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Brazilian Journal of Biology

Print version ISSN 1519-6984

Braz. J. Biol. vol.73 no.4 São Carlos Nov. 2013

https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842013000400017 

Biology

The genus Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) in Brazil

O gênero Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) no Brasil

VC Maiaa  * 

LO Silvaa 

1Museu Nacional, Quinta da Boa Vista, São Cristóvão, CEP 20940-040 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil


ABSTRACT

Dasineura (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) is the gall midge genus with the highest number of known species (466 throughout the world). Only 39 species have been described from the Neotropics, being 10 from Brazil. Many records of not determined species are found in the literature. Furthermore, many unidentified specimens are deposited in the Cecidomyiidae Collection of the Museu Nacional/UFRJ, which comprises material from several Brazilian biomes. This paper provides these data, presents new records of localities and host plants, and discusses the representativeness of Dasineura in Brazil. The results point to the occurrence of 32 species in Brazil and show that the genus is much more diversified than previous knowledge indicates.

Key words: gall; insect-plant interaction; geographic distribution; new records

RESUMO

Dasineura (Diptera) é o gênero de Cecidomyiidae com o maior número de espécies conhecidas (466 no mundo). Apenas 39 espécies foram descritas da região Neotropical, sendo 10 do Brasil. Muitos registros de espécies não determinadas são encontrados em literatura. Além disso, muitos exemplares não identificados estão depositados na Coleção de Cecidomyiidae do Museu Naciona/UFRJ, que compreende material de diversos biomas brasileiros. Este artigo compila estas informações, apresenta novos registros de localidades e de plantas hospedeiras e discute a representatividade de Dasineura no Brasil. Os resultados assinalam a ocorrência de 32 espécies no Brasil e mostram que o gênero é muito mais diversificado do que o conhecimento prévio indica.

Palavras-Chave: galha; interação inseto-planta; distribuição geográfica; novos registros

1.Introduction

Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) is the gall midge genus with the highest number of known species (466 throughout the world). The majority of the species have been described from the Paleartic region. Only 39 species are known from the Neotropics, and among them, 10 occur in Brazil. Dasineura is included in the Dasineurini tribe, which comprises seven more genera (Gagné, 2010). It is traditionally characterised by presenting: larva - two-toothed prothoracic spatula, six lateral papillae per side, and eight terminal papillae; adult - antennae with 15 flagellomeres, four-segmented palpi, toothed tarsal claws, and R5 joining C at least slightly before the wing apex; male - flagellomeres with marked necks, gonocoxites with mediobasal lobe that gradually tapers from base to abdominal tergite as long or longer than seventh and tending to divide longitudinally (Gagné, 1994). Nevertheless, Dasineura presents a great morphological variation and many species do not fit into the traditional definition. According to Gagné 2010, Dasineura is a broadly defined polyphyletic genus, which explains such variation.

The aim of this work is to evaluate the diversity of Dasineura in Brazil, to determine the plant organs where galls are induced, to give an inventory of the host plant species, to verify the species richness by biomes, and to upgrade geographic distribution of the genus.

2.Material and Methods

The Museu Nacional/UFRJ comprises the unique reference collection of gall midges from Brazil. It includes material from several biomes: Amazonian forest, Atlantic forest, Caatinga, Cerrado and Pantanal. This collection was investigated to find Brazilian specimens of Dasineura. A literature survey was also carried out; data until 2010 were extracted from Gagné, 2010; data from 2010 to 2012 were obtained from “Thomson IS database”, using Dasineura (title) and Brasil/Brazil (topic) as key words. This literature investigation was conducted in April, 2012.

The information was organised in tables, the Brazilian species of Dasineura, host plants, galled organs, galls characterisation (shape, colour, and number of chamber), localities, biomes of occurrence, and references are presented.

3.Results and Discussion

Dasineura is represented by 32 species in Brazil, among them, ten are already known and 22 are not determined. Considering the high host specificity of the gall midges, the last ones probably belong to new species, as they are associated with new records of plants. Based on this specificity, we can include the undetermined species of Dasineura in the following discussion.

Dasineura is associated with 30 plant species and 14 plant families in Brazil. Myrtaceae and Asteraceae comprise the greatest richness of Dasineura species (12 and 07, respectively), followed by Malpighiaceae (02 spp.). The other families (Anacardiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Burseraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, Melastomataceae, Ochnaceae, Rubiaceae, Solanaceae, and Symplocaceae) are associated each with a single species of Dasineura (as shown in Table 1). Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae) and Chromolaena DC. (Asteraceae) were the most important host plant genera, with six and four species of Dasineura, respectively. Eugenia copacabanensis Kiaersk, (Myrtaceae) was the unique plant species that comprised more than one species of Dasineura. According to Gagné, 2010, Dasineura is associated with 65 plant families in the world, being more frequent on Fabaceae, Asteraceae, and Rosaceae. These families comprise 69, 42 and 35 species of Dasineura, respectively, while Myrtaceae comprise only seven species. In our study, Asteraceae are also pointed out as an important host plant family, but this is not the case for Fabaceae, and Rosaceae. Another difference is that Myrtaceae are indicated as the most important host.

Table 1-  Distribution of the number of Dasineura species (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) per host plant families and species in Brazil. 

Host plant Number of Dasineura species (n = 32)
Family (n = 14) Species (n = 30)
Anacardiaceae Tapirira guianensis Aubl. 01
Total 01
Asteraceae Chromolaena chaseae (B.L. Tob.) R.M. King & H. Rob. 01
Chromolaena pedunculosa (Hook. & Arn.) R.M. King & H. Rob. 01
Chromolaena pungens (Hook. & Arn.) R.M. King & H. Ron. 01
Chromolaena squalida (DC.) R.M. King & H. Rob. 01
Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. 01
Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera 01
Gochnatia pulchra Cabrera 01
Total 07
Bignoniaceae Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) A. H. Gentry 01
Total 01
Burseraceae Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) Marchand 01
Chrysobalanaceae Couepia ovalifolia (Schott) Benth. 01
Total 01
Erythroxylaceae Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. 01
Total 01
Fabaceae Stryphnodendron sp. 01
Malpighiaceae Byrsonima sericea DC. 01
Heteropterys nitida DC. 01
Total 02
Melastomataceae Not determined 01
Total 01
Myrtaceae Eugenia copacabanensis Kiaersk. 02
Eugenia florida DC. 01
Eugenia rotundifolia Casar 01
Eugenia umbelliflora O. Berg and E. rotundifolia 01
Eugenia uniflora L. 01
Myrcia ovata Cambess. 01
Myrciaria floribunda (H. West ex Willd.) O. Berg 01
Neomitranthes obscura (DC.) N. Silveira 01
Psidium cattleianum Sabine 01
Siphoneugeia reitzii D. Legrand 01
Not determined 01
Total 12
Ochnaceae Ouratea hexasperma (A. St.-Hil.) Baill. 01
Total 01
Rubiaceae Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl. 01
Total 01
Solanaceae Capsicum sp. 01
Total 01
Symplocacaeae Symplocos uniflora (Pohl) Benth. 01
Total 01

Most species (94%) were gall-inducers, and only two were free-living. The majority of the species occurred on leaves (43% or 14 spp.), two on buds, three on flower buds, one on a stem, and one on leaves and stem. The plant organs were not specified for 11 species of Dasineura (as shown in Table 2). The galls were classified as simple (08 morphotypes) or complex 06 (morphotypes), according to Möhn (1961) (16 morphotypes cannot be classified due to the lack of information). According to Gagné, 2004 Dasineura includes free-living species as well as species that form simple or complex galls.

Table 2-  Distribution of the number of Dasineura species (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) per plant organs in Brazil. 

Plant organ Number of Dasineura species (n = 32)
Leaves 14
Flower buds 03
Buds 02
Stems 01
Leaves and stem 01
No data 11

Many gall shapes were found: globose, ovoid, rosette, marginal roll, discoid, conical and fusiform. Twelve gall morphotypes were one-chambered, a single morphotype presented from one to 16 chambers. All chambers were occupied by a single galling larva. There is no data for the other galls.

The genus was found in two biomes, Atlantic forest (20 spp.) and cerrado (10 spp.). Two species were found in cultivated plants (02 spp.) (as shown in Table 3). The species from Atlantic forest were found mainly in restinga areas (16 spp., being 15 exclusive).

Table 3-  Distribution of the number of Dasineura species (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) per Brazilian biomes. 

Brazilian biome Number of Dasineura species (n = 32)
Atlantic forest 20
Cerrado 10
Cultivated plants 02

The species were collected in Pernambuco (01 sp.), Bahia (01 sp.), Distrito Federal (01 sp.), Minas Gerais (01), Espírito Santo (04), Rio de Janeiro (12 spp.), São Paulo (11 spp.), Paraná (01 sp.), Santa Catarina (01 sp.), and Rio Grande do Sul (05 spp.) (as shown in Table 4). The majority of the species were collected in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, the best surveyed states. Although Minas Gerais is a well investigated area, it comprises only one Dasineura species. The other states have been less surveyed. The records for Recife (Pernambuco), Brasília (Distrito Federal), Itirapina, Ibaté, São Carlos (São Paulo), Tiradentes (Minas Gerais), Flona, Maquiné, Pelotas, São Francisco de Paula and Viamão (Rio Grande do Sul) are new.

Table 4-  Distribution of the number of Dasineura species (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) per Brazilian states. 

Brazilian state Number of Dasineura species
Pernambuco 01
Bahia 01
Distrito Federal 01
Minas Gerais 01
Rio de Janeiro 12
São Paulo 12
Paraná 01
Santa Catarina 01
Rio Grande do Sul 01

The following plants are recorded for the first time as host plants of Dasineura species: Heteropterys nitida DC. (Malpighiaceae), Ouratea hexasperma (A. St.-Hil.) Baill. (Ochnaceae), Macfadyena ugüis-cati cati (L.) A. H. Gentry (Bignoniaceae), Stryphnodendron sp. (Fabaceae), Siphoneugenia reitzii D. Legrand (Myrtaceae), Symplocos uniflora (Pohl) Benth. (Symplocaceae), Chromolaena chaseae (B.L. Rob. R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae), Chromolaena pedunculosa (Hook. & Arn.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae), Chromolaena pungens (Hook. & Arn.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae), Chromolena squalid (DC.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae), and Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. (Asteraceae).

Table 5 summarises data of geographic distribution of the species and presents the attacked plant organ, as well as a brief gall characterisation (based on shape and number of internal chamber).

Table 5-  Host plants, gall characterisation and geographic distribution of Dasineura species (Diptera Cecidomyiidae) in Brazil. 

Dasineura species Host plant Plant organ Gall Locality (State) Biome Reference
Dasineura brasiliensis (Tavares, 1922) Protium heptaphyllum Leaf Globose, complex, one-chambered Bahia AF (restinga) Tavares 1922; Gagné 1994, 2004
Dasineura copacabanensis (Maia, 1993) Eugenia copacabanensis Bud Ovoid, complex, one-chambered RJ (1) AF (restinga) Gagné 2004; Maia 1993
Dasineura byrsonimae (Maia, 2010) Byrsonima sericea Leaf Circular, simple, one-chambered RJ (04 08, 10, 14) ES (07) AF (restinga) Maia 2010; Bregonci et al., 2010 Oliveira and Maia 2005
Dasineura couepiae (Maia, 2001) Couepia ovalifolia Leaf Spherical, simple, one-chambered RJ (01 14) ES (07) AF (restinga) Maia 2010ab Gagné 2004 Bregonci et al., 2010
Dasineura gigantea (Ângelo and Maia, 1999) Psidium cattleianum Bud Rosette, complex, 1-16 chambered Paraná (17, 18) SC (11) SP (2) AF (OF) (restinga) Ângelo and Maia 1999 Gagné 2004 Maia et al.
Dasineura globosa (Maia, 1995) Eugenia rotundifolia Leaf Globose, simple, one-chambered RJ (08, 14) AF (restinga) Maia 1995, 2001a; Gagné 2004; Oliveira and Maia 2005
Dasineura marginalis (Maia, 2002) Eugenia umbelliflora and E. rotundifolia Leaf Marginal roll, simple, one-chambered RJ (01, 14) AF (restinga) Maia et al., 2005
Dasineura myrciariae (Maia, 195) Myrciaria floribunda Leaf Marginal roll, simple, one-chambered RJ (04, 14) ES (07) AF (restinga) Maia 1995, 2001b; Gagné 2004 Bregonci et al., 2010
Dasineura ovalifolie (Maia and Fernandes, 2011) Erythroxylum ovalifolium Leaf Conical, simple, one-chambered RJ (04 08, 14) AF (restinga) Maia and Fernandes, 2011; Oliveira and Maia 2005
Dasineura tavaresi (Maia, 1995) Neomitranthes obscura Leaf Marginal roll, simple, one-chambered RJ (04 14) ES (07) AF (restinga) Maia 1995, 2001a; Gagné 2004; Bregonci et al., 2010
Dasineura sp. 1 Capsicum sp. No data No data SP (16) Cultivated plant Eicher et al., 2003
Dasineura sp. 2 Chromalaena chaseae No data No data SP (09) Cerrado New record
Dasineura sp. 3 Chromalaena pedunculosa No data No data SP (20) Cerrado New record
Dasineura sp. 4 Chromalaena pungens No data No data SP (12) Cerrado New record
Dasineura sp. 5 Chromalaena squalida No data No data SP (12) Cerrado New record
Dasineura sp. 6 Emilia sonchifolia No data No data SP (20) Cerrado New record
Dasineura sp. 7 Eugenia copacabanensis Flower bud Free-living larvae RJ (14) AF (restinga) Maia et al., 2002
Dasineura sp. 8 Eugenia florida No data No data RS (23) AF (restinga) New record
Dasineura sp. 9 Eugenia uniflora No data No data RS (15) Cultivated plant New record
Dasineura sp. 10 Gochnatia barrosi No data No data SP (20) Cerrado New record
Dasineura sp. 11 Gochnatia pulchra No data No data SP (12) Cerrado New record
Dasineura sp. 12 Heteropterys nitida Flower bud (free-living larvae) RJ (14) AF (restinga) New record
Dasineura sp. 13 Macfadyena ungüis-cati Stem Spherical RS (13) AF New record
Dasineura sp. 14 Melastomataceae Leaf Circular, simple, one-chambered RJ (14) AF (restinga) New record
Dasineura sp. 15 Myrcia ovata Leaf Spherical, complex, one-chambered RJ (14) AF (restinga) Maia et al., 2002
Dasineura sp. 16 Myrtaceae Çeaf No data PE (05) AF (OF) New record
Dasineura sp. 17 Ouratea hexasperma Flower bud No data DF (03) Cerrado New record
Dasineura sp. 18 Psychotria leiocarpa Leaf Spherical, sulcated, complex, one-chambered SP (02) AF (restinga) Maia et al., 2008
Dasineura sp. 19 Siphonoeugenia reitzii No data No data RS (21) AF (OF) New record
Dasineura sp. 20 Stryphnodendron sp. Leaf No data MG (22) Cerrado (rupestrian fields) New record
Dasineura sp. 21 Symplocos uniflora Leaves and stem Fusiform RS (06 AF (OF) New record
Dasineura sp. 22 Tapirira guianensis Leaves Conical, complex SP (19) Cerrado Urso-Guimarães and Scareli-Santos, 2006

AF - Atlantic Forest, DF - Distrito Federal, ES - Espírito Santo, MG - Minas Gerais, OF - Ombrophyla forest, PE - Pernambuco, RJ - Rio de Janeiro; RS - Rio Grande do Sul, SP - São Paulo. 01. Arraial do Cabo, 02. Bertioga, 03. Brasília, 04. Carapebus, 05. Dois Irmãos (Recife), 06. Flona, 07. Guarapari, 08. Grumari (Rio de Janeiro), 09. Ibaté, 10. Ilha Grande (Angra dos Reis), 11. Itapoã, 12. Itirapina, 13. Maquiné, 14. Maricá, 15. Pelotas, 16. Piracicaba, 17. Piraquara, 18. Pontal do Paraná, 19. Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, 20. São Carlos, 21. São Francisco de Paula, 22. Tiradentes, 23. Viamão.

Dasineura couepiae Maia, 2001, D. gigantea Maia, 1995, D. myrciariae Maia, 1995, D. byrsonimae Maia, 2010, and D. ovalifoliae Maia and Fernandes, 2011 are described as larva, pupa, male, and female. The larvae of D. globosa and D. marginalis, the pupa of D. copacabanensis, the male of D. tavaresi, and the pupa and male of D. brasiliensis are still unknown. The morphology of the last species is partially known, so new collections of galls and gall maker rearing are necessary to complete the species characterisation.

As Dasineura is polyphyletic, phylogenetic studies are necessary to define the limits of the genus. Gagné, 2010 suggested that Dasineurini on Fabaceae and Brassicaceae can be separate monophyletic groups, and added that “no groupings within Dasineurini can be satisfactory until the tribe is revised in a comprehensive way”.

4.Conclusions

Dasineura is poorly known in Brazil, where it includes 22 undescribed species and four partially described ones. Data on attacked plant organs is lacking for 11 species.

In Brazil, the most important host plant families are Myrtaceae and Asteraceae. The importance of the latter was pointed out by Gagné, 2010, but the former is indicated thus for the first time.

The records of free-living and galling species confirm the known feeding habits of the larva.

The majority of the species was recorded in two biomes: Atlantic forest and cerrado. Little information is available for the other Brazilian biomes. The best investigated localities are Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Few records are known for other Brazilian states. So it is necessary to investigate other localities and biomes to understand the geographic distribution of Dasineura spp. as well as the diversity of each biome.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank CNPq (VCM, Proc. 300237/2010-3) and FAPERJ (LOS, Proc. E-26/100.377/2011) for financial support.

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Received: May 17, 2012; Accepted: November 27, 2012

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