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Brazilian Journal of Biology

Print version ISSN 1519-6984

Braz. J. Biol. vol.71 no.2 São Carlos May 2011 



Taxonomic considerations on the genera Moneuptychia Forster and Carminda Dias, reval. (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)


Considerações taxonômicas sobre os gêneros Moneuptychia Forster e Carminda Dias, reval. (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)



Dias, MM.*

Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva, Universidade Federal de São Carlos – UFSCar, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235, CP 676, CEP 13565-905, São Carlos, SP, Brazil




Euptychia soter Butler, 1877, the type species of Moneuptychia Forster, 1964, is compared to Satyrus paeon Godart, 1824, the type species of Carminda Dias, 1998. The male genitalia and wing design patterns of these species are dealt with. Some additional data from other species from both genera are also presented. The morphological comparisons carried out in this study indicate that Carminda is not a junior synonym of Moneuptychia. Thus, Carminda is revalidated.

Keywords: male genitalia, morphology, taxonomy.


Euptychia soter Butler, 1877, espécie-tipo de Moneuptychia Forster, 1964, é comparada com Satyrus paeon Godart, 1824, espécie-tipo de Carminda Dias, 1998. A genitália do macho e o padrão de desenho das asas dessas espécies são comparados. Alguns dados sobre outras espécies de ambos os gêneros são também incluídos. As comparações morfológicas ora apresentadas mostram que Carminda não é um sinônimo júnior de Moneuptychia. Portanto, Carminda é revalidado.

Palavras-chave: genitália do macho, morfologia, taxonomia.



The examined material belongs to the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP) and the Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva da Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCAR).

Carminda Dias, 1998, revalidated

Carminda Ebert & Dias, 1997, nomen nudum; no type species designation (ICZN, Art.13.3).

Carminda Dias, 1998: 1119; type species: Satyrus paeon Godart, 1824.

Carminda was proposed by Ebert and Dias (1997) to include two species formerly placed in Euptychia Hübner, 1818 and one new species, but the type species was not designated and the name became invalid (ICZN, Art. 13.3). Dias (1998), repairing the error, designated the type species and indicated the reference of Ebert and Dias (1997), thus the name Carminda became valid, with the author Dias (1998) (ICZN, Art. 13.1.2). According to Lamas (2004) Carminda is a junior synonym of Moneuptychia Forster, 1964.

Carminda includes three species: C. paeon (Godart, 1824), C. griseldis (Weymer, 1911) and C. umuarama Ebert & Dias, 1997; Satyrus paeon Godart, 1824 is the type species of this genus (Dias, 1998: 1119). Moneuptychia includes four species: M. soter (Butler, 1877), M. melchiades (Butler, 1877), M. itapeva Freitas, 2007 and M. giffordi Freitas, Emery and Mielke, 2010; Euptychia soter Butler, 1877 is the type species of this genus by original designation (Forster, 1964). In order to support the revalidation of Carminda, a comparison of the wings and the male genitalia of C. paeon and M. soter is herein provided. Data on other species of both genera are also given. The characteristics that distinguish Moneuptychia from Carminda are given below and summarized in Table 1.


In the Carminda species, the outer margin of the hindwings is distinctly wavier than in the Moneuptychia species; in M. soter this margin is wavy, whereas it is only slightly wavy in M. itapeva and M. giffordi. In the Moneuptychia species, the outer margin of the forewings does not have waves, whereas in Carminda the waviness varies from wavy to slightly wavy. Both Moneuptychia and Carminda have hindwings with two undulating median lines, which are arranged from the costal margin to the anal margin. The first line crosses the discal cell near the center, and the second line crosses immediately after the apex of this cell. These lines are visible on the ventral hindwing surface, but only slightly visible on the dorsal surface. On the ventral hindwing surface of Carminda, these lines are extended as two transverse narrow or wide bands, which are wavy and distinctly angular, whereas the median lines are not so angular on the ventral hindwing surface of Moneuptychia. Moreover, the ventral hindwings of M. soter have wavy median lines, which are reminiscent of the Carminda species, but they are not angular; in M. itapeva and M. giffordi these lines are less wavy when compared with those of M. soter. On the ventral hindwing surface of the Carminda species, the staining located between the median lines does not differ from that observed on the rest of the wing, or it is clearer; in C. umuarama (Figure 2) this area is white with sparse gray scales, some of them grouped to form stains. The ventral forewing surface has an enlarged marginal line in C. paeon and C. umuarama, which is more noticeable in the latter. The ventral hindwing surface of the Carminda species has varied coloration, with dark-brown points that can be solid and coalescent, and there are also brown or ocher stains, which can be large and conspicuous. In the Moneuptychia species, the two median lines on the ventral hindwing surface are continuous with those on the forewings; the coloration on the ventral side is the same on both wings (Figure 1), and it is extremely variable, from light-brown to moderately dark, with sparse dark-gray points. In the M. soter, the presence of a yellowish band on both wings is not rare and it is located between the sub-marginal line and the second median line. Moneuptychia itapeva and M. giffordi also have variable staining on the ventral wing surfaces, as demonstrated by Freitas (2007) and Freitas et al. (2010)respectively, with the same pattern observed on both the fore and hindwings. The ventral surfaces of both wings of M. melchiades have the same pattern, as illustrated by Hayward (1967). The ventral hindwing surface of the Carminda species has a conspicuous pattern that differs from that of the forewings. The latter are principally light-brown, with a second median line present, whereas the first is reduced or absent (Figures 2-4). In the Carminda species, there are four small ocelli on the ventral hindwing surface, which are black and surrounded by an ocher ring and with some white scales (pupil) on the black area. These ocelli are located between the veins Rs - M1, M1- M2, CuA1 - CuA2 (the largest ocellus); Moneuptychia species also have ocelli between the M2 - M3 (generally two ocelli, which can be coalescent) and M3 – M4 veins.

Male genitalia

In the male genitalia of M. soter, in the dorsal view, the uncus is not laterally extended. In addition, the latero-posterior apophyses of tegumen are two short and conical projections (Figure 5) and the angular appendices are well developed and elongated (Figure 6). In the Carminda species, the uncus, in dorsal view, is extended or strongly extended laterally and the latero-posterior apophyses of tegumen are long, curved and tapered at the end, as illustrated by Ebert and Dias (1997). Furthermore, the angular appendices are not developed. As mentioned by Freitas (2007), the angular appendices are an important diagnostic characteristic of Moneuptychia, and they are not found in other Euptychiina. The male genitalia of M. melchiades, with visible angular appendices, was illustrated by Hayward (1967). Angular appendices were also illustrated by Freitas et al. (2010).

Peña et al. (2006) considered the C. paeon (= Moneuptychia paeon) sister to Paryphthimoides Forster, 1964.

Material examined

Carminda paeon (5 males, 9 females). Paraná: Paranaguá, Alexandra, 19.IX.1970, O. Mielke, 1 female (UFSCAR). Colombo, 23.III.1995, M. M. Dias, 1 female (UFSCAR). Curitiba, Cascatinha, 30.IV.1966, O. Mielke, 1 female (UFSCAR). Rio Grande do Sul: Taquari, B. Pohl, 1 male (MZSP). Derrubadas, Parque Florestal Estadual do Turvo, 10.XI.1985, O. Mielke, Araújo & M. M. Casagrande, 1 male (UFSCAR). Santa Catarina: Joinville, V.1941, B. Pohl, 1 female (MZSP). São Bento do Sul, Rio Vermelho, II.1988, I. Rank, 1 female (UFSCAR). Seara, Nova Teutônia, VI.1938, B. Pohl, 1 male (MZSP). Timbó, X.1934, B. Pohl, 1 female (MZSP). São Paulo: Cananéia, Ilha do Cardoso, 17.XII. 1980, M. M. Dias, 1 female (UFSCAR). Salesópolis, Estação Biológica de Boracéia, 850 m, 8.I.1968, J. O. Santos, 1 female (MZSP). São Paulo, Ipiranga, XII.1918, 1 male (MZSP). São Paulo, Santo Amaro, 27.VII.1974, L. Yoshii, 1 male (UFSCAR). São Vicente, 15.VII.1975, M. M. Dias, 1 female (UFSCAR).

Carminda griseldis ( 2 males, 2 females). Paraná: Guarapuava, Santa Clara, 600 m, 1-2.X.1987, O. Mielke & M. M. Casagrande, 1 male (UFSCAR). Tijucas do Sul, Vossoroca, 850 m, 14.I.1979, O. Mielke, 1 male (UFSCAR). Santa Catarina: São Bento do Sul, Rio Vermelho, 31.V.1987, I. Rank, 1 female (UFSCAR). São Paulo: São Carlos, Fazenda Canchim, 6.II.1977, M. M. Dias, 1 female (UFSCAR).

Carminda umuarama (2 males, 2 females). Rio de Janeiro: Itatiaia, Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, 2000 m, II.1966, H. Ebert, 1 male (UFSCAR). Itatiaia, Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, 3.II.1967, K. S. Brown, 1 male (UFSCAR); 20.I.1969, K. S. Brown, 1 female (UFSCAR). São Paulo: Campos do Jordão, 22.I.1994, U. Fernandes, 1 female (UFSCAR).

Moneuptychia soter (8 males, 11 females). Minas Gerais: Serra do Caraça, 1380 m, XI.1961, Kloss, Lenko, U. Martins & L. Silva, 1 female (MZSP); III.1963, F. Werner, U. Martins & L. Silva, 1 female (MZSP). São Paulo: Piracaia, VII.1969, N. Bernardi, 1 female (MZSP). Rio Claro, 28.VIII.1971, M. M. Dias, 1 male (UFSCAR); 4.I.1973, 1 female (UFSCAR). Santo André, 3.IV.1937, no. 56287, R. Spitz, 1 female (MZSP). Santo André, Paranapiacaba, Alto da Serra, II.1933, no. 56289, R. Spitz, 1 female (MZSP); 27.III.1933, no. 56291, R. Spitz, 1 female (MZSP). São Bernardo do Campo, XII.1925, R. Spitz, 1 female (MZSP); 15.III.1926, R. Spitz, 1 female (MZSP). São Paulo, III.1913, B. Pohl, 1 male (MZSP); VIII.1913, B. Pohl, 1 female (MZSP); III.1914, B. Pohl, 2 males (MZSP); IV.1914, B. Pohl, 1 male, 1 female (MZSP);V.1914, 1 male (MZSP). São Paulo, Ipiranga, IV.1925, no. 56288, 56293, R. Spitz, 2 males (MZSP).

Moneuptychia itapeva (1 male, 1 female ). São Paulo: Pindamonhangaba, Pico do Itapeva, 31.XII.2005, 1980-2000 m, A. V. L. Freitas, holotype male (MZSP); II.2006, 2000 m, A. V. L. Freitas, paratype female (MZSP).

Acknowledgements – I would like to thank Mirna Martins Casagrande and Olaf H. H. Mielke for suggestions made; Marcelo Duarte da Silva for allowing us access to the Lepidoptera collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo. I was financially supported by the Programa BIOTA/FAPESP (Proc. 98/05101-8) and the Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia dos Hymenoptera Parasitóides da Região Sudeste Brasileira (HYMPAR / Sudeste – CNPq / FAPESP / CAPES).



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Received April 28, 2010
Accepted July 16, 2010
Distributed May 31, 2011




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