uma política nacional . Educar em Revista , Curitiba , v. 41 , p. 61 - 79 , 2011 . [ Links ]

MACHADO , Tereza . Modelo Educacional: uma opção . In: PEREIRA , Olívia et al . Educação especial: atuais desafios . Rio de Janeiro : Interamericana , 1980 . [ Links ]

MAGALHÃES , Rita de Cássia Barbosa Paiva ; OLIVEIRA , Giovana Rodrigues . Políticas e práticas de educação inclusiva no município de Fortaleza: primeiras aproximações . In: JORNADA INTERNACIONAL DE POLÍCAS PÚBLICAS QUESTÃO SOCIAL E DESENVOLVIMENTO NO SÉCULO XXI, 3 ., 2007 , São Luís . Anais... São Luís : UFMA , 2007 . p. 1 - 8 . Disponível em: < http://www.joinpp.ufma.br/jornadas/joinppIII/html/Trabalhos/EixoTematicoJ/a56a85ae2e73f6e78fd6Rita_giovana.pdf> . Acesso em: 27 nov. 2018 . [ Links ]

MANZINI , Eduardo José . Política de educação especial: considerações sobre público-alvo, formação de professores e financiamento . Revista online de Política e Gestão Educacional , Araraquara , v. 22 , n. esp. 2 , p. 810 - 824 , dez . 2018 . [ Links ]

OLIVEIRA , Marla Vieira Moreira de . Educar para a diversidade: um olhar sobre as políticas públicas para a educação especial desenvolvidas no Município de Sobral (1995-2006). 2008 . Dissertação (Mestrado em Educação) – Universidade Estadual do Ceará , Fortaleza , 2008 . [ Links ]

PEREIRA , Olívia . Princípios de normalização e de integração na educação dos excepcionais . In: PEREIRA , Olívia et al . Educação especial: atuais desafios . Rio de Janeiro : Interamericana , 1980 . p. 01 - 09 . [ Links ]

PLETSCH , Márcia Denise ; OLIVEIRA , Mariana Corrêa Pitanga de . Políticas de educação inclusiva: considerações sobre a avaliação da aprendizagem de alunos com deficiência intelectual . Revista Educação , Artes e Inclusão , Florianópolis , v. 10 , p. 125 - 137 , 2015 . [ Links ]

PLETSCH , Márcia Denise ; PAIVA , Carla de . Por que as escolas continuam “laudando” alunos com deficiência intelectual? Revista Educação Especial , Santa Maria , v. 31 , p. 1039 - 1053 , 2018 . [ Links ]

RAFANTE , Heulalia Charalo . História e política da educação especial no Brasil: bases teórico-metodológicas e resultados de pesquisa . Revista Educação PUC-Campinas , Campinas , v. 21 , n. 2 , p. 149 - 161 , maio/ago . 2016 . [ Links ]

RAFANTE , Heulalia Charalo . Política de educação especial no Brasil: a relação entre o Estado, a sociedade civil e as agências internacionais na criação do CENESP . In: REUNIÃO NACIONAL DA ANPED, 37 ., 2015 , Florianópolis . Anais... Florianópolis : Anped , 2015 . p. 01 - 17 . [ Links ]

SOUZA , Flávia Faissal de ; PLETSCH , Márcia Denise . A relação entre as diretrizes do sistema das Nações Unidas (ONU) e as políticas de educação inclusiva no Brasil . Ensaio , Rio de Janeiro , v. 97 , p. 1 - 23 , 2017 . [ Links ]

UNICEF . Declaração sobre Educação para Todos . Conferência de Jomtien . Tailândia , 1990 . Disponível em: < https://www.unicef.org/brazil/pt/resources_10230.htm> . Acesso em: 30 dez. 2018 . [ Links ]

4- It is the concept of “Extended State” ( GRAMSCI, 2001 ).

5- These modalities became effective in 2015. Until then, they were organized into: regular education, special education substitute modality and young and adults education (EJA in Portuguese). (BRAZIL / MEC / INEP, 2016).

6- Disabilities: Blindness, Low Vision, Deafness, Hearing Impairment (HI), Deafblindness, Physical Disability (PD and Intellectual Disability (ID); Global Developmental Delay (GDD), High Skills / Giftedness: Multiple Deficiency, Child Autism, Asperger’s Syndrome, Hett Syndrome, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (childhood psychosis), Giftedness. In the Variables Dictionary of School Census, these definitions correspond to the variable SPECIAL_NECESSITY, therefore, in the tables prepared from these data, the expression “Special Needs” and, in the presentation of the tables,“students with special needs”(BRASIL / MEC / INEP, 2016).

7- Exclusive schools have an exclusive special class, i.e. at least one exclusive class of PAEE students. (MEC / INEP, 2015, p. 24).

8- David M. Jackson of the Public Education Superintendence in Springfield, Illinois, and James J. Gallagher of the University of North Carolina.

9- Esko Kosunen, Head of the Disability Rehabilitation Unit of the United Nations Social Development Division and representative of the World Council of Disabled Organizations.

Received: January 07, 2019; Revised: March 20, 2019; Accepted: May 08, 2019

Heulalia Charalo Rafante is a historian, pedagogue, doctor of Education. Member of the Research Group on the Right to Education - Special Education (NEPEDE-ES). Professor and researcher at the Federal University of Ceará (UFC), Fortaleza.

Sergio Cristóvão Selingardi is a historian, a master of education. Teacher of basic education, Mariana, Minas Gerais.

Sonia de Oliveira da Silva is a social scientist, member of the Map Ceará Network Research Group (UFC) and the “Laboratory for Studies in Educational Accountability” (LEACE / UFC). Master student in the Graduate Program in Education PPGE / FACED / UFC, Fortaleza.

Lenaye Valvassori Silva is a pedagogue Member of the Research Group on the Right to Education - Special Education (NEPEDE-ES). Teacher of basic education. Sorocaba, São Paulo.

*

This article was written originally in Portuguese. The English translation is of full responsibility of Luís Alberto Berteline de França. ORCID: 0000-0001-8954-6090.

Creative Commons License This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.