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Brazilian Journal of Biology

Print version ISSN 1519-6984

Braz. J. Biol. vol.74 no.2 São Carlos May 2014

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.26512 

Ecology

The importance of a Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest for the conservation of stream fauna

A importância de uma Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlântica para a Conservação da Fauna de Riachos

CE. Yoshida a  

VS. Uieda b   *  

aAssociação Mata Ciliar, Av. Emílio Antonon, 1000, Chácara Aeroporto, CEP 13212-010 Jundiaí, SP, Brazil

bDepartamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Rubião Júnior, s/n, CP 510, CEP 18618-970, Botucatu, SP, Brazil

ABSTRACT

Preservation of terrestrial fauna and flora has been the main reason for the settlement of most protected areas in the past 30 years, but although those areas may include water bodies, this does not necessarily mean that the biodiversity of freshwater environments are also protected. In the present study, the fauna inventory of eight streams (1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th orders) of three microbasins of Japi Mountain, a Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest recognised by UNESCO since 1994, located in São Paulo state, southeast of Brazil, was conducted. The hypothesis of this study is that the conservation of this area is important for the maintenance of the aquatic biodiversity of this biome, and so, this world hotspot deserves priority conservation actions. From 2005 to 2007, benthic macroinvertebrates, fishes and, eventually, anuran amphibians were sampled in these streams. The results showed that Japi Mountain contributes to the conservation of 138 taxonomic units of the aquatic biota and covers a rich and representative biodiversity of freshwater fauna of the world (0.2%), Neotropical region (0.9%), Brazil (2.4%) and São Paulo state (17.9%). The studied streams in the Environmental Protection Area help protect endangered taxa like the fishes Neoplecostomus paranensis and Pareiorhina cf rudolphi, and shelter freshwater invertebrates and fishes whose distribution is restricted to the Brazilian territory. Japi Mountain is also an important haven of species that was missing there like the frog species Vitreorana eurygnatha. Thus, this species inventory emphasises the importance of conservation actions of the freshwater environments of this Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest.

Key words: amphibians; freshwater; fish; invertebrates; protected areas

RESUMO

A conservação da fauna e flora terrestres tem sido a principal razão para o estabelecimento da maioria das áreas protegidas nos últimos 30 anos, porém, apesar de muitas destas áreas apresentarem corpos d'água, isto não significa necessariamente que a biodiversidade dos ambientes dulcícolas também estará protegida. No presente trabalho foi realizado o levantamento da fauna de oito riachos (1a, 2a, 4a e 5a ordens) de três microbacias da Serra do Japi, localizada no estado de São Paulo e reconhecida como Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlântica pela UNESCO desde 1994. A hipótese do estudo é de que a conservação desta área seja de grande importância para a manutenção de sua biodiversidade aquática, comprovando assim a necessidade de ações prioritárias de conservação deste bioma. No período de 2005 a 2007 foram amostrados nestes riachos os macroinvertebrados bentônicos, peixes e, eventualmente, anfíbios anuros. Os resultados revelaram que a Serra do Japi contribui na conservação de 138 unidades taxonômicas da biota aquática e abriga rica e representativa biodiversidade da fauna de água doce do mundo (0,2%), da região neotropical (0,9%), do Brasil (2,4%) e do estado de São Paulo (17,9%). Os riachos das áreas de proteção ambiental estudados ajudam na proteção de táxons listados como vulneráveis a extinção no estado, como Neoplecostomus paranensis e Pareiorhina cf rudolphi, e abrigam animais dulcícolas de distribuição restrita ao território brasileiro. A Serra do Japi também constitui um importante reduto de espécies até então desaparecidas, como o anuro Vitreorana eurygnatha. Assim, este levantamento enfatizou a importância de ações de conservação dos ambientes aquáticos desta Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlântica.

Palavras-Chave: anfíbios; água doce; peixes; invertebrados; áreas protegidas

Introduction

Preservation of terrestrial fauna and flora has been the main reason for the settlement of most protected areas in the past 30 years, and because most include water bodies, some of these protected areas also protect the biodiversity of freshwater environments. However, as emphasised by Agostinho et al. (2005), these areas need the inventory studies of species to determine their effective importance to the preservation of the aquatic biota.

The lack of basic knowledge on the biodiversity of freshwater environments in Brazil is an obstacle to preservation studies (Agostinho et al., 2005). According to Rocha (2002), only 30% of the freshwater invertebrate diversity is presently known and some taxon as Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nemertea, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Bryozoa, Annelida and several insect groups need specialists, collections and/or minimum updated information on identification, distribution and autoecology.

Unlike invertebrates, vertebrates are better known. Regarding the freshwater diversity, fish deserves attention because Brazil is the holder of the largest ictiofauna of the world (Lewinsohn and Prado, 2002; Agostinho et al., 2005). Considering the occurrence and distribution of 2,587 freshwater fish species registered in the country (Buckup et al., 2007), headwater streams have an essential role to preserve this group as 70-80% of this richness is exclusively and/or preferably found in small water bodies (Buckup, 1999; Castro, 1999; Pompeu et al., 2009; Oyakawa and Menezes, 2010).

The knowledge availability also reflects the number of species considered endangered, and the most studied groups present a greater number of species in the Red Book List of the Endangered Brazilian Fauna (Machado et al., 2008). From 627 species, 194 (31%) are from freshwater, 134 are fish, 16 are amphibians and 45 are invertebrates.

Besides the need of knowing if the Environmental Protection Areas help the conservation of non-threatened or threatened aquatic taxa, the functionality effectiveness of these areas need to be analysed regarding their contribution as a reserve of local, regional and global biodiversity (Balian et al., 2008). Thus, in the present study, we made the fauna inventory of streams of three micro basins in Japi Mountain, located in a reserve of the Atlantic Forest. We also aimed to contribute to the knowledge of threatened species and areas that may serve as shelter for groups with restrict geographical distribution. The hypothesis of this study is that the conservation of this area is important for the maintenance of the aquatic biodiversity of this biome, and so, this world hotspot deserves priority conservation actions.

Methods

Study area

Japi Mountain is located in the countryside of São Paulo state, is part of the Environmental Protection Areas (EPAs) of Jundiaí (47.67% of the total area), Cabreúva (41.16%) and Cajamar (0.68%), and integrates the Piracicaba-Capivari-Jundiaí Water Conservation and Management Unit that gathers important effluents of the Medium Tiete River basin (Figure 1). Japi Mountain has a total extension of 19,170 ha or 350 Km2 and it is considered one of the last and biggest remaining continuous area of deciduous seasonal forest area of the state of São Paulo (Morellato, 1992).

Figure 1. Location of the study area (South America, southeastern Brazil, São Paulo state) with the indication of de limits of Japi Mountain (draw in the center), including the municipalities of Jundiaí, Cabreúva and Cajamar. The hydrographic maps show details of the sampled sites in each of the three studied microbasins (Er- Ermida, GX- Guaxinduva, CG- Caguaçu). The numbers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) refer to the order of the sampled stretches; for Guaxinduva an upstream (GX5u) and a downstream stretch (GX5d) were sampled. 

In 1994, Japi Mountain was classified by UNESCO as a Reserve of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere and a world hotspot deserving priority actions to preserve its biodiversity. The protection and preservation of Japi Mountain are supported by several legal mechanisms like: the Protection Law for Animals (Decree No 24645/34); Water Code (Decree No 24634/34); Mining Code (Decree No 227/67); Fauna Protection Law (Law No 5197/67); Law for the Creation of Ecological Stations and Environmental Protection Areas (Law No 6938/6902/ 81); Article No 225 of the Federal Constitution 1988 that imposes the public power the preservation and restoration of ecosystems, preservation of diversity and integrity of genetic heritage of the Country; Forestry Code (Federal Law No 4771/65); State Law No 9146/95 about financial compensation mechanisms for municipalities that have protected areas; Resolution No 11 of March 8th 1983 of the Defense Council of the Historical, Archeological, Architectural and Tourism Heritage (Condephaat) on the protection of Japi Mountain area. However, as emphasised by Jesus and Cavalheiro (2004), such legal mechanisms are not enough to guarantee the protection of the area because 90% of their lands are private properties, the fiscalisation is precarious, and the lack of knowledge about its biodiversity makes its monitoring and management difficult.

The occupation and degradation of Japi Mountain is marked by the construction of Santos-Jundiaí Railroad in 1867 which led to logging of the area so that wood could be used as fuel by locomotives. Later, due to the need of human settlement expansion in the region, there was the substitution of natural areas for cultivation areas (coffee, sugarcane, rice, wheat, beans, potato, Pinus) and cattle farming. Recently, the construction of two important highways (Rodovia Anhangüera and Rodovia Marechal Rondon) has brought part of the development of the city of São Paulo to the cities of Jundiaí, Campinas and Itu, increasing the urbanisation process in natural areas close to these great urban centers (Jesus and Cavalheiro, 2004). Presently, the environmental problems of Japi Mountain are associated with real estate speculation, fires caused by agricultural activity, cattle raising, balloons, vegetation suppression and land movement by private individuals, hunting, mining and vandalism (Yoshida and Gonçalves, 2004).

The conservation state of Japi Mountain streams is related to the environmental zoning that defines the areas of the Biological Reserve and areas of the Preservation Zone (State Decree No 43.284/98 of São Paulo and Municipal Law No 417/04 of Jundiaí). Only three out of eight studied stretches of Ribeirão Ermida microbasin are located inside the Biological Reserve and are more preserved than the stretches of Guaxinduva and Caguaçu microbasins that are located inside the Preservation Zone, where there is the presence of anthropic activity as agro-forestry-pastoral activities and small residential farms (Table 1, Figure 1).

Table 1. Location, stream morphometry and physical and chemical characteristics of the water (mean values) determined in the eight studied sites, monthly or seasonally (July and August – dry season, January and February – wet season). Microbasin Stream = ER- Ribeirão Ermida, CG- Ribeirão Caguaíu, GX- Ribeirão Guaxinduva. Order/Stretch = 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th orders; u- upstream, d- downstream. Zone = CZ- conservation zone, BR- biological reserve. 

Analyzed parameters Fazenda da Corda Churras DAE Paraiso Trial Santa Marta Dog Antônio Lopes Pardo
Microbasin/Stream GX GX ER ER ER CG CG CG
Order/Stretch GX5u GX5d ER1 ER2 ER4 CG1 CG2 CG5
EPAs Cabreúva Cabreúva Jundiaí Jundiaí Jundiaí Jundiaí Jundiaí Jundiaí
Zone CZ CZ BR BR BR CZ CZ CZ
Human activity yes yes no no no yes yes yes
Altitude (m) 900 850 853 1050 904 800 750 750
Latitude 23°17′5″ 23°17′4″ 23°13′39″ 23°14′36″ 23°13′46″ 23°17′3″ 23°18′28″ 23°18′27″
Longitude 47°0′29″ 47°1′33″ 46°58′7″ 46°57′7″ 46°58′1″ 46°56′23″ 46°56′29″ 46°56′29″
Extension (Km) 6.25 8.60 0.75 1.73 3.83 0.23 0.63 8.53
Drainage area (Km2) 15.71 22.32 0.38 2.04 10.30 0.12 0.22 27.03
Declivity (%) 4 5 15 10 10 14 4 11
Number of segments 197 272 1 8 63 1 4 234
Width (m) 4.44 4.72 1.3 1.6 3.6 3.4 4.2 4.6
Depth (cm) 16.72 24.27 6.7 16.7 25.1 19.0 28.5 29.8
Current (m/s) 0.52 0.68 0.36 0.65 0.63 0.49 0.63 0.66
Dissolved oxygen (mg/L) 10.55 10.87 9.76 10.64 11.11 11.30 9.92 10.03
pH 6.11 6.17 6.60 5.92 5.77 6.70 6.60 6.69
Conductivity (mS/cm) 0.01 0.01 0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02
Luminosity (lux) 7425 16717 1240 2662 1857 4525 1019 2268
Period of data sample 2005-2006 2005-2006 2006-2007 2005-2007 2005-2007 2006 2006-2007 2006-2007
Frequency of sample monthly monthly seasonally monthly and seasonally monthly and seasonally dry season seasonally seasonally

Because the studied streams present water flow throughout the year, they fit the classification of perennial water courses and are part of a dendritic drainage net (Figure 1), typical of regions with prevalence of rocks that offer resistance to the erosive process (Christofoletti, 1980). Santoro and Machado (1992) reported that in the case of Japi Mountain this resistance is offered by predominant quartzite rocks in the region.

The relief of the terrain where the streams are located presents very weak to medium declivity (from < 6% to 15%) (Florenzano, 2008). Except for three 5th order stretches, the other sampled stretches are small, narrow and shallow, with fast current, high content of dissolved oxygen, low values of temperature and electric conductivity (Table 1). These characteristics for headwater streams have also been emphasised by other authors (Buckup 1999; Valente and Gomes, 2005).

Collection of environmental data

The morphological characteristics of the microbasins were based on the topographical map of Japi Mountain in a 1:25000 scale, obtained from the Department of Planning of Jundiaí City. Rainfall and air temperature data of the region of Jundiaí were obtained from the site of the Integrated Centre of Meteorological Information – CIIAGRO (www.ciiagro.sp.gov.br accessed in July, 2008). The measurements of the stream canal and the limnological characteristics were carried out at all collection times of biotic data and at three distinct points of the longitudinal axis of each studied stretch. The streams were characterised according to their length, depth and luminosity (Minipa digital lightmeter, MLM1010 model) and the following physical and chemical water parameters: current (floating method), temperature (°C, measured by an Incoterm thermometer for maximum and minimum temperatures), dissolved oxygen (mg/L, determined by an Instrutherm oxymeter, model MO880), pH (measured by a digital pocket pHmeter, model pH1700), electrical conductivity (mS.cm–1, measured with a pocket digital conductometer, model CD840).

Collection of fauna data

The macrofauna was collected at eight stream stretches of Japi Mountain at two periods: (1) monthly from February 2005 to January 2006, and (2) seasonally, twice in the dry season of 2006 (July and August) and twice in the rainy season of 2007 (January and February). Three microbasins were sampled: Ermida (ER), Guaxinduva (GX) and Caguaçu (CG), including stretches of 1st, 2nd, 4th 5th orders (sensu Strahler classification (Stanford, 1996)), with the orders indicated by numbers near the acronyms' microbasin (Table 1).

Monthly collections were conducted at four stream stretches (GX5u, GX5d, ER2, ER4) (Figure 1). In each stretch, six samples of the macroinvertebrate community were collected in a 30 m extension with a Surber sampler (30 × 30 cm and 500 mm mesh). The collected material was stored, transported in ice and later transferred to a refrigerator at 7 °C until screening (no later than three days after the collection). Macroinvertebrate screening was done visually by spreading the material in a white tray with incident light. The ictiofauna and, eventually, young forms of amphibians were collected along the bank vegetation with a 5 mm mesh sieve, fixed in formaldehyde 10% and preserved in alcohol 70% for posterior identification.

Seasonal collections were carried out in six stream stretches (ER1, ER2, ER4, CG1, CG2, CG5) (Figure 1). In each stretch, five areas of riffles of 5 m long each were selected in a 100 m extension for the aquatic fauna collections. In each area, four samples of macroinvertebrates (two from the banks and two from the middle of the stream) were collected with a Surber sampler (15 × 15 cm and 500 mm mesh), and the visually predominant substrate type in the sampler (sand, litter, gravel, rocks) was recorded. Next, the whole 5 m area was scanned with a trawl and a dip net (4 mm mesh) to capture fish and, eventually, young and adult anuran amphibians. The macroinvertebrates were fixed and preserved in alcohol 70% and the fishes were fixed in formaldehyde 10% and preserved in alcohol 70% for posterior identification. Macroinvertebrate screening was done with the use of a stereomicroscope.

The collected macroinvertebrates were deposited in the collection of the NGO Associação Mata Ciliar and the Laboratory of Stream Ecology of the Department of Zoology (UNESP – Botucatu). The fish species were deposited in the collection of the Museum of Zoology of USP and the Ichthyology Laboratory of UNESP - São José do Rio Preto.

The identification level of collected organisms was conducted mainly according to the adopted taxonomic levels in programs of macroinvertebrate and fish monitoring, and to the availability of identification keys and of specialists that could verify the identification of collected organisms. The study by Melo (2003) was used to identify Crustacea Decapoda; the studies of Lopretto and Tell (1995), Merritt and Cummins (1996), Nieser and Melo (1997), McCafferty (1998), Fernández and Dominguez (2001), Da-Silva et al. (2002), Costa et al. (2004), Olifiers et al. (2004), Paprocki et al. (2004), Rio Grande do Sul (2006), Passos et al. (2007), Calor (2007) and Manzo and Archangelsky (2008) were used for Insecta identification. The researchers Dr. Gustavo Melo, from the Museum of Zoology of USP, Dr. Sérgio L. S. Bueno, from the Institute of Biosciences of USP, and Dr. Célio Magalhães, from the National Institute of Amazon Research, were consulted for the crustacean identification. The specialists, Dr Melissa O. Segura, Dr. Mateus Pepineli and Dr. Irineu de S. Onofre, from the Department of Limnology of UFSCar, verify the identification of Coleoptera-Elmidae, Diptera-Simuliidae and Odonata, respectively. Dr. Francisco de A. G. de Melo confirmed the identification of Insecta-Orthoptera.

The fish identification was based on the studies by Britski (1972), Menezes et al. (2007), Buckup (1992), Garutti and Britski (2000), Chamon et al. (2005) and confirmed by the specialists Dr. Osvaldo T. Oyakawa, from the Museum of Zoology of USP, and Dr. Francisco Langeani Neto, from the Department of Zoology and Botany (UNESP - São José do Rio Preto).

The amphibians were identified by Daniel Contieri Rolim, from the Herpetology Laboratory of the Department of Zoology UNESP - Botucatu, who utilised the taxonomic key published by Ribeiro et al. (2005) and the descriptions done by Bokermann (1963) and Rada et al. (2007); Dr. Célio Fernando Baptista Haddad, from the Department of Zoology of UNESP-Rio Claro, confirmed their identification.

Results

The 26,219 specimens, representing 138 taxonomic units and mainly consisting of organisms from the aquatic macrofauna (Tables 2 and 3), were collected in the eight studied streams of Japi Mountain from 2005 to 2007. If each identified taxonomic unit is considered as an equivalent to a species, then Japi Mountain collaborates with almost 20% of the freshwater biodiversity of São Paulo state (Table 4).

Table 2. List of the invertebrates sampled in eight streams located in Japi Mountain in the period of 2005-2007. Taxonomic levels and sequence based on Ruppert et al. (2005)

PROTOZOA – “Amoebozoa” – “Lobosea” – testate amebas
ANIMAL
Cnidaria - Hydrozoa - Hydra
Platyhelminthes – “Turbellaria”
Tricladida
Temnocephalida - Temnocephala
Nemertea
Mollusca
Gastropoda
Bivalvia
Annelida
Polychaeta – Histriobdellidae - Stratiodrilus
Oligochaeta
Nematoda
Nematomorpha – Gordioida
Arthropoda
Chelicerata - Arachnida - Acari
Crustacea
 Phyllopoda – Cladocera
 Malacostraca
  Decapoda
   Aeglidae - Aegla paulensis Schmitt, 1942
   Trichodactylidae - Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828
   Palaemonidae - Macrobrachium iheringi Ortmann, 1897
  Amphipoda – Gammaridea
  Isopoda
 Maxillopoda
  Copepoda
  Ostracoda
Tracheata – Hexapoda
 Collembola
  Isotomidae
  Sminthuridae
  Onychyuridae
Ephemeroptera
 Baetidae
  Americabaetis Kluge, 1992
  Apobaetis Day, 1955
  Baetodes Needham & Murphy, 1924
  Camelobaetidius Demoulin, 1966
  Cloeodes Traver, 1938
  Paracloeodes Day, 1955
  Tupiara Salles, Lugo-Ortiz, Da-Silva & Francischetti, 2003
  Waltzoyphius McCafferty & Lugo-Ortiz, 1995
  Zelusia Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, 1998
 Caenidae - Caenis Stephens, 1835
 Euthyplociidae - Campylocia Needham & Murphy, 1924
 Leptohyphidae
  Leptohyphes Eaton, 1882
  Traveryphes Molineri, 2001
  Tricorythodes Ulmer, 1920
  Tricorythopsis Traver, 1958
 Leptophlebiidae
  Askola Peters, 1969
  Farrodes Peters, 1971
  Hylister Domínguez & Flowers, 1989
  Massartella Lestage, 1930
  Miroculis Edmunds, 1963
  Thraulodes Ulmer, 1920
  Traverella Edmunds, 1948
Odonata
 Aeshnidae
  Aeshna Fabricius, 1775
  Coryphaeschna Williamson, 1903
  Limnetron Förster, 1907
 Calopterygidae
 Coenagrionidae - Argia Rambur, 1842
 Corduliidae - Navicordulia Machado & Costa, 1995
 Gomphidae - Progomphus Selys, 1854
 Libellulidae - Brechmorhoga Kirby, 1894
 Megapodagrionidae
  Heteragrion Selys, 1862
  Oxystigma Selys, 1862
Orthoptera - Gryllidae - Nemobiinae/Pteronemobiini
Plecoptera
 Gripopterygidae
  Gripopteryx Pictet, 1841
  Guaranyperla Froelich, 2001
  Paragripopteryx Enderlein, 1909
  Tupiperla Froehlich, 1969
 Perlidae
  Anacroneuria Klapálek, 1909
  Kempnyia Klapálek, 1916
Hemiptera
  Belostomatidae - Belostoma Latreille, 1807
  Hebridae - Hebrus Curtis, 1833
  Naucoridae - Ctenipocoris Montandon, 1897
  Veliidae - Rhagovelia Mayr, 1863
Megaloptera - Corydalidae - Corydalus Latreille, 1802
Trichoptera
 Calamoceratidae - Phylloicus Müller, 1880
 Ecnomidae - Austrotinodes Schmid, 1955
 Glossosomatidae
  Itauara Müller, 1888
  Mexitrichia Mosely, 1937
  Protoptilinae sp1
 Helicopsychidae - Helicopsyche Siebold, 1856
 Hydrobiosidae - Atopsyche Banks, 1905
 Hydropsychidae
  Leptonema Guérin, 1843
  Smicridea McLachlan,1871
 Hydroptilidae
  Byrsopteryx Flint, 1981
  Flintiella Angrisano, 1995
  Neotrichia Morton, 1905
 Leptoceridae
  Grumichella Müller, 1879
  Nectopsyche Müller, 1879
  Notalina Mosely, 1936
  Oecetis McLachlan, 1877
  Triplectides Kolenati, 1859
 Odontoceridae
  Barypenthus Burmeister, 1839
  Marilia Müller, 1880
 Polycentropodidae - Cyrnellus Banks, 1913
 Sericostomatidae – Grumicha grumicha Müller, 1879
 Xiphocentronidae - Xiphocentron Brauer, 1870
Lepidoptera – Pyralidae
Coleoptera
 Curculionidae
 Dryopidae
 Dytiscidae
 Elmidae
  Austrolimnius Carter & Zeck, 1829
  Heterelmis Sharp, 1882
  Hexacylloepus Hinton, 1940
  Huleechius Brown, 1981
  Phanocerus Spangler & Santiago, 1992
  Macrelmis Mostchulsky, 1859
  Neoelmis Musgrave, 1935
  Promoresia Sanderson, 1954
  Stegoelmis Hinton,1939
  Xenelmis Hinton, 1936
  Larvae C (based on Passos et al. (2007))
  Larvae D (based on Passos et al. (2007))
  Elminae sp1
 Psephenidae
  Psephenus Haldeman, 1853
  Eubriinae sp1
 Scirtidae
Diptera
 Blephariceridae
 Ceratopogonidae
  Atrichopogon Kieffer, 1906
  Bezzia Kieffer, 1899
 Chaoboridae
 Chironomidae
 Dixidae
 Empididae
 Muscidae
 Psychodidae
 Simuliidae
  Simulium anamariae Vulcano, 1962
  Simulium incrustatum Lutz, 1910
 Stratiomyidae
 Tabanidae
 Tipulidae
Hymenoptera
 Diapriidae
 Scelionidae

Table 3. Taxonomic list of vertebrates sampled in eight streams located at the Japi Mountain, in the period of 2005-2007. The worldwide area of occurrence of the families is indicated as: SAm- South America, CAm- Central America, NAm- Norte America, NT- Neotropic, AF-Africa, OR-Orient. Taxonomic levels of fish groups based on Reis et al. (2003); occurrence data for fish based on Lucinda (2008) and Menezes et al. (2007) and for amphibians based on Duellman (1999)

List of vertebrates Occurrence area
Pisces
Order Characiformes
 Crenuchidae NT
  Characidium gomesi Travassos, 1956
  Characidium oiticicai Travassos, 1967
 Characidae SAm, CAm, NAm
  Astyanax paranae Eigenmann, 1914
  Astyanax sp.
  Oligosarcus paranensis (Menezes & Géry, 1983)
 Erythrinidae SAm
  Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794)
Order Siluriformes
 Trichomycteridae NT
  Trichomycterus sp.
 Callichthyidae SAm
  Callichthys callichthys (Linnaes, 1758)
 Loricariidae NT
  Hypostomus ancistroides (Ihering, 1911)
  Neoplecostomus paranensis Langeani, 1990
  Pareiorhina sp.
 Heptapteridae NT
  Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard in Freycinet, 1824)
Order Cyprinodontiformes
 Poeciliidae SAm, CAm, NAm, AF
  Phalloceros harpagos Lucinda, 2008
  Phalloceros reisi Lucinda, 2008
Order Perciformes
 Cichlidae NT, AF, OR
  Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824)
Class Amphibia
Order Anura
 Centrolenidae SAm
  Vitreorana eurygnatha (A. Lutz, 1925)
 Leptodactylidae NT
  Crossodactylus sp.
  Ischnocnema guentheri (Steindachner, 1864)
  Physalemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826

Table 4. Total number (or the lowest estimated value) of freshwater macrofauna species described in the world, in the Neotropical region (NT), in Brazil, in the State of São Paulo (SP) and in Japi Mountain. References: IManconi and Pronzato (2008); IIVolkner-Ribeiro (1999); IIIJankowski et al. (2008); IVSilveira and Schlenz (1999); vSchockaert et al. (2008); VIForneris (1999a); VIISundberg and Gibson (2008); VIIIForneris (1999b); IXAbebe et al. (2008); XPoinar Junior (2008); XIForneris (1999c); XIIMassard and Geimer (2008); XIIIForneris (1999e); XIVBogan (2008); XVAvelar (1999); XVIStrong et al. (2008); XVIISimone (1999); XVIIIGlasby and Timm (2008); XIXSteiner and Amaral (1999); XXMartin et al. (2008); XXIRighi (1999); XXIIBalian et al. (2008); XXIIIForneris (1999d); XXIVMugnai et al. (2010); XXVMagalhães (1999); XXVIFroehlich (1999a); XXVIIHubbard and Pescador (1999); Strixino and Strixino (1999); Carvalho (1999); Froehlich (1999a,b) (*without Coleoptera); XXVIIILévêque et al. (2008); XXIXBuckup (1999) e Buckup et al. (2007) (stream ictiofauna); XXXMenezes et al. (2007) (ictiofauna of Atlantic forest streams); XXXIRolla et al. (2012); XXXIIVences and Köhler (2008); XXXIIISBH (2010); XXXIVAraújo et al. (2009); XXXVRibeiro et al. (2005). 

Macrofauna World NT Brazil SP Japi
Porifera 219I 65I 44II 6II -
Cnidaria 13III ? 8IV 7IV 1
Platyhelminthes 1303V 150V 84VI 81VI 2
Nemertea 22VII 4VII 2VIII 1VIII 1
Nematoda 1801IX 281IX ? ? 1
Nematomorpha 326X 32X 10XI 1XI 1
Bryozoa 88XII 30XII 10XIII 6XIII -
Bivalvia 1026XIV 226XIV 115XV 44XV 1
Gastropoda 4000XVI 533XVI 193XVII 70XVII 1
Polychaeta 168XVIII 53XVIII 4XIX 3XIX 1
Olighochaeta 806XX 178XX 70XXI 46XXI 1
Acari 6149XXII 1330XXII 332XXIII 20XXIII 1
Isopoda 942XXII 109XXII 20XXIV ? 1
Amphipoda 1866XXII 127XXII ? ? 1
Decapoda 2832XXII 513XXII 116XXV 33XXV 3
Collembola 103XXII 28XXII 5XXVI ? 3
Insecta 75874XXII 8594XXII 3464XXVII 330XXVII* 97
Pisces 12740XXVIII 5546XXVIII 2060XXIX 121XXX 31XXXI
Amphibia - Anura 3978XXXII 1661XXXII 849XXXIII 225XXXIV 31XXXV
TOTAL 114256 19460 7342 984 178
% of Japi biodiversity 0.2% 0.9% 0.4% 17.9%

For the macroinvertebrate groups whose identification was more refined (Crustacea and Insecta), the importance of Japi Mountain for the conservation of Brazilian aquatic biodiversity is more evident because the area helps maintain 50% of the families and 25% of the freshwater Decapoda and Insecta genera of Brazil (Tables 2 and 5).

Table 5. Number of families and genera of the most abundant aquatic macroinvertebrates sampled in Japi Mountain, showing worldwide, national and local data. References: IBalian et al. (2008); IIMelo (2003); IIIDe Grave et al. (2008); IVYeo et al. (2008); VBarber-James et al. (2008); VIMariano and Froehlich (2007); VIIFochetti and Tierno de Figueroa (2008); VIIILecci and Froehlich (2007); IXDe Moor and Ivanov (2008); XPaprocki et al. (2004); XIWagner et al. (2008); XIIPinho (2008); XIIIJäch and Balke (2008); XIVBenetti et al. (2006); ? scanty or inexistent data. 

Families Genera
Order World Brazil Japi World Brazil Japi
Decapoda 46I 7II 3 629III, IV 26II 3
Ephemeroptera 42V 10VI 5 400V 63VI 22
Plecoptera 16VII 2VIII 2 286VII 8VIII 6
Trichoptera 46IX 16X 12 610IX 51X 23
Diptera 29XI 23XII 13 ∼1389XI ? ?
Coleoptera 27XIII 11XIV 9 ∼730 ? ?

Analysing the geographical distribution of nine collected fish families, except for Poeciliidae and Cichlidae, Japi Mountain streams contribute to conserve the ichthyofauna restricted to the American continent, mainly Callichthyidae and Erythrinidae exclusive to South America (Table 3).

Although anurans are not a target in the collection methodology, they were occasionally caught with the fish. Tadpoles of this Centrolenidae species were collected in stream stretches located on Santa Marta Farm (CG1) and at Dog (CG2), outside the area destined to the Biological Reserve of Japi Mountain. From the data published, it is verified that Japi Mountain contributes to the preservation of approximately 14% (31 out of 225 species) of anuran amphibians recorded in São Paulo state (Table 4).

Discussion

The average values of physical and chemical measured parameters indicate that the water in the studied streams has little deleterious anthropic influence (based on values of CONAMA Resolution 357/2005) and the studied average variations may be a reflection of the spatial differences related to the conservation state of the stretches as well as natural characteristics of streams like order, morphology and geology of the microbasin. Slightly acid pH, typical of quartzite soils (Rodriguez and Shepherd, 1992), was probably the factor that influenced the average values of water pH between 5.8 to 6.7.

Considering the inventory done by Biota Project FAPESP (Steiner and Amaral, 1999), it is possible to infer that Japi Mountain is an important area to conserve unique species described for the state of São Paulo, like Nemertea Prostoma eilhardi (Montgomeri, 1894) (Forneris, 1999b) and Nematomorpha Paragordius flavescens Linstow, 1906 (Forneris, 1999c), even with the low identification resolution of some less abundant taxa. Besides the validity of the record of Temnocephalida order for the state, not cited by the Biota project (Forneris, 1999a), when contributing to the preservation of this group, Japi streams help to maintain the ecological ectosymbiosis relation between temnocephalida and crustraceans of the Aegla (Amato et al., 2003) and Trichodactylus genera (Amato et al., 2006). Still using the Biota Project FAPESP inventory results (Steiner and Amaral, 1999), Japi Mountain also collaborates for the conservation of freshwater polychaete of the Stratiodrilus genus, and it is possible to suggest that S. arreliai Amaral & Morgado, 1997 is present in Japi, considering only the distribution information (proximity to Jaraguá peak) and hosts (Aegla sp.).

Regarding genera and species of crustacean and insects recorded only in Brazil, Japi Mountain streams stand out in the maintenance of the crustaceans Aegla paulensis (Bond-Buckup et al., 2008) and Macrobrachium iheringi (Coelho and Ramos-Porto, 1984), the Ephemeroptera Tupiara (Salles et al., 2003), the Plecoptera Kempnyia and Guaranyperla (Lecci & Froelich 2007) and the Trichoptera Mexitrichia (Flint et al., 1999).

Out of 121 fish species of streams recorded in the Atlantic Forest area in São Paulo state (Menezes et al., 2007), 31 species (25%) were recorded in Japi Mountain (Rolla et al., 2012). In our study, ichthyofauna sampled in 8 streams represented a high percentage of orders (67%), families (82%), genera (50%) and species (47%) also surveyed by Rolla (2008) at fifteen collection stations of Japi Mountain.

Brazilian freshwater fishes are classified in nine orders, six of which occur in the streams of the Atlantic Forest (Oyakawa et al., 2006; Menezes et al., 2007). Characiformes, Siluriformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Synbranchiformes and Perciformes are broadly distributed worldwide and Gymnotiformes order presents distribution limited to Nearctic and Neotropical regions (Lévêque et al., 2008).

With identification refinement, it is noticed that Japi Mountain streams preserve broadly distributed genera and species nationwide (Callichthys callichthys, Trichomycterus, Rhamdia quelen, Astyanax, Hoplias malabaricus), species only distributed in the eastern and southeastern basins of the country (Phalloceros harpagos and Geophagus brasiliensis), and species limited to the basins of Alto Paraná, Tietê, Paraíba do Sul and Paranapanema rivers (Hypostomus ancistroides, Oligosarcus paranensis, Astyanax paranae, Characidium, Phalloceros reise) (Buckup et al., 2007; Lucinda, 2008). It is noteworthy to point out that Japi Mountain streams also collaborated to conserve endangered species of armored catfish in São Paulo state - Neoplecostomus paranensis and Pareiorhina cf rudolphi.

Although anurans are not a target in the collection methodology, they were occasionally caught with the fish. From four identified species (Table 3), Vitreorana eurygnatha deserves attention because it was believed to be extinct in the region (Ribeiro et al., 2005). Tadpoles of this Centrolenidae species were collected in stream stretches located on Santa Marta Farm (CG1) and at Dog (CG2), outside the area destined to the Biological Reserve of Japi Mountain. From the data published by Ribeiro et al. (2005) and Araújo et al. (2009), it is verified that Japi Mountain contributes to the preservation of approximately 14% (31 out of 225 species) of anuran amphibians recorded in São Paulo state (Table 4).

Concluding remarks - The Japi Mountain (Environmental Protection Areas of Jundiaí and Cabreúva municipalities) is effective in the conservation of aquatic fauna, comprising 138 taxonomic units and showing a rich and representative biodiversity of the freshwater fauna of the world (0.2%), Neotropical region (0.9%), Brazil (2.4%) and São Paulo state (17.9%). The streams of these Environmental Protection Areas help the conservation of taxa listed as vulnerable in the state of São Paulo, such as the fish species Neoplecostomus paranensis and Pareiorhina cf rudolphi. These areas also comprise important habitats for freshwater crustaceans, aquatic insects and fish of restrict distribution in South America and in restrict basins of Brazil. The importance of Japi Mountain for the conservation of stream fauna is also emphasised when the occurrence of unknown or believed to be extinct species in the studied streams, like the coleopteran Huleechius and the anuran Vitreorana eurygnatha, are considered. Thus, this species inventory emphasises the importance of conservation actions of the freshwater environments of this Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest.

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements - We are grateful to the “Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico” (CNPq – Process Number 142300/2007-1) for the financial support, the anonymous referees for the suggestion to the manuscript and all friends and biology students from Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas (PUC Campinas) who helped us in the field and laboratory procedures.

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Received: December 12, 2012; Accepted: February 20, 2013

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