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Brazilian Journal of Biology

Print version ISSN 1519-6984

Braz. J. Biol. vol.74 no.3 supl.1 São Carlos Aug. 2014

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.19313 

Biology

First record of the occurrence of Ceratium furcoides (Levander) Langhans (Dinophyceae) in the Upper Paraná River Floodplain (PR/MS), Brazil

S Jatia  * 

LC Rodriguesa 

JC Bortolinib 

ACM Paulac 

GA Morescoc 

LM Reisc 

BF Zancoc 

S Trainb 

aNúcleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura – Nupélia, Universidade Estadual de Maringá – UEM, Av. Colombo, 5790, Bloco H-90, CEP 87020-900, Maringá, PR, Brazil

bPós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais – PEA, Universidade Estadual de Maringá – UEM, Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900, Maringá, PR, Brazil

cGraduação em Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual de Maringá – UEM, Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900, Maringá, PR, Brazil

Genus Ceratium Schrank (Dinophyta) is among the plankton species regarded as exotic in Brazil. The species presents asymmetry and flattening mesophyll cell, as well as an elongated apical horn and two to three antapical and cingulate equatorial with spiral dislocation. Ceratium furcoides (Levander) Langhans differ from the remaining best represented species due to its conical apical horn formed with four plates, these three extending to the apex, whereas the fourth plate (4′) has its reduced size and does not reach the apex (Popovský and Pfiester, 1990).

This taxon was detected in samples of total and net phytoplankton. These samples were collected at several lotic and lentic environments of the Upper Paraná River Floodplain (53°10′W 22°40′S – 53°21′W – 22°50′S), as part of the Ecological Long-Term Research Programme (CNPq/PELD - site 6) sampling, in December 2012 and June 2013 (Table 1). The individuals identified presented metric thresholds, morphology and tabulating of the thecal plates (Figure 1) in accordance with the diagnosis by Popovský and Pfiester (1990). The measurements recorded for the specimens were 147.6 to 184.5 µm long and 36.9 to 49.2 µm wide.

Figure 1. Ceratium furcoides. a: Dorsal view showing the short plate 4′; b-c: Ventral view showing the short plate 4′; d: Lateral view. 

Table 1. Location of sampling sites, occurrence and relative density of Ceratium furcoides (Levander) Langhans in the Upper Paraná River Floodplain. 

Sampling sites Geographic coordinates Occurrence date Density (% total)
Osmar Lake 22°46′26.64″S; 53°19′56.16″ December/2012 57 ind.mL–1 - 0,14%
Garças Lake 22°43′27.18″S; 53°13′ 4.56″W December/2012 June/2012 Occurred only in the net sample
Pau -Véio Lake 22°44′50.76″S; 53°15′11.16″W December/2012 Occurred only in the net sample
Paraná River 22°45′39.96″S; 53°15′ 7.44″W December/2012 Occurred only in the net sample
Guaraná Lake 22°43′16.68″S; 53°18′ 9.24″W June/2013 Occurred only in the net sample
Fechada Lake 22°42′37.92″S; 53°16′33.06″W June/2013 24 ind.mL–1 - 0,43%

The occurrence of this genus is regarded as rare in the country (Oliveira et al., 2011), although the genus dispersion and development in several Brazilian watersheds have already been recorded, indicating an expansion process of geographical distribution. The occurrence of taxon Ceratium furcoides in Brazil was recorded in studies by Santos-Wisniewski et al. (2007) and Silva et al. (2012), for the Furnas reservoir in Minas Gerais, Matsumura-Tundisi et al. (2010), for Billings Dam, state of São Paulo, Oliveira et al. (2011), in rivers and reservoirs of the states of Alagoas, Bahia, Pernambuco and Sergipe, and Cavalcante et al. (2013), for rivers and reservoirs of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul.

Since the Upper Paraná River Floodplain is the last stretch free of impoundments in this river, there are preservation areas with high aquatic biodiversity. The record of this species in natural environments and in conservation areas is unprecedented and a cause for concern. Although it occurred in low densities and biomass, its monitoring is necessary for a better understanding of the dynamics of its population in order to prevent and manage potential environmental issues.

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the Núcleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aqüicultura (Nupélia) at the Universidade Estadual de Maringá for logistic support; CNPq/PELD for financial support.

References

CAVALCANTE, KP., ZANOTELLI, JC., MULLER, CC., SCHERER, KD., FRIZZO, JK., LUDWIG, TAV. and CARDOSO, LS., 2013. First record of expansive Ceratium Schrank, 1793 species (Dinophyceae) in Southern Brazil, with notes on their dispersive patterns in Brazilian environments. Check List, vol. 9, no. 4, p. 862-866. [ Links ]

MATSUMURA -TUNDISI, T., TUNDISI, JG., LUZIA, AP. and DEGANI, RM., 2010. Occurrence of Ceratium furcoides (Levander) Langhans 1925 bloom at the Billings Reservoir, São Paulo State, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology, vol. 70, no. 3, sup. Suppl, p. 825-829. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842010000400013. PMid:21085787. [ Links ]

OLIVEIRA, HSB., MOURA, AN. and CORDEIRO-ARAÚJO, MK., 2011. First record of Ceratium Schrank, 1973 (Dinophyceae: Ceratiaceae) in freshwater ecosystems in the semiarid región of Brazil. Checklist: Journal of species lists and distribution, vol. 7, no. 5, p. 626-628. [ Links ]

POPOVSK Ý, J. and PFIESTER, LA.,1990. Dinophyceae (Dinoflagellida). In ETTL, H., Gärtner, G., Heynig, H. and Möllenhauer, D. (Eds.). Sübwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Jena: Gustav Fischer Verlag. p. 1-272. [ Links ]

SANTOS -WISNIEWSKI, MJ., SILVA, LC., LEONE, IC., LAUDARES-SILVA, R. and ROCHA, O., 2007. First record of the occurrence of Ceratium furcoides (Levander) Langhans 1925, an invasive species in the hydroelectricity power plant Furnas Reservoir, MG, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology, vol. 67, no. 4, p. 791-793. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842007000400033. PMid:18278340. [ Links ]

SILVA, LC., LEONE, IC., SANTOS -WISNIEWSKI, MJ., PERET, AC. and ROCHA, O., 2012. Invasion of the dinoflagellate Ceratium furcoides (levander) Langhans 1925 at tropical reservoir and its relation to environmental variables. Biota Neotropica, vol. 12, no. 2, p. 93-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032012000200010. [ Links ]

Received: October 15, 2013; Accepted: December 9, 2013; Revised: November 30, 2014

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