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Neotropical Entomology

Print version ISSN 1519-566XOn-line version ISSN 1678-8052

Neotrop. entomol. vol.38 no.2 Londrina Mar./Apr. 2009 



New neotropical distribution records of braconid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)


Nuevos registros de distribución neotropical de avispas bracónidas (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)



Víctor López-MartínezI; Mario Saavedra-AguilarII; Hugo Delfín-GonzálezIII; J I Figueroa-de la RosaIV; María de J García-RamírezV

IUniv. Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Av. Universidad 1001, col. Chamilpa, C. postal 62209, Cuernavaca Morelos;
IIColegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, Programa en Entomología y Acarología. Carretera México-Texcoco km 36.5, C. postal 56230, Montecillo, Edo. de México
IIIUniv. Autónoma de Yucatán, Facultad de Medicina, Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Carr. Mérida-Xmatkuil km 15.5, Apdo. postal 4-116, Itzimná, Mérida, Yucatán
IVInstituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, km. 9.5 carretera Morelia-Zinapecuaro, Tarímbaro, Michoacán, 58880, México
VUniv. Autónoma de Campeche, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Calle 53 S/Nx18, Col. Unidad, Esfuerzo y Trabajo n. 2, Escárcega, Campeche, México




New distribution records of 22 braconid species belonging to Agathidinae, Braconinae, Helconinae, Homolobinae and Rogadinae subfamilies from Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico and Panama are presented. Agathirsia ninesevenci Pucci & Sharkey is reported for the first time from Mexico; Homolobus acares van Achterberg, H. antefurcalis van Achterberg and H.infumator (Lyle) from Costa Rica; Triaspis kurtogaster Martin from Brazil, Costa Rica and Panama. Sabulodes caberata Guenée (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is recorded as a new host for Homolobus infumator (Lyle).

Key words: Biodiversity, Neotropics, parasitoid, new record


Se proporciona nueva información de distribución geográfica para 22 especies de las subfamilias Agathidinae, Braconinae, Helconinae, Homolobinae y Rogadinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) de Brasil, Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, México y Panamá. Se reporta por primera vez a Agathirsia ninesevenci Pucci & Sharkey en México; Homolobus acares van Achterberg, H. antefurcalis van Achterberg y H. infumator (Lyle) en Costa Rica; Triaspis kurtogaster Martin en Brasil, Costa Rica y Panamá. Sabulodes caberata Guenée (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) es registrado como huésped de Homolobus infumator (Lyle).

Palabras claves: Biodiversidad, neotrópico, parasitoide, nuevo registro



The family Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) can be used as a parameter group to estimate biodiversity in natural and disturbed ecosystems (Delfín & León 1997, Delfín & Burgos 2000, Chay-Hernandez at al 2006). However, studies on the Neotropical fauna are reduced in comparison with the Nearctic region, and only a fraction of the Costa Rican and Mexican species are known (Figueroa-De la Rosa at al 2003): in Mexico there are indications of 300 to 544 species distributed in the country (Sánchez at al 1998, Wharton & Mercado 2000, Coronado at al 2004), similar situation exist in the rest of the New World.

Latin American braconologists are still reduced in number, but the potential to generate data from this hymenopteran family is constantly increasing (see the revision of Ghahari at al 2006). In the revision of Mexican Homolobus species, we received and checked specimens from foreign and Mexican entomological collections. The analysis of this material revealed new distribution records for 22 braconids to different geographical level, increasing our data of this family in the neotropics with specimens from Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama.


Material and Methods

The material revised is housed in the following entomological collections: CAS, California Academy of Sciences; CNC, Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodos, Ottawa; CEAM, Colegio de Postgraduados, Montecillos; CUIC, Cornell University Insect Collection, Ithaca; EMEC, Essig Museum of Entomology, Berkeley; INBIo, Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Santo Domingo de Heredia; RMSEL, Rocky Mountain Systematic Entomology Latoratory, University of Wyoming, Laramie; CER-UADY, Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Xmatkuil; and UCR, University of California Riverside, Riverside. The material was determined using the keys of van Achterberg (1979) for Homolobus and Exasticolus; Shaw at al (1997), Marsh and Shaw (1999, 2001) for Aleiodes; Pucci & Sharkey (2004) for Agathirsia; Sharkey (1990) for Zacremnops; Inayatullah at al (1998) for Vipio; van Achterberg (1995) for Choreborogas, and López & Romero (2004) for Triaspis.


Results and Discussion

Subfamily Agathidinae

Agathirsia fulvocastanea Westwood

Distribution: Mexico. This species was described from one single specimen (female) without data on the collecting site (Pucci & Sharkey 2004). In here, we report the occurrence of this species in Central Mexico.

Material examined: MEXICO. Estado de Mexico: one ♀, Chapingo, 28-IX-1962, F Pacheco M (CEAM).

Agathirsia ninesevenci Pucci & Sharkey

Distribution: USA and México. This parasitoid species was recorded in the USA in October (Puccy & Sharkey 2004). This is the first report in Mexico. Flight period was recorded from August to September.

Material examined: MEXICO. Estado de Mexico: nine ♂, Texcoco, 15-VIII-1995, col. Jesús Romero N, en avena (CEAM); (specimen without abdomen) same data, except, 8-IX-1982; Tlaxcala: 1 ♂, San Marcos, 26-VIII-1973, col. William Olarte E (CEAM).

Agathirsia proxima Westwood Distribution: Northern and central Mexico (Durango, Jalisco, Nayarit, Estado de Mexico, Puebla, Guerrero, Morelos) (Pucci & Sharkey 2004). A new record for Morelos State is presented. Material examined: MEXICO. Morelos: one ♂, Xochicalco, pirámides, 7-X-1995, Alma R Valle, maleza (CEAM).

Agathirsia reai Pucci & Sharkey

Distribution: Central Mexico (Morelos and Puebla) (Pucci & Sharkey 2004). Its distribution expanded to eastern (Guanajuato) and southern (Oaxaca) Mexico. Main floight activity period recorded was September, but can be also collected in October.

Material examined: MEXICO. Guanajuato: one ♂, Celaya, La Laja, 24-IX-1995, José A. Sánchez G., veg. orilla de río (CEAM); Morelos: one ♂, Reserva Huautla, 3 km S Valle de Vázquez, 1-X-2000, 18º 30'35'' N 99º04'56'' W, Jesús Romero Nápoles (CEAM); Oaxaca: one ♂, El Camaron, km 672, 29-IX-1961, Jorge Navarro T (CEAM); Puebla (new locality): one ♂, Acatlán, 30-IX-1961, F Pacheco M (CEAM).

Agathirsia rufula Westwood Distribution: According to Pucci & Sharkey (2004), this species is distributed in the Estado de Mexico, Puebla, Hidalgo and Morelos; Veracruz is a new state record for Mexico. Material examined: MEXICO. Estado de Mexico (new localities): two ♂, Texcoco, Chapingo, 14-V-1996, col. L Sánchez, alfalfa (CEAM); one ♂ Texcoco, 22-VIII-1981, Mateo Ruiz V, 2240 msnm, al vuelo (CEAM); Veracruz: one ♂ Hidalgotitlán, 2-XI-1992, Reyes Mtz. Artemio (CEAM).

Agathirsia sericans (Westwood)

Distribution: Southern, central and western Mexico (Jalisco, Michoacán, Durango, Estado de Mexico, Guerrero, Puebla, Morelos, Nayarit) (Pucci & Sharkey 2004). Morelos is a new state record for Mexico.

Material examined: MEXICO. Morelos: one ♂, Cuautla, 23-IX-1962, C G Martell (CEAM).

Zacremnops cressoni (Cameron)

Distribution: Sharkey (1990) appoints the existence of two morphotypes, the material here revised presents the ventral area of hind femur with punctures sparse in its surface, corresponding to the specimens previously observed by Sharkey from Yucatán (Mexico), USA and the Greater Antilles.

Material examined: GUATEMALA. one ♂ Estancia de la Virgen, 11-VIII-1965, Alberto Ortiz (CEAM); MEXICO. Chiapas: two ♂, Chiapa de Corzo, 25-IX-1961, F Pacheco M (CEAM); one ♂ Colima, Manzanillo, Playa Santiago, 30-VIII-1962, F Pacheco M (CEAM); Estado de Mexico: 1♂, Montecillo, Alfalfa, 12/ VI/1993. J Araya G (CEAM); Hidalgo: 1♀, Zimapan, 10 km NW de Garabato, 8/X/1996 (CEAM); Jalisco: one ♂, Est. Biol. Chamela, 4-5/VII/1993, Wharton & Sharkey, malaise trap (CER-UADY); Veracruz: one ♀, km 92 Cord.-Ver., 17-IX-1994. H. Taddei M., malezas (CEAM); Yucatán: one ♂, Celestún, 21/XI/95, H Delfín (CER-UADY); two ♂, Colonia Yucatán, Kalah- Dzonot, 21/IX/93, H. Delfín (CER-UADY); one ♀ and two ♂, Dzununcan, 13/XI/95, H. Delfín (CER-UADY); one ♀, Reserva de Dzilam, Rancho San Salvador, 30/IX/92, P Manrique (CER-UADY); three ♀ and eight ♂, Xmatkuil, 1-4/V/1996, H Delfín, F Leon (CER-UADY); one ♀ and three ♂, same data except, 28-31/V/1996 (CER-UADY); one ♀and four ♂, same data except, 4-8/VI/96, T malaise, F León (CER-UADY); two ♂, same data except, 12-17/VI/96, H Delfín, F Leon, T malaise (CER-UADY); one ♀ and four ♂, same data except, Hda. Xmatkuil, 4-XI-97 (CER-UADY); one ♀and four ♂, 9 km N Teya Pueblo, Ecotono SBC-Milpa, 4-VIII-1999, Malaise trap, C Suárez col. (CER-UADY); two ♂ same data except, 15-IX-1999 (CER-UADY).

Zacremnops ekchuah Sharkey

Distribution: Tropical and semitropical areas from Mexico to Costa Rica (Sharkey 1990), here we present new localities records from the Mexican State of Morelos.

Material examined: MEXICO. Morelos: one ♀ Cuautla, 4-IX-1988, A Huerta (CEAM); one ♀ Yautepec, Loc. Amado Salazar, 30-VIII-1980, col. J Romero N, posado en una compuerta, No. 6-1032(B) (CEAM); one ♂Xochitepec, 13VII-1965, Alberto Ortiz (CEAM); Yucatán: one ♂, Xmatkuil, 4-8/VI/96, T. Malaise, F León (CER-UADY).

Subfamily Braconinae

Vipio belfragei (Cresson)

Distribution: This species has a wide distribution in Mexico (Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco and Veracruz) and USA, with reports in Costa Rica and Panama. Flight period is from July to December (Inayatullah at al 1998). This is the first record in the Mexican State of Guanajuato.

Material examined: MEXICO. Guanajuato: one ♀, Andocutín, 6-VII-1996, José A Sánchez G, col. en maleza (CEAM).

Vipio mexicanus Inayatullah, Shaw & Quicke

Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Sinaloa and Tabasco) and USA (Inayatullah at al 1998), Yucatán is the southern record of V. mexicanus.

Material examined: MEXICO. Yucatán: one ♀, Yaxnic, Mpio. de Mérida, 1-XI-2000, D Chay Hernández, Malaise trap, Selva Baja (CER-UADY).

Vipio piceipectus Viereck

Distribution: Canada, Mexico and USA; in Mexico there are only two state reports: Durango and the locality of Huichihuayan (possibly in San Luis Potosi State). V.piceipectus is variable in color (Inayatullah at al 1998), specimens revised here are different from the redescription of Inayatullah at al (1998) in the following characters: vertex and temple black, without mesonotal black spots and more sculptured tergites. Estado de Mexico, Michoacán, Morelos are the most southern records for the species.

Material examined: MEXICO. Estado de Mexico: one ♀, Tonatico, 13-VIII-1961, Hiram Bravo M. (CEAM); Michoacán: one ♂ Jungapeo, 2-VI-1968, F Pacheco (CEAM); Morelos: two ♂, Puente de Ixtla, Reserva Huatla, Camino al Salto, 1.5 km N de la Est. de Microondas, 3-VIII-2000, 18º27'54'' N 99º16'30''O, 1645 msnm, J. Isaac Figueroa/Jesús Romero Nápoles (CEAM); one ♂, Reserva Huautla, Crucero Huautla, 28-V-2000, 18º32'41'' N 99º03'56'' O, 1045 msnm, J Isaac Figueroa/Jesús Romero Nápoles (CEAM); two ♂, Cuautla, 27-III-1961, F Pacheco M (CEAM).

Vipio shawi Inayatullah

Distribution: This species was collected only in USA and Mexico (Jalisco, Michoacán and Durango) (Inayatullah at al 1998); our report expands its distribution to the northern and central Mexico (Estado de Mexico, Sonora). Flight period is from August to October. The male specimen has the clypeal spot darker than the original species description.

Material examined: MEXICO. Estado de Mexico: one ♀, Chapingo, 25-X-1979, A Marín J, alfalfa (CEAM); Sonora: one ♂, Navojoa, 2-VIII-1957 (CEAM).

Subfamily Helconinae

Triaspis kurtogaster Martin

Distribution: Only reported from Canada, Mexico and USA (Martin 1956, Shenefelt 1970, López-Martínez at al 2003). The new data presented here extends this range into Central and South America (Brazil, Costa Rica and Panama).

Material examined: BRASIL. Bahia: one ♀, Encruzihada, XI-1972, M Alvarenga, 960 m (CNC); one ♀, same data but XI-1974, 980 m (CNC); Mato Grosso: three ♀, Sinop, X-1976, M Alvarenga, Mal. Trap (CNC); Sao Paolo: one ♀, S. Bocaina, José Baleiro, II-1971, F M Oliveira, 1650 m. (CNC); Rondonia: one ♀, Rancho Grande, 62 km S Ariquemes, 12-22-XI-1991, E M Fischer, 10º 32' S, 62º 48' O (CNC); Minas Gerais: one ♀, Santa Barbara, Serrado Caraça, I-1970, F M.Oliveira (CNC); COSTA RICA. Guanacaste: one ♀, Estac. Mengo, S.W. Volcan Cacao, IX-X-1989, 1100 m (RMSEL); Puntarenas: one ♀, threekm SW Rincón, R. F. Golfo Dulce, VI-1991, Paul Hanson, 10 m (RMSEL); San Jose: one ♀ and one ♂, Zurqui de Moravia, V-1992, Col. Paul Hanson, 1600 m (RMSEL); PANAMA. one ♂, Barro Colorado Is., CZ, X-1982, H. Wolda (CNC).

Subfamily Homolobinae

Exasticolus fuscicornis (Cameron)

Distribution: Data on this parasitoid includes the Nearctic (Canada and USA) and Neotropical regions (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Sto. Domingo, Suriname). In Mexico, it was collected in Oaxaca, Veracruz and Tabasco. In Costa Rica, it was only recorded from Monteverde (van Achterberg 1979). The following are new state records for Costa Rica and Mexico.

Material examined: COSTA RICA. Prov. Cartago: one ♀, Quebrada Segunda, Tapantí, 1150-1300 msnm. VIII/1998. R Delgado (INBio; INB0003018978); Prov. Alajuela: one ♂, Guatuso, P N Volcán Tenorio, Estación El Pilón, 700 msnm, 15/V-16/VI-2002, G Carballo, Malaise (INBio; INB0003494995); MEXICO. Quintana Roo: one ♂, Valle Hermoso, Rancho No. 3. 19/VII/1993, Hugo Delfín. Light trap (CER-UADY); Yucatán: one ♂, Xmatkuil. 12-16/ II/1996. F León. Malaise trap (CER-UADY).

Homolobus acares van Achterberg

Distribution: Scarcely collected, the only records were from USA (Arizona), Mexico (Durango, Guerrero, Veracruz) and Panama (van Achterberg 1979). This is the first report for the Costa Rican fauna.

Material examined: COSTA RICA. Prov. Puntarenas: three ♀, Buenos Aires, Estación Altamira, 1450 msnm, 5/VI-1/ VII/1999, R Villalobos, Malaise (INBio: INB0003148976; INB0003148950; INB0003149024); one ♀, Buenos Aires, Estación Altamira, 1450 msnm, 18/IV-1/V/1999, R Villalobos, Malaise (INBio; INB0003042660); one ♀, Cerro Biolley, Estación Altamira, 1766 msnm, 23/IX-22/X/1998, R Villalobos, Malaise (INBio; INB0003061555); one ♂, P. Int. La Amistad, Estación Altamira, Cerro Biolley, 1766 msnm, 10-27/V/2002, D. Rubí (INBio; INB0003480069); Prov. Cartago: one ♀, La Represa, Torre del ICE, 1800 msnm, XI/1997, R Delgado, Malaise (INBio; CRI002 596766).

Homolobus antefurcalis van Achterberg

Distribution: Scarcely collected, H. antefurcalis was recorded in Canada, Mexico and USA (van Achterberg 1979). In Mexico was recorded only in Durango. This is the first report from Costa Rica, its southernmost distribution record; Morelos is a new state record in Mexico.

Material examined: COSTA RICA. Provincia Limón: one ♀, P. I. La Amistad, Valle del Silencio, Est. Altamira, 2400 msnm, 13/X/2000, D Rubí, Light trap (INBio; INB0003319028); MEXICO. Morelos: one ♀, Alpanocan, 9/X/1987, Samuel R A; Hidalgo 54 ♀, 75 ♂, Malaise (CEAM).

Homolobus infumator (Lyle)

Distribution: Neotropical (Argentina, Bolivia, El Salvador, and Peru), Nearctic (Canada, Mexico, USA) and Paleartic region (van Achterberg 1979). Costa Rica is a new country record, and Baja California Sur is a new state report for Mexico. The Tulare County is a new locality report for California.

The hosts reported for H. infumator belong to Geometridae [Lambdina fiscellaria (Guenée), L. somniaria (Hulst), Nepytia canosaria (Walker), Alcis repandata (L.), Lycia zonaria (Denis & Schiff.), Ematurga atomaria (L.)] and Oecophoridae [Agonopterix alstroemeriana (Clerck)]. Sabulodes caberata Guenée is a Geometridae collected in avocado tree (Persea americana), and this represent a new host record for H. infumator.

Material examined: COSTA RICA. Provincia Limón: one ♀, P. I. La Amistad, 2406 msnm, 30/III/2003, R Delgado, Mercury light trap (INBio; INB0003714200); one ♀, Estación Cacao, lado SW del Volcán Cacao, 1400 msnm, XII/1998, R Blanco & C Chávez (INBio; CRI000148326); Prov. Puntarenas: one ♀, Cerro Frantzius, 2134 msnm, 16/XI/1997, R Villalobos, Malaise (INBio; CRI 002 413724); MEXICO. Baja California Sur: San Sebastián, 1/IV/1975, 26º 36' N, P. DeBach, Malaise (UCR). USA. California, 1♂, Lemon Cove, Tulare Co., 27/XII/1956, D. W. Ricker, ex. Sabulodes caberata, planta hospedera: aguacate (Persea americana), Ent. Res. Museum UCRC ENT 105019 (UCR).

Homolobus rectinervis van Achterberg

Distribution: This species has an austral distribution, reported only from Argentina and Chile (van Achterberg 1979). Here we present new local distribution records for the species in Chile.

Material examined: CHILE. Prov. Queb. de la Plata: two ♀, Santiago, Rinconada Maipú. 510 m, 3/IV/66, M E Irwin, Malaise, 30º 31' S, 70º 47 W (CAS); two ♀, Santiago, Rinconada Maipú. 510 m, 24/III/66, M E Irwin, Malaise, 30º 31' S, 70º 47 W (CAS); one ♀, Santiago, Maipú, 510 m, 12/III/66, M E Irwin, Malaise, 30º 30' S, 70º 55' W (CAS); Porv. Los Perales: one ♂, Valparaíso, rio Marga Marga, 330 m, 3/II/1967, M E Irwin, 33º 08' S, 71º 18' W (CAS); Prov. Aconcagua: one ♂, Punta Puquen, Los Molles, 12/VIII/66, E . Schlinger, 32º 12' S, 71º 27'W (CAS); one ♀, Osorno 10 km E de Payahue, 26/I/1951, leg. Ross y Michelbacher (CAS); Prov. Petrouhue: one ♀, Llanquihue 100 m, 15/XI/1966, E I Schlinger, Nothofagus forest (CAS); Prov. Nahuelbuta: one ♂, Malleco Natl. Park, 1200 m, 12/II/1967, Evart I Schlinger, 38º 01' S, 73º 13' W (CAS).

Homolobus truncator (Say)

Distribution: Widely collected in the New World, mainly from Canada, Mexico and USA, with reports from Cuba and Central America (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama) to Venezuela, but with Oriental and Paleartic records. In Mexico, it was collected in many localities from 14 states (Baja California Norte, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Estado de Mexico, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Zacatecas) (van Achterberg 1979); here we present two new state records from Mexico (Guerrero and Hidalgo), and new localities from Baja California Norte and Estado de Mexico.

Material examined: MEXICO. Baja California Norte: one ♀, 10 mi SE El Rosario, 31/III/1976, R. Morrison, Light trap (EMEC); Guerrero: one ♀, 6 km E Tixtla, 28/VII/1962, F Pacheco M (CEAM); Estado de Mexico: 1♀, Texcoco-Montecillo, 2220 msnm, 2/IX/1980, Maiz-Frijol, Anaya-Sánchez (CEAM); Hidalgo: 1♀, 2♀ Huasca de Ocampo, Rancho Santa Elena, 2480 msnm, 3/VI/2005, 20º 07' 52'' N, 98º 31' 39'' W, Contreras-Meléndez (CEAM).

Subfamily Rogadinae

Aleiodes atricornis (Cresson)

Distribution: This braconid was widely collected in the country (22 states, including Hidalgo), with reports in the USA (Delfín-González & Wharton 2000, 2002; Marsh & Shaw 2001). Here new distribution records in the Mexican state of Hidalgo are reported.

Material examined: MEXICO. Hidalgo: two ♀, Tasquillo, balneario Tzindejhé, 28-IX-2003, 20º30'52'' N, 99º19'46'' W, 1720 msnm, Col. Saavedra Aguilar M. (CEAM); one ♀, Datxho, 25-VI-1997, Raúl Beristain D. Colectado en Maíz; one ♀, Huejutla de Reyes, 24-IV-2004, Malaise trap, Col. Saavedra Aguilar M (CEAM).

Aleiodes politiceps (Gahan)

Distribution: This species was previously registered in Costa Rica, Mexico and USA (Marsh & Shaw 1999, Delfín- González & Wharton 2002). The records in Mexico are from the north, so the present data expand its distribution to the central Mexico.

Material examined: MEXICO. Hidalgo: two ♀, Huejutla de Reyes, 24-IV-2004, Malaise trap, Col. Saavedra Aguilar M (CEAM).

Choreborogas birostratus Whitfield

Distribution: This species was recorded only in Mexico, from the southern (Guerrero and Oaxaca), western (Colima and Michoacán) and northern (Tamaulipas) entities from the country (Whitfield 1990), Morelos and Yucatan are new records distribution of C. birostratus in Mexico, to the easthern and central areas.

Material examined: MEXICO. Morelos: two ♀ and one ♂, Reserva Huautla, camino a El Limón, 29-IX-2000, 18º28'22''N 99º00'58''O, 1280 msnm, Jesús Romero Nápoles (CEAM); Yucatán: one ♂, 9 km N Teya Pueblo, 8-II-2000, A González, tropical deciduous forest (CERUADY).

Nearctic Braconidae are widely known in comparison with the Neotropics. Mexico and Costa Rica have been partially studied, and there are no modern catalogs of the braconid fauna for the rest of the Americas. The catalogs provided by De Santis (1967, 1980) and Costa Lima (1962) still are the major sources for the braconid fauna from South America.

The potential to use braconids in Integrated Pest Management programs is widely known, with many Neotropical species mentioned as natural enemies of important insect pests (for example Marsh 1984, Stary & Remaudiére 1988, Shaw 1995, Llanderal-Cázares at al 2000, Sánchez & López 2000, Wharton & López-Martínez 2000). A more systematic approach and a continuous effort are necessary to increase data on host association and distribution of braconids in the Neotropical Region.



We are grateful to two anonymous reviewers for useful comments on the manuscript. Robert Allan Wharton, Scott R Shaw, Michael J Sharkey, Jim B Whitfield and Jesús Romero Nápoles for his support and impulse to the Hymenoptera Parasitic study in Mexico. To Robert Zuparko (CAS and EMEC), John Huber (CNC), Jesús Romero Nápoles (CEAM), (CUIC), Manuel Solís (INBio), Serguei Triapitzin (UCR), and Scott R. Shaw (RMSEL) for the loan of material. This work was partially supported by SEP-CONACYT (SNI 38031 and 41093), this is the MX-01 publication of the Red Nacional de Estudios de Hymenoptera Parasítica de México.



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Received 01/XI/07. Accepted 04/XI/08.



Edited by Sergio Ovruski - Cirpon

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