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Neotrop. entomol. vol.40 no.6 Londrina Nov./Dec. 2011
WP LemosI; RA da SilvaII; SCA AraújoI; ELA OliveiraI; WR da SilvaIII
IEmbrapa Amazônia Oriental, Belém, PA, Brasil
IIEmbrapa Amapá, Macapá, AP, Brasil
IIISecretaria de Estado da Educação do Amapá, Macapá, AP, Brasil
Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) is recorded for the first time in citrus (Rutaceae) in Brazil. Specimens were obtained from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) sampled in the municipalities of Belém and Capitão Poço, and from mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata) from Tomé-Açu, state of Pará, Brazil.
Keywords: Fruit fly, host plant, Amazonian, Pará, Belém, Capitão Poço, Tomé-Açu
Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) occurs in 20 Brazilian states (Zucchi 2008) and in the Federal District (Zahler 1991) associated with 16 host species belonging to Sapotaceae (10 hosts), Rubiaceae (2), Anacardiaceae (1), Clusiaceae (1) Hippocrateaceae (1) and Moraceae (1) (Zucchi 2008). The preferred hosts of A. serpentina in Brazil belong to the Sapotaceae, particularly species of Pouteria and Manilkara, with four and three host species, respectively.
This paper reports the first record of A. serpentina in fruits of Rutaceae in Brazil. Data were obtained from an intensive survey of potential host fruits of Anastrepha species carried out at major growing areas in the state of Pará (eastern Amazon region), from January 2008 to August 2010.
Two males and one female of A. serpentina were reared from sweet oranges, Citrus sinensis, purchased at a street market in Belém, and 23 females and 14 males from Capitão Poço (Table 1). The highest infestation was 8.6 puparia/kg. However, no specimens of A. serpentina were reared from four samples, but from one of them one specimen of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) emerged. Also for one sample, only two males were obtained, which were identified as A. serpentina based on external features. Although puparia have been obtained, no fly or parasitoid emergence was observed for three samples. One unique female of A. serpentina was reared from mandarin (Citrus reticulata) from Tomé-Açu (Table 1). All specimens sampled were identified by Wilson Rodrigues da Silva and confirmed by Dr. Miguel Francisco de Souza Filho (Instituto Biológico, Campinas, SP). Voucher specimens are deposited at the Embrapa Amapá collection.
Twenty-five other samples, totaling 49.26 kg and 386 fruits of five Citrus species - the sweet orange C. sinensis; the mandarin orange C. reticulata; the lime C. aurantifolia; the lemon C. limon and the Murcott mandarin C. reticulata x C. sinensis were not infested by fruit flies.
This report represents a new fruit fly species association related to the host range evolution. The record is not a casual fact, since A. serpentina females were reared from one mandarin orange sample in Tomé-Açu (2008), and 11 orange samples - one in Belém (2008) and 10 in Capitão Poço (2009). These three municipalities are around 200 km far from one another, forming a triangle. Capitão Poço has the largest planted area with Citrus in the state of Pará, which may have favored the new association in here reported due to the high availability of Citrus plants during the year.
Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart), A. striata Schiner, A. turpiniae Stone and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) are reported in citrus in Brazil (Raga 2005, Zucchi 2008). However, for the state of São Paulo, the largest citrus producer in Brazil, only A. fraterculus and C. capitata are economically important (Raga 2005).
Considering that Brazil is the largest citrus producer in the world (about 800,000 ha of citrus groves), and that the state of Pará is the seventh Brazilian citrus producer and the first in the North region (12,277 hectares) (Agrianual 2010), this record strengthens the need to conduct applied research to study the spatial and temporal distribution and potential damage of A. serpentina in Citrus in this state.
To MSc. Júlia Daniela Braga Pereira for her contribution to this manuscript, Dr Miguel F. de Souza Filho for confirming the identification of Anastrepha serpentina, and Dr Moacyr B. Dias Filho for reviewing the English version of an early draft of this manuscript. To "Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico" (CNPq) for financial support.
Agrianual: anuário da agricultura brasileira (2010) São Paulo, FNP Consultoria & Comércio, 520p. [ Links ]
Raga A (2005) Incidência, monitoramento e controle de moscas-das-frutas na citricultura paulista. Laranja 26: 307-322. [ Links ]
Zahler PM (1991) Moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritidae) em dois pomares de manga (Mangifera indica) do Distrito Federal: levantamento de espécies e flutuação populacional. Rev Ceres 38: 206-216. [ Links ]
Ricardo A DA Silva
Embrapa Amapá, Rodovia JK, km 5, n. 2600
68903-419, Macapá, AP, Brasil
Received 21 December 2010 and accepted 18 April 2011
Edited by Roberto A Zucchi - ESALQ/USP