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Neotropical Entomology

Print version ISSN 1519-566XOn-line version ISSN 1678-8052

Neotrop. entomol. vol.36 no.4 Londrina July/Aug. 2007

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X2007000400026 

SCIENTIFIC NOTE

 

Parasitism of Brassolis sophorae laurentii Stichel (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Brassolinae) Pupae by Conura morleyi (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, Chalcidini), in the State of Alagoas, Brazil

 

Parasitismo de Pupas de Brassolis sophorae laurentii Stichel (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Brassolinae) por Conura morleyi (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae: Chalcidini) em Alagoas

 

 

Maria-Dulce L. MarcicanoI; Iracilda M.M. LimaII; Marcelo T. TavaresIII; Mirna M. CasagrandeIV

IDepto. Fitotecnia e Fitossanidade, Centro de Ciências Agrárias - CECA, Univ. Federal de Alagoas -UFAL Campus Delza Gitaí, BR 104 Norte, km 85, 57100-000, Rio Largo, AL, dulceleao@gmail.com
IIDepto. Zoologia, Inst. Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde - ICBS, UFAL, Praça Afrânio Jorge s/n Prado, 57010-020, Maceió, AL, iralima20@gmail.com
IIIDepto. Ciências Biológica,Univ. Federal do Espírito Santo - UFES, Av. Marechal Campos, 1468 29040-090, Vítória, ES, mtavares@npd.ufes.br
IVDepto. Zoologia, Setor Ciên. Biológicas, Univ. Federal do Paraná - UFPR, C. postal 19020 81531-980, Curitiba, PR, mibras@ufpr.br

 

 


ABSTRACT

This scientific note reports the association between the parasitoid Conura morleyi (Ashmead) and Brassolis sophorae laurentii Stichel pupae in the State of Alagoas, Brazil. This parasitoid exhibits gregarious development, with production up to 146 individuals per pupa throughout a single opening. The sex proportion of the parasitoids was one male for one female.

Key words: Insecta, biogeography, parasitoid, Cocos nucifera, Spilochalcis


RESUMO

Este trabalho registra o parasitismo de pupas de Brassolis sophorae laurentii Stichel por Conura morleyi (Ashmead) em Alagoas. Essa espécie de parasitóide exibiu desenvolvimento de forma gregária, tendo sido observada a saída de 146 indivíduos por pupa através de um único orifício, e com proporção sexual de um macho para uma fêmea.

Palavras-chave: Insecta, biogeografia, Cocos nucifera, parasitóide, Spilochalcis


 

 

Brassolis sophorae (L.) and B. astyra (Godart) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Brassolinae) are recognized as palm (Arecaceae) pests in South America. They are common species in the Northeast Region of Brazil, and they feed on leaves of Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae) (Arruda & Arruda 1971, Bastos 1972). Among their natural enemies, some parasitoid species are found on pupae, but available information is still rare in specific literature.

This scientific note reports the association of a parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) with pupae of a subspecies of B. sophorae in the State of Alagoas, Brazil.

Six pupae of B. sophorae were collected in November 1999, near fragments of Mata Atlântica, in Maceió County locality of Tabuleiro do Martins (9º 33' 16" S; 35º 49' 42" W). The pupae were carefully removed from the surface of an old wall on which they were attached, near the coconut trees (old larvae disperse looking for pupation sites), in order to maintain the silk adhered in the cremaster.

In the Laboratório de Entomologia of the Museu de História Natural (Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil), the pupae were isolated in plastic transparent containers (10 cm of diameter) and kept under room conditions of 25.5ºC and 70% RH, and 12h of photophase.

The pupae were attached with the aid of a pin, in the center of a piece of organdy fabric (15 cm of side). This cloth was put over each recipient opening and held by a rubber band. The pupae remained suspended just as they are found in natural environment. The recipient transparency allowed the visualization of parasitoid escape phenomena after their prior eclosion inside the pupae body (Fig. 1A).

 


 

Soon after the exit, the parasitoid specimens were killed by freezing and preserved in a 70% alcoholic solution for late separation of both sexes and identification.

From only one pupae, out of the six collected, parasitoids exited and were identified as Conura (Spilochalcis) morleyi (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae: Chalcidinae: Chalcidini) (Fig. 1B). Two synonyms Spilochalcis morleyi Ashmead and S. pax Girault (Delvare 1992), for this species are reported in the literature. Specimens are deposited in the Coleção Entomológica, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas (Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Brazil) and in the Coleção Entomológica, Museu de História Natural (Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil).

The specimens of B. sophorae were identified as B. sophorae laurentii Stichel (Fig. 1C) and their specimens were deposited in Coleção Entomológica Padre Jesus Santiago Moure (Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil).

After emerging inside the pupae of B. sophorae laurentii, adults of C. morleyi exited by a single orifice made through the host integument in the dorsal region or the pupa body. Among the parasitized pupae, one pupa alone produced 146 parasitoid (73 males and 73 females, therefore with a sexual proportion of one male for one female). The gregarious developmental behavior was also reported by Ruszczyk & Ribeiro (1998) in natural parasitism of B. sophorae pupae (females and males) by Spilochalcis morleyi Ashmead (valid name C. morleyi). These authors concluded that this parasitoid species seems to fit the number of descendants to the host size. The parasitoids were larger when originated from female pupae, which were of a greater length and weight than the males pupae.

B. sophorae presents a wide distribution in tropical countries in South America. In Brazil, this species is recordered in the States of Amazonas, Pará, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Sergipe and Pernambuco (Ferreira et al. 1998).

C. morleyi was recordered for Central and South America (Fig. 2): Costa Rica (Haeselbarth 1989), Panama, Trinidad & Tobago, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, French Guiana, Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina (Arias & Delvare 2003). In Brazil the records are for the States of São Paulo and Bahia (De Santis 1980, Ruszczyk & Ribeiro 1998).

 

 

The list of its hosts is restricted, including two genus of Brassolinae: BrassolisB. sophorae and B. astyra— and OpsiphanesOpsiphanes sp. and O. invirae (Herting 1976, Ruszczyk & Ribeiro 1998). There is only a single record of plant associates: Cocos nucifera L. (Delvare 1992).

This scientific note confirms the association of Conura morleyi (Ashmead) with pupae of B. sophorae laurentii Stichel, in the State of Alagoas, Brazil, by (1) detailing the distribution presented in the literature in a general form and extending the distributions in more than 1.200 km north direction; (2) confirming the gregarious behavior; and (3) recording the escape throughout a single opening.

This is the first time that an approach is taken in a subspecific level for the genus Brassolis in the Northeast region of Brazil, and the association of C. morleyi with their pupae stage, in the State of Alagoas.

 

Acknowledgments

The authors are especially grateful to Gilda Acioli da Silva, from the Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, UFAL, for the Geographic Coordinates information and José Carlos Cressoni, from the Instituto de Física, UFAL, for the careful reading of this manuscript, and also to the anonymous referees, for their relevant suggestions. The authors would like to express special thanks to the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Alagoas (FAPEAL), for financial support and for the inter-institutional scholarship to the first author (FAPEAL/Universidade Federal de Alagoas-UFAL, Proc. 2002.08.017-08).

 

References

Arias, D.C. & G. Delvare. 2003. Lista de los géneros y especies de la familia Chalcididae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) de la región Neotropical. Biota Colombiana 4: 123-145.        [ Links ]

Arruda, E.C. & G.P. Arruda. 1971. Noções fundamentais sobre algumas pragas de plantas cultivadas no estado de Pernambuco. Recife, Univ. Fed. Rural de Pernambuco, 123p.        [ Links ]

Bastos, J.A.M. 1972. Caracterização das principais pragas do Nordeste, especialmente do Ceará. Fortaleza, Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal do Ceará, 70p. 37 pranchas.        [ Links ]

De Santis, L. 1980. Catálogo de los himenópteros brasileños de la serie Parasitica incluyendo Bethyloidea. Curitiba, Editora da Universidade Federal do Paraná. 266p.        [ Links ]

Delvare, G. 1992. A reclassification of the Chalcidini with a checklist of the New World species. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 53: 371-372.        [ Links ]

Ferreira, J.M.S., M.F. de Lima, D.L. de Q. Santana, J.I.L. Moura & L.A. de Souza. 1998. Pragas do coqueiro, p.189-267. In J.M.S. Fereira, D.R.N. Warwick & L.A. Siqueira (eds.), A cultura do coqueiro no Brasil. 2ª ed., rev. e ampl. Brasília, Embrapa-SPI, Aracaju, Embrapa-CPATC, 292p        [ Links ]

Haeselbarth, E. 1989. Determination list of entomophagous insects. Bulletin nº 11. Section Regionale Ouest Palaearctique, Organisation Internationale de Lutte Biologique. 12: 31.        [ Links ]

Herting, B. 1976. Lepidoptera, Part 2 (Macrolepidoptera). A catalogue of parasites and predators of terrestrial arthropods. Section A. Host or Prey/Enemy (Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control) 7: 186.        [ Links ]

Ruszczyk, A. & J.C. Ribeiro. 1998. Mortalidade dos parasitóides Spilochalcis morleyi (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae) e Xanthozona melanopyga masculinas de Brassolis sophorae (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Rev. Bras. Biol. 58: 34-37.        [ Links ]

 

 

Received 21/XI/06. Accepted 05/V/07.

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