SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.75 issue3Axillary bud and pericycle involved in the thickening process of the rhizophore nodes in Smilax speciesCommunity ecology of the metazoan parasites of Brazilian sardinella, Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879) (Actinopterygii: Clupeidae) from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand

Journal

Article

Indicators

Related links

Share


Brazilian Journal of Biology

Print version ISSN 1519-6984On-line version ISSN 1678-4375

Braz. J. Biol. vol.75 no.3 São Carlos Aug. 2015  Epub Sep 25, 2015

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.23313 

Articles

Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil

Ácaros de pena (Acari: Astigmata) associados com aves em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica no Nordeste do Brasil

HM Silva a   *  

FA Hernandes b  

M Pichorim a  

aLaboratório de Ornitologia, Departamento de Botânica, Ecologia e Zoologia – DBEZ, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte – UFRN, Campus Central, 3000, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59072-970, Natal, RN, Brazil

bDepartamento de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" – UNESP, Bela Vista, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP, Brazil

Abstract

The present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata) and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fifteen feather mite taxa could be identified to the species level, sixteen to the genus level and three to the subfamily level, distributed into the families Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae, Pteronyssidae, Xolalgidae, Trouessartiidae, Falculiferidae and Gabuciniidae. Hitherto unknown associations between feather mites and birds were recorded for eleven taxa identified to the species level, and nine taxa were recorded for the first time in Brazil. The number of new geographic records, as well as the hitherto unknown mite-host associations, supports the high estimates of diversity for feather mites of Brazil and show the need for research to increase knowledge of plumicole mites in the Neotropical region.

Keywords:  hosts; ectosymbionts; prevalence; community; Rio Grande do Norte

Resumo

O presente estudo reporta associações entre ácaros (Astigmata) e aves em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Em laboratório, ácaros foram coletados através de examinação visual de aves recentemente mortas. No total, 172 indivíduos de 38 espécies de aves foram examinados entre Outubro de 2011 e Julho de 2012. A prevalência de ácaros na comunidade de aves foi de 80,8%, correspondendo a 139 indivíduos infestados distribuídos em 30 espécies e 15 famílias de hospedeiros. Quinze táxons de ácaros de pena foram identificados em nível de espécie, dezesseis em nível de gênero e três em nível de subfamília, distribuídos nas famílias Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae, Pteronyssidae, Xolalgidae, Trouessartiidae, Falculiferidae and Gabuciniidae. Associações ainda não conhecidas entre ácaros e aves foram registradas para onze táxons identificados em nível específico, e nove táxons foram registrados pela primeira vez no Brasil. O número de novos registros geográficos, assim como as associações ácaro-hospedeiro até então desconhecidas, suportam as altas estimativas de diversidade de ácaros de pena e apontam a necessidade de mais pesquisas que ampliem o conhecimento dos ácaros plumícolas da região Neotropical.

Palavras-chave:  ectossimbiontes; prevalência; comunidade; Rio Grande do Norte

1 Introduction

Feather mites (Astigmata: Analgoidea and Pterolichoidea) occur in every order of birds worldwide (Gaud and Atyeo, 1996; Mironov and Proctor, 2008). They inhabit the skin (dermicoles), the surface of feathers (plumicoles) or the inner calamus (syringicoles) (Proctor, 2003). Many species exhibit high host specificity resulting from, among other reasons, their morphological and physiological adaptations to the structure of feathers and the transmission mechanism between parents and offspring, pairs, or through any behavior that promotes contact between hosts (Proctor and Owens, 2000; Proctor, 2003). Thus, each group of birds generally has a distinct acarofauna at some taxonomic level (Gaud and Atyeo, 1976, 1996).

In Brazil, a country that harbors one of the richest avifaunas in the world (ca. 1800 species), knowledge of feather mite species is inversely proportional to host diversity (Valim et al., 2011). Several recent systematic and taxonomic studies have contributed to knowledge of the Brazilian feather mites (e. g. Hernandes and Valim, 2005, 2006; Valim and Hernandes, 2006, 2008, 2010; Hernandes et al., 2007; Mironov et al., 2008; Valim et al., 2011; Hernandes, 2012, 2013a, b). Among the main studies aimed at identifying and inventorying feather mites in country are those carried on Cerrado areas (wooded grasslands) in the Central Brazil (Kanegae et al., 2008; Enout et al., 2012). In the Northeast region, few investigations in the Atlantic Forest contributed to the knowledge of mites associated with passerines (Roda and Farias, 1999) and, more specifically, to the family Emberizidae (Lyra-Neves et al., 2003).

In light of the limited knowledge of feather mites associated with the Brazilian avifauna, especially in the Northeast, the aim of this study is to survey the feather mites associated with birds from a fragment of seasonal deciduous Atlantic Forest.

2 Materials and Methods

Mites were collected from freshly killed birds from Olho D’água Forest, located in the municipality of Macaíba, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil (270 ha, 5°53’S and central coordinates 35°23’W, 40m average altitude). The collection of birds was authorized by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA) under permanent zoological material collection license number 19849-1 (authentication code: 28111788; date of issue: 27/04/2009).

Mites were searched for over the entire length of each specimen’s body (head, dorsum, venter, wings and tail), under stereoscope. Samples were removed and preserved in 70% alcohol for subsequent mounting and identification. Mites from the suborder Astigmata were mounted on glass slides in Hoyer’s medium (Flechtmann, 1975) and identified to the lowest possible level with the aid of keys of Gaud and Atyeo (1996) and subsequent literature (e.g. Mironov, 2004; Hernandes et al., 2007; Mironov and González-Acuña, 2011; Hernandes, 2012, 2013a, b). Authorities of acarine species are included in Table 1; bird nomenclature followed the CRBO (2011). All birds were taxidermied and deposited in the Ornithological Collection of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN). Feather mites were deposited in the mite collection of the Department of Zoology, São Paulo State University, Rio Claro, SP. The prevalence of mites was calculated according to Bush et al. (1997).

Table 1 Associations between feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) and birds from Olho D’água Forest, Macaíba, Rio Grande do Norte (RN), Brazil, examined between October 2011 and July 2012. 

Birds NE % Feather Mites Taxonomic Literature
Acciptridae 1 0
Buteo brachyurus Vigors 1 0 - -
Caprimulgidae 2 100
Hydropsalis albicollis (Gmelin) 2 100 Gabuciniidae Paragabuciniabrasiliensis Hernandes1,2 Hernandes (2014b)
Columbidae 1 100
Leptotila verreauxi Bonaparte 1 100 Falculiferidae Falculifer leptotilaeGaud and Barré1 Gaud and Barré (1992)
Picidae 5 100
Picumnus fulvescens Stager 5 100 Analgidae Analges sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Psoroptoididae Picalgoidessp.2 Mironov (2004)
Pteronyssidae Ramphastobius scutatusHernandes2 Hernandes (2012)
Trouessartiidae TrouessartiapicumniHernandes Hernandes (2014a)
Trochilidae 8 75
Amazilia fimbriata (Gmelin) 3 100 Analgidae Protalginae Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Proctophyllodidae Xynonodectes sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Allodectes amaziliaePark and Atyeo1 Park and Atyeo (1972)
Trochilodectes mucronatus Park and Atyeo2 Park and Atyeo (1974)
Toxerodectes sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Anopetia gounellei (Boucard) 2 100 Proctophyllodidae Allodectes sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Chlorostilbon notatus (Reich) 1 100 Analgidae Protalginae Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Proctophyllodidae Trochilodectessp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Xynonodectes sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Allodectes sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Toxerodectes sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & Delattre) 1 0 - -
Phaethornis ruber (Linnaeus) 1 0 - -
Trogonidae 2 50
Trogon curucui Linnaeus 2 50 Proctophyllodidae Proctophyllodinae Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Furnariidae 3 100
Synallaxis frontalis Pelzeln 1 100 Proctophyllodidae Tyrannidectes sp. Mironov and González-Acuña (2011)
Synallaxis scutata Sclater 2 100 Proctophyllodidae Tyrannidectes sp. Mironov and González-Acuña (2011)
Proctophyllodidae Nycteridocaulussp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Psoroptoididae Mesalgoides sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Trouessartiidae Trouessartia sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Xolalgidae Ingrassiinae Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Parulidae 16 100
Basileuterus culicivorus (Deppe) 6 100 Proctophyllodidae Amerodectes sp. Mironov and González-Acuña (2011)
Psoroptoididae Mesalgoides sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Trouessartiidae Trouessartia sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Basileuterus flaveolus (Baird) 10 100 Proctophyllodidae Amerodectes sp.
Nycteridocaulussp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Psoroptoididae Mesalgoides sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Trouessartiidae Trouessartia sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Xolalgidae Xolalgoides sp.1 Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Pipridae 8 100
Neopelma pallescens (Lafresnaye) 8 100 Proctophyllodidae Diproctophyllodes dielytra (Trouessart)2 Atyeo and Gaud (1968)
Mimicalges neopelmaeHernandes1,2 Hernandes (2013b)
Psoroptoididae Mesalgoides sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Trouessartiidae Trouessartia sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Rhynchocyclidae 20 100
Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye) 4 100 Proctophyllodidae Hemitriccodectes furcatus Hernandes1,2 Hernandes (2013a)
Trouessartiidae Trouessartia sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Hemitriccus striaticollis (Lafresnaye) 4 100 Proctophyllodidae Hemitriccodectes furcatus Hernandes2 Hernandes (2013a)
Tolmomyias flaviventris (Wied) 12 100 Proctophyllodidae Tyranniphyllodessp.2 Hernandes et al. (2007)
Nycteridocaulus pectinatus Atyeo Atyeo (1966)
Trouessartiidae Trouessartia sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Thamnophilidae 34 61.7
Formicivora grisea (Boddaert) 15 80 Proctophyllodidae Nanopterodectessp. Mironov et al. (2008)
Proctophyllodinae Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Trouessartiidae Calcealges formicivorae Hernandes1,2 Hernandes (2014b)
Taraba major (Vieillot) 1 0 - -
Thamnophilus pelzelni Hellmayr 18 50 Proctophyllodidae Nanopterodectes formicivorae (Mironov)2 Mironov et al. (2008)
Thraupidae 16 93.7
Dacnis cayana (Linnaeus) 2 100 Analgidae Analges sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Proctophyllodidae Amerodectes sp. Mironov and González-Acuña (2011)
Proctophyllodessp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Psoroptoididae Mesalgoides sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Lanio pileatus (Wied) 1 0 - -
Tachyphonus rufus (Boddaert) 12 100 Proctophyllodidae Amerodectes sp. Mironov and González-Acuña (2011)
Trouessartiidae Trouessartia sp.
Tangara cayana (Linnaeus) 1 100 Proctophyllodidae Amerodectes tangarae(Mironov) Mironov et al. (2008)
Troglodytidae 6 100
Cantorchilus longirostris (Vieillot) 6 100 Proctophyllodidae Amerodectes sp. Mironov and González-Acuña (2011)
Trouessartiidae Trouessartia sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Turdidae 14 78.5
Turdus amaurochalinus Cabanis 12 75 Proctophyllodidae Amerodectes turdinus(Berla) Valim and Hernandes (2006)
Proctophyllodessp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Trouessartiidae Trouessartia sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Turdus leucomelas Vieillot 2 100 Proctophyllodidae
Trouessartiidae Trouessartia sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Tyrannidae 26 76.9
Camptostoma obsoletum (Temminck) 1 100 Proctophyllodidae Proctophyllodinae Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Trouessartiidae Trouessartia sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Casiornis fuscus Sclater & Salvin 1 0 - -
Cnemotriccus fuscatus (Wied) 11 100 Proctophyllodidae Amerodectes sp. Mironov and González-Acuña (2011)
Nycteridocaulus bilobatus Atyeo1,2 Atyeo (1966)
Psoroptoididae Mesalgoides sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Trouessartiidae Trouessartia sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Xolalgidae Ingrassiinae Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Elaenia chilensis Hellmayr 7 42.8 Proctophyllodidae Anisophyllodes candango Hernandes et al.2 Hernandes et al. (2007)
Amerodectes sp. Mironov and González-Acuña (2011)
Trouessartiidae TrouessartiaelaeniaMironov and González-Acuña Mironov and González-Acuña (2013)
Elaenia spectabilis Pelzeln 4 100 Proctophyllodidae Amerodectes sp. Mironov and González-Acuña (2011)
Trouessartiidae Trouessartia sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Euscarthmus meloryphus Wied 1 0 - -
Myiopagis viridicata (Vieillot) 1 100 Proctophyllodidae Nycteridocaulus foliatus Atyeo1,2 Atyeo (1966)
Amerodectes sp. Mironov and González-Acuña (2011)
Trouessartiidae Trouessartia sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Vireonidae 10 40
Hylophilus amaurocephalus (Nordmann) 6 50 Proctophyllodidae Amerodectes sp. Mironov and González-Acuña (2011)
Trouessartiidae Trouessartia sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Xolalgidae Xolalgoides sp. Gaud and Atyeo (1996)
Cyclarhis gujanensis (Gmelin) 1 100 Proctophyllodidae Amerodectes sp. Mironov and González-Acuña (2011)
Vireo olivaceus (Linnaeus) 3 0 - -
Total 172 80.8

NE: number of birds examined; %: Prevalence.

1: feather mite recorded for the first time in Brazil.

2: previously unknown association. The first five families (Accipitridae to Trogonidae) are non-Passeriformes, and the remainders are Passeriformes. Gaud and Atyeo (1996) was used to identify most taxa to family and genus; literature used to identify to species is indicated in the far right column.

3 Results

A total of 172 birds belonging to 38 species (28 Passeriformes and ten non-Passeriformes) were examined (Table 1). The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of host birds (Table 1). Three new species of the genera Trouessartia, Calcealges, and Paragabucinia were described based on material collected in this study (Hernandes, 2014a, 2014b, 2015).

Fifteen mite taxa were identified at the species level, sixteen at genus level and three only at subfamily level, distributed into the superfamilies Analgoidea (families Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae, Pteronyssidae, Xolalgidae and Trouessartiidae) and Pterolichoidea (families Falculiferidae and Gabuciniidae). Among undetermined species, most of which are probably still undescribed, are representatives of the genera Amerodectes (Proctophyllodidae) and Trouessartia (Trouessartiidae), including estimated thirteen and ten new species, respectively (Table 1).

The most prevalent feather mite family in the bird community was Proctophyllodidae (71.5%), with 13 taxa found in association with 26 host species, followed by Trouessartiidae (45.9%), found on 17 host species, and Psoroptoididae (16.2%), found on six and one species of Passeriformes and Piciformes, respectively; the remaining families had a prevalence of less than 5%. The family Proctophyllodidae was found in association with all Passeriformes examined, in addition to the non-passerine families Trochilidae and Trogonidae (Table 1).

Species of the genus Trouessartia were recovered from 72 birds (41.9%), followed by species of the genus Amerodectes, reported in 65 birds (37.8%), Nycteridocaulus and Mesalgoides, associated with 30 and 23 individuals (17.4% and 13.4%, respectively). The remaining taxa showed a prevalence of less than 10% (Table 2).

Table 2 Absolute frequency (FA) and prevalence (%) of feather mite genera (Acari, Astigmata), at generic level, associated with birds from Olho D’água Forest, Macaíba, Rio Grande do Norte (RN), Brazil, examined between October 2011 and July 2012. 

Genera FA %
ANALGOIDEA Analgidae Analges 2 1.2
Proctophyllodidae Amerodectes 65 37.8
Allodectes 4 2.3
Anisophyllodes 2 1.2
Diproctophyllodes 8 4.7
Mimicalges 6 3.5
Nanopterodectes 17 9.9
Nycteridocaulus 30 17.4
Proctophyllodes 2 1.2
Toxerodectes 3 1.7
Trochilodectes 3 1.7
Tyrannidectes 3 1.7
Tyranniphyllodes 6 3.5
Xynonodectes 3 1.7
Psoroptoididae Mesalgoides 23 13.4
Picalgoides 5 2.9
Pteronyssidae Ramphastobius 5 2.9
Xolalgidae Xolalgoides 4 2.3
Trouessartiidae Trouessartia 72 41.9
Calcealges 7 4.1
PTEROLICHOIDEA Faculiferidae Faculifer 1 0.6
Gabuciniidae Paragabucinia 2 1.2

Hitherto unknown associations between feather mites and birds were recorded for eleven taxa identified to the species level, and nine taxa were recorded for the first time in Brazil (Table 1).

4 Discussion

The high prevalence of Proctophyllodidae, the most common feather mite family found on flight feathers of passerines, is often reported in inventory studies of feather mites (Lyra-Neves et al., 2003; Kanegae et al., 2008; Enout et al., 2012), and may be due to the wide range of species associated with passerines and hummingbirds (Valim and Hernandes, 2010; Enout et al., 2012), as well as the ecology of their representatives. The family usually inhabits the ventral and dorsal portions of remiges and rectrices, which are easy-to-sample microhabitats for those examining birds (Proctor, 2003). Another reason why proctophyllodids, and in fact also trouessartiids are so frequently reported is that the most common method for capturing birds in ornithological surveys, i.e., mistnets, is often biased to capture passerines (Passeriformes) and hummingbirds (Apodiformes). In addition, field ornithologists often collect wing feathers for ectoparasites, which are the natural habitat of mites of these families.

The subfamily Proctophyllodinae was represented in this study by a considerable number of species. Anisophyllodes candango, described from Elaenia chiriquensis in the Central Brazil (Hernandes et al., 2007), was recorded for the first time also on E. chilensis, confirming its relationship with the subfamily Elaeniinae (Tyrannidae). Diproctophyllodes dielytrais known for its association with Pipridae (Valim et al., 2011), and is herein reported from another bird of this family, Neopelma pallescens. Also from the latter host, Mimicalges neopelmae was recently described (Hernandes, 2013a) based on specimens collected in the present study.

Species of Nycteridocaulus were hosted by five bird species belonging to four families in the present study. Among the eight described species of the genus, three were recovered in the present study: N. pectinatus on Tolmomyas flaviventris, confirming the association originally reported in Trindad (Atyeo, 1966); N. bilobatus on Cnemotriccus fuscatus; and N. foliatus, on Myiopagis viridicata, the last two hosts are reported for the first time in such associations. Other undetermined species of this genus were associated with Basileuterus flaveolus and Synallaxis scutata, previously reported as hosts of Nycteridocaulus tyranni, in Central Brazil (Kanegae et al., 2008). Those two species are herein regarded as new to science.

The species of the subfamily Pterodectinae, Hemitriccodectes furcatus, was found on both Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer and H. striaticollis (Hernandes, 2013b). Species of the genera Allodectes, Toxerodectes, Trochilodectes, and Xynonodectes, all of them restricted to hummingbirds (Trochilidae) (Park and Atyeo, 1975), are herein reported for the first time in association with these birds (Table 1).

The family Trouessartiidae was widely distributed among the bird species studied. Calcealges formicivorae was recently described from Formicivora grisea (Hernandes, 2015). Despite the wide occurrence of species of Trouessartia in association with around ten previously documented families of Passeriformes in the country, their occurrence in the families Rhynchocyclidae and Vireonidae were hitherto unknown, and widens the knowledge of their host groups. One species of this genus, T. picumni Hernandes, was recently described from Picumnus temmincki, being the first species of this genus to be described from a non-passerine host (Hernandes, 2014a).

In Brazil, three genera of Pteronyssidae are known to be associated with the families Picidae and Ramphastidae (Pterotrogus, Pteronyssoides and Ramphastobius). The genus Pterotrogus was registered in species of Piciformes and Apodiformes in the Federal District, Amazonas, Rio Grande do Sul, and São Paulo (Valim et al., 2011; Hernandes, 2012); and Pteronyssoides was reported on Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (Hirundinidae) in Pernambuco and Tocantins (Roda and Farias, 1999; Enout et al., 2012). Ramphastobius sp. was recorded on a host of the family Ramphastidae in Paraná and Amazonas (Valim et al., 2011), and the recently described species, R. scutatus, previously known only from Picumnus cirratus (type-host), is herein reported on P. fulvescens.

The family Gabuciniidae is represented in Brazil by two species: Piciformobia guirae Alzuet, Cicchino and Abrahamovich, found on Guira guira (Cuculidae) in São Paulo state; and Tocolichus allepimerus Gaud and Atyeo, which has Selenidera maculirostris (Ramphastidae) as type-host, reported in Santa Catarina state (Valim et al., 2011). The family was cited for the last time by Alzuet et al. (1988), and here, one recently described species of Paragabucinia, P. brasiliensis Hernandes was found on Hydropsalis albicollis (Caprimulgidae) (Hernandes, 2014b).

In recent years, the few studies in Brazil investigating the association between arthropods and birds were conducted at the family or genus level (e.g. Marini et al., 1996; Roda and Farias, 1999; Lyra-Neves et al., 2003; Roda and Farias, 2007). The lack of research dealing with specific relationships points to the little attention paid to collecting samples for taxonomic studies, as well as the scarcity of specialists (Arzua and Valim, 2010). However, recent taxonomic efforts have slowly contributed to increase the knowledge of the group (e.g. Hernandes and Valim, 2005, 2006; Hernandes et al., 2007; Mironov et al., 2008; Valim and Hernandes, 2008, 2010).

The species richness of feather mites in Brazil is estimated to be at least five times greater than that currently known (Valim et al., 2011). The number of new geographic records, as well as the hitherto unknown mite-host associations reported in the present study, supports these estimates and shows the need for research to increase knowledge of plumicole mites in the Neotropical region.

Acknowledgements

We thank the staff of the Laboratory of Ornithology of UFRN, especially Matheus Meira, Tonny Marques, Guilherme Toledo, Phoeve Macário, Priscila Sabino, Victor Fernandes, Thanyria Câmara, Damião Valdenor de Oliveira, Elaine Bandeira and Ismael Queiroz for their essential support in field work during collection. HMS was funded by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), and FAH was funded by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP 2011/50145-0, 2011/20805-8).

References

Alzuet, AB., Cicchino, AC. and Abrahamovich, AH., 1988. Consideraciones taxonómicas y relaciones hospedatorias de los géneros Coraciacarus Dubinin 1956, Gaud y Atyeo 1975 y Gaud y Atyeo 1975 (Acari, Astigmata, Gabuciniidae), con descripción de tres nuevas especies. PiciformobiaCapitolichusRevista de la Asociación de Ciencias Naturales del Litoral, vol. 19, no. 1, p. 49-67. [ Links ]

Arzua, M. and Valim, MP., 2010. Bases para o estudo qualitativo e quantitativo em aves. In VON MATTER, S., STRAUBE, FC., PIACENTINI, VQ., ACCORDI, IA. and CÂNDIDO JUNIOR, JF. (Eds.). Ornitologia e conservação: ciência aplicada, técnicas de pesquisa e levantamento. Rio de Janeiro: Technical Books. p. 347-366. [ Links ]

Atyeo, WT., 1966. A new genus and six new species of feather mites primarily from Tyranni (Acarina: Proctophyllodidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 39, no. 3, p. 481-492. [ Links ]

Atyeo, WT. and Gaud, J., 1968. Two feather mite genera (Analgoidea, Proctophyllodidae) from birds of the families Oxyruncidae and Pipridae (Passeriformes, Tyranni). Bulletin of the Nebraska State Museum, vol. 8, p. 209-215. [ Links ]

Bush, AO., Lafferty, KD., Lotz, JM. and Shostak, AW., 1997. Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. The Journal of Parasitology, vol. 83, no. 4, p. 575-583. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3284227. PMid:9267395. [ Links ]

Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos – CRBO, 2011. Listas das aves do Brasil. São Paulo: Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos. 37 p. [ Links ]

Enout, AMJ., Lobato, DNC., Diniz, FC. and Antonini, Y., 2012. Chewing lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera) and feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds of the Cerrado in Central Brazil. Parasitology Research, vol. 111, no. 4, p. 1731-1742. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-012-3016-5. PMid:22773045. [ Links ]

Flechtmann, CHW., 1975. Elementos de acarologia. São Paulo: Livraria Nobel. 344 p. [ Links ]

Gaud, J. and Atyeo, WT., 1976. Discordances entre les aires de répartition géographique des parasites et celles de leurs hôtes chez les sarcoptiformes plumicoles. Acarologia, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 329-344. PMid:1020635. [ Links ]

Gaud, J. and Barré, N., 1992. Falculiferidae (Astigmata, Pterolichoidea) parasites de oiseaux Columbiformes des Antilles II. Le genre Falculifer.Acarologia, vol. 33, no. 4, p. 367-375. [ Links ]

Gaud, J. and Atyeo, WT., 1996. Feather mites of the world (Acarina, Astigmata): the supraspecific taxa (Part. I). Annales du Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, vol. 277, p. 1-187. [ Links ]

Hernandes, FA. and Valim, MP., 2005. A new species of Robin, 1877 (Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) from the palebreasted thrush, Turdus leucomelas (Passeriformes: Turdidae). PterodectesZootaxa, vol. 1081, p. 61-68. [ Links ]

Hernandes, FA. and Valim, MP., 2006. Two new species of the feather mite subfamily Pterodectinae (Acari: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from Brazil. Zootaxa, vol. 1235, p. 49-61. [ Links ]

Hernandes, FA., 2012. Two new feather mite species (Acari, Pteronyssidae) from the white-barred piculet, (Aves, Piciformes). Picumnus cirratusFolia Parasitologica, vol. 59, no. 4, p. 301-307. http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2012.042. PMid:23327012. [ Links ]

Hernandes, FA., 2013a. Three new proctophyllodine feather mites (Acari: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines in Brazil (Aves: Passeriformes). Journal of Natural History, vol. 47, p. 1-13. [ Links ]

Hernandes, FA., 2013b. A new genus and species of pterodectine feather mite (Acari: Proctophyllodidae) from Tod-Tyrants in Brazil (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae). Acta Parasitologica / Witold Stefański Institute of Parasitology, vol. 58, no. 3, p. 309-316. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-013-0153-7. PMid:23990427. [ Links ]

Hernandes, FA., 2014a. Five new species of the feather mite genus Canestrini from South America (Acari: Trouessartiidae). TrouessartiaZootaxa, vol. 3856, p. 50-72. [ Links ]

Hernandes, FA., 2014b. The feather mites of nightjars (Aves: Caprimulgidae), with descriptions of two new species from Brazil (Acari: Xolalgidae, Gabuciniidae). Folia Parasitologica, vol. 61, p. 173-181. [ Links ]

Hernandes, FA., 2015. Two new feather mites of the genus Gaud (Acari: Trouessartiidae) from antbirds (Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae) in Brazil. CalcealgesSystematic Parasitology, vol. 91, p. 241-252. [ Links ]

Hernandes, FA., Valim, MP. and Mironov, SV., 2007. Two new genera and five new species of the feather mite subfamily Proctophyllodinae (Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from suboscine birds in Brazil. Journal of Natural History, vol. 41, no. 41-44, p. 2653-2681. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222930701644718. [ Links ]

Kanegae, MF., Valim, M., Fonseca, MA., Marini, MÂ. and Freire, MNS., 2008. Ácaros plumícolas (Acari: Astigmata) em aves do Cerrado do Distrito Federal, Brasil. Biota Neotropica, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 31-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032008000100003. [ Links ]

Lyra-Neves, RM., Farias, AMI. and TELINO JÚNIOR, WR., 2003. Ecological relationships between feather mites (Acari) and wild birds of Emberizidae (Aves) in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, vol. 20, no. 3, p. 481-485. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-81752003000300019. [ Links ]

Marini, MA., Reinert, BL., Bornschein, MR., Pinto, JC. and Pichorim, MA., 1996. Ecological correlates of ectoparasitism on Atlantic Forest birds, Brazil. Ararajuba, vol. 4, p. 93-102. [ Links ]

Mironov, SV., 2004. Taxonomic notes on four genera of the feather mite subfamily Pandalurinae (Astigmata: Psoroptoididae). Acarina, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 3-16. [ Links ]

Mironov, SV., Literak, I. and Čapek, M., 2008. New feather mites of the subfamily Pterodectinae (Acari: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines (Aves: Passeriformes) in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Zootaxa, vol. 1947, p. 1-38. [ Links ]

Mironov, SV. and Proctor, HC., 2008. The probable association of feather mites of the genus Ingrassia (Analgoidea: Xolalgidae) with the blue penguin . Eudyptula minor (Aves: Sphenisciformes) in AustraliaThe Journal of Parasitology, vol. 94, no. 6, p. 1243-1248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1579.1. PMid:18576859. [ Links ]

Mironov, SV. and González-Acuña, D., 2011. New feather mites of the subfamily Pterodectinae (Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines (Aves: Passeriformes) from Chile and Cuba. Zootaxa, vol. 3057, p. 1-48. [ Links ]

Mironov, SV. and González-Acuña, D., 2013. New feather mite species of the genus Trouessartia Canestrini, 1899 (Acariformes: Trouessartiidae) from the white-crested elaenia Elaenia(Orbigney et Lafresnaye) (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae) in Chile. albicepsAcarina, vol. 21, p. 123-132. [ Links ]

Park, CK. and Atyeo, WT., 1972. The species of a new subfamily of feather mites, the Allodectinae (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae). Redia (Firenze), vol. 52, p. 653-678. [ Links ]

Park, CK. and Atyeo, WT., 1974. The pterodectine feather mites of hummingbirds: the genus Park and Atyeo. TrochilodectesJournal of the Georgia Entomological Society, vol. 9, p. 156-173. [ Links ]

Park, CK. and Atyeo, WT., 1975. The pterodectine feather mites of hummingbirds: the genus Park and Atyeo. XynonodectesJournal of the Georgia Entomological Society, vol. 10, p. 128-144. [ Links ]

Proctor, H. and Owens, I., 2000. Mites and birds: diversity, parasitism and coevolution. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol. 15, no. 9, p. 358-364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(00)01924-8. PMid:10931667. [ Links ]

Proctor, HC., 2003. Feather mites (Acari: Astigmata): ecology, behavior, and evolution. Annual Review of Entomology, vol. 48, no. 1, p. 185-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.48.091801.112725. PMid:12208818. [ Links ]

Roda, SA. and Farias, AMI., 1999. Ácaros plumícolas em aves Passeriformes da Zona da Mata Norte de Pernambuco, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, vol. 16, no. 3, p. 879-886. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-81751999000300025. [ Links ]

Roda, SA. and Farias, AMI., 2007. Ácaros plumícolas em beija-flores no município de Vicência, Pernambuco, Brasil. Lundiana, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 13-16. [ Links ]

Valim, MP. and Hernandes, FA., 2006. Redescriptions of four species of the feather mite genus Robin, 1877 (Acari: Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) described by Herbert F. Berla. PterodectesAcarina, vol. 14, p. 41-55. [ Links ]

Valim, MP. and Hernandes, FA., 2008. Redescriptions of five species of the feather mite genus Robin, 1877 (Acari: Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) with the proposal of a new genus and a new species. PterodectesAcarina, vol. 16, no. 2, p. 131-157. [ Links ]

Valim, MP. and Hernandes, FA., 2010. A systematic review of feather mites of the generic complex (Acari: Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) with redescriptions of species described by Vladimír Černý. PterodectesAcarina, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 3-35. [ Links ]

Valim, MP., Hernandes, FA. and Proctor, HC., 2011. Feather mites of Brazil (Acari: Astigmata: Analgoidea and Pterolichoidea). International Journal of Acarology, vol. 37, no. 4, p. 293-324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01647954.2010.519719. [ Links ]

Received: December 10, 2013; Accepted: March 10, 2014

Creative Commons License This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.