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Brazilian Journal of Biology

Print version ISSN 1519-6984On-line version ISSN 1678-4375

Braz. J. Biol. vol.76 no.4 São Carlos Oct./Dec. 2016  Epub June 27, 2016

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.06815 

Articles

Distribution and conservation of three important bird groups of the Atlantic Forest in north-east Brazil

Distribuição e conservação de três importantes grupos de aves na Floresta Atlântica do Nordeste do Brazil

G. A. Pereiraa  * 

H. F. P. Araújob 

S. M. Azevedo-Júniora 

aPrograma de Pós-graduação em Etnobiologia e Conservação da Natureza, Laboratório de Ornitologia, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco – UFRPE, Rua Dom Manuel de Medeiros, s/n, CEP 52171-900, Recife, PE, Brazil

bDepartamento de Ciências Biológicas, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal da Paraíba – UFPB, Campus Universitário, Rua Santa Rita, 130, CEP 58397-000, Areia, PB, Brazil

Abstract

The Pernambuco Endemism Center in north-east Brazil has the most fragmented forest cover and the largest number of threatened birds of the whole Atlantic Forest. We analyzed the distribution of three groups of bird species: forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened using the interpolation method of Inverse Distance Weighting. We also checked the concentration of these birds in protected and unprotected areas, suggesting new sites that need to be protected. The richness concentration of forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened birds in 123 sites were analysed. There was a greater concentration of the three groups in north Alagoas, south and north Pernambuco, and north and west Paraíba. The distribution of the three groups was almost regular in different vegetation types, although a lower concentration was found in the pioneer formation. There was a greater concentration of birds from all three groups between Pernambuco and Alagoas, and this must be due to the presence of more forest fragments with better structure and vegetation heterogeneity. The protected and unprotected areas hosted important records of endemic and/or threatened birds. We suggested some important places for implementation of new protected areas due to the larger concentrations of the target birds and because they are located within the boundaries of the Important Bird Areas.

Keywords:  neotropical birds; threatened birds; endemism; Atlantic Forest; conservation

Resumo

O Centro de Endemismo Pernambuco, situado no Nordeste do Brasil, é o setor mais fragmentado e com o maior número de aves ameaçadas de extinção de toda a Mata Atlântica. Foram analisadas as distribuições das aves florestais, endêmicas e/ou ameaçadas de extinção através do método da interpolação ‘Inverse Distance Weighting’. Também foi verificada a concentração dessas aves em áreas protegidas e não protegidas, sugerindo novas áreas que necessitam ser protegidas. Foi verificada a concentração da riqueza das espécies de aves florestais, endêmicas e ameaçadas em 123 locais. Houve uma maior concentração dos três grupos no norte de Alagoas, sul e norte de Pernambuco, e norte e oeste da Paraíba. A distribuição dos três grupos foi regular nos distintos tipos vegetacionais, apesar de uma menor concentração nas áreas de formação pioneira. Houve maior concentração das aves dos três grupos entre Pernambuco e Alagoas, devido, provavelmente a presença de uma maior quantidade de fragmentos florestais com melhor estrutura e heterogeneidade vegetal. Tanto as áreas protegidas como as não protegidas possuem importantes registros de aves endêmicas e ameaçadas. Sugerimos alguns locais importantes para a implementação de novas áreas protegidas, tendo como base as áreas com maiores concentrações dos três grupos de aves e dentro dos limites das Important Bird Areas.

Palavras-chave:  aves neotropicais; aves ameaçadas; endemismos; Mata Atlântica; conservação

1 Introduction

The Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the states of Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraíba and Rio Grande do Norte, known as Pernambuco Endemism Center (henceforth PEC) (Silva et al., 2004) retains just only 11.45% of its original vegetation cover (SOSMA, 2015), and is currently one of the most degraded areas of the whole dominium, considered a hotspot within another hotspot (Tabarelli et al., 2006), the entire Atlantic Forest (Myers et al., 2000).

Despite the high level of fragmentation, 434 bird species persist in the region (Roda et al., 2011), which has the highest number of threatened birds in Brazil, according to the last updated list of threatened birds (Brasil, 2014; IUCN, 2015). Then, some research related to the conservation of threatened birds was carried out in the region, e.g. Pauxi mitu, Glaucidium mooreorum, Terenura sicki, Philydor novaesi, Tangara fastuosa, etc (Silveira et al., 2003b, 2008; Roda et al., 2011).

This current alarming situation of the PEC has occurred due to the removal of the native vegetation (Olmos, 2005; Silveira et al., 2003a). Currently there are only 157 protected areas in the region (Paula, 2012), and probably many of these are not functional for conservation of endemic and/or threatened birds, as noted by Giorgi et al. (2014) in southeastern Atlantic Forest. There are also the Important Bird Areas (IBA henceforth) which are places of great importance due to the significant number of endemic and/or threatened bird species, and they ensure the long-term conservation of these birds and areas (Bencke et al., 2006). Throughout the region there are 42 IBAs, many of which overlap protected areas.

The understanding of the biogeographic aspects of birds in fragmented areas is a challenge, given the adverse factors caused by fragmentation (Lees and Peres, 2008), such as the consequent loss of habitat that leads many species to local extinction, mainly those restricted to certain habitats (Moura et al., 2014). Thus to evaluate the application of biogeographic principles related to the dynamics of avian distribution is an extremely useful tool in conservation planning (Whittaker et al., 2005; Giorgi et al., 2014).

The distribution of a living being in a region can be checked through the methods of ecological modeling. The Inverse Distance Weight (IDW henceforth) interpolation modeling technique has been shown to be very effective due to its accuracy in providing a real picture of actual and potential distribution (see Roberts et al., 2004; Abdi and Nandipati, 2009). Besides, this method is very accessible, easy to use, and uses linear combinations of weights at known points to estimate unknown localities values (Roberts et al., 2004).

Therefore, the aims of this study were: 1) Analyze the distribution of forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened birds along the entire length of the PEC using the IDW technique; 2) Verify how is the distribution of three groups of birds in the different vegetation types in the region; 3) Check the protected and unprotected areas that have higher concentrations of endemic and/or threatened birds; 4) suggest new areas within the limits of IBAs that could be turned into new protected areas according to the amount of endemic and/or threatened birds.

2 Material and Methods

2.1 Study area

The study was conducted in 123 sites of the Atlantic Forest of the Brazilian states of Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraíba and Rio Grande do Norte, known as PEC. This sector is covered by five vegetation type: open ombrophilous forest, dense ombrophilous forest, ecological tension zone, seasonal semideciduous forest and pioneer formation (IBGE, 2004) (Figure 1). The altitude reaches more than 900 m; the average temperature ranges from 24 to 26 °C, and the average annual rainfall is of 1,1180 mm, with the rains being more consistent in the west and in the highlands (IBGE, 1985).

Figure 1 Localities (black dots) where bird surveys, vegetation types and forest fragments of the Pernambuco Endemism Center were conducted. Phytophysiognomies: OOF – Open Ombrophilous Forest; DOF – Dense Ombrophilous Forest; ETZ – Ecological Tension Zone; SSF – Stational Semideciduous Forest; and PF – Pioneer Formation. 

2.2 Sampling

The database used in this work was provenient from the literature, authors’ fieldwork and records provided by other researchers. The target species are those dependent on forest environments (Roda, 2003, 2006), endemics of the PEC (Roda, 2003; Silveira et al., 2003a) and/or threatened birds mentioned in the Brazilian and global red list (Brasil, 2014; IUCN, 2015). The nomenclature of species follows the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee (Piacentini et al., 2015).

2.3 Data analysis

We utilized the deterministic IDW interpolation modeling technique to determine areas with higher concentrations (densities) of the target species. This method determines cell values using a linear-weighted combination set of sample points. The weight assigned is a function of the distance of an input point from the output cell locations (Childs, 2004). Thereby, weights diminish as the distance increases from the point sampled (Childs, 2004; Roberts et al., 2004; Abdi and Nandipati, 2009).

We used Environmental System Research Institute’s (ESRI) ArcGis 10.2.1 to create the density of the three bird groups’ distribution maps through the data provided by IDW technique. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey post-hoc test were utilized to compare the species richness of forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened birds with the different phytophysiogomies.

The occurrence of protected areas was consulted in the National Register of Protected Areas (http://www.mma.gov.br/areas-protegidas/cadastro-nacional-de-ucs), which is an updated database of the National System of Conservation Units (SNUC). The categories mentioned were: Biological Reserves (REBIO), State Parks (PE), Ecological Stations (ESEC), Municipal Parks (PM), Wildlife Refuges (RVS), Environmental Protection Area (APA), Private Reserves of Natural Heritage (RPPN) and Urban Forest Reserve (FURB) (SNUC, 2000). This last category was included in the system by law No. 14.324/2011 (Paula, 2012).

The IBAs of the northeastern Atlantic Forest cited in this work were those presented in Bencke et al. (2006).

3 Results

The species richness concentration of 171 forest-dependent, 26 endemic and 46 threatened birds were analysed (Table 1). The presence data of these bird groups were collected from 123 sites: 69 in Pernambuco, 40 in Alagoas, 11 in Paraíba and 03 in Rio Grande do Norte (see Figure 1). The information of these sites, phytophysiognomies and richness of the three groups are listed in the Table 2.

Table 1 List of the forest, endemic and/or threatened birds of the Pernambuco Endemism Center with their respective English names, vegetation types and threat categories. The names in bold represent the endemic birds of the Pernambuco Endemism Center. 

Taxon English Name Vegetation type Category of threat
MMA IUCN
Tinamus solitarius (Vieillot, 1819) Solitary Tinamou OOF
Crypturellus soui (Hermann, 1783) Little Tinamou OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Crypturellus strigulosus (Temminck, 1815) Brazilian Tinamou OOF
Penelope superciliaris alagoensis Nardelli, 1993 Rusty-margined Guan OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF CR
Ortalis araucuan (Spix, 1815) East Brazilian Chachalaca OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Odontophorus capueira plumbeicollis Cory, 1915 Spot-winged Wood-quail OOF,SSF,ETZ CR
Leptodon forbesi (Swann, 1922) White-collared Kite OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ EN CR
Chondrohierax uncinatus (Temminck, 1822) Hook-biled Kite OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Harpagus bidentatus (Latham, 1790) Doubled-toothed Kite OOF
Harpagus diodon (Temminck, 1823) Rufous-thighed Kite DOF,ETZ
Accipiter bicolor (Vieillot, 1817) Bicolored Hawk OOF,SSF ETZ
Pseudastur polionotus (Kaup, 1847) Mantled Hawk OOF, DOF, SSF
Buteo albonotatus Kaup, 1847 Zone-tailed Hawk OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820) Black Hawk-Eagle OOF,SSF,ETZ
Spizaetus melanoleucus (Vieillot, 1816) Black-and-White Hawk-Eagle SSF
Patagioenas speciosa (Gmelin, 1789) Scaled Pigeon OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Patagioenas cayennensis (Bonnaterre, 1792) Pale-vented Pigeon OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Leptotila rufaxilla (Richard & Bernard, 1792) Grey-fronted Dove OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Geotrygon violacea (Temminck, 1809) Violaceous Quail-Dove OOF
Geotrygon montana (Linnaeus, 1758) Ruddy Quail-Dove OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Megascops atricapilla (Temminck, 1822) Black-capped Screech-Owl OOF
Pulsatrix perspicillata (Latham, 1790) Spectacled Owl OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Strix virgata (Cassin, 1849) Mottled Owl OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Glaucidium mooreorum (Silva, Coelho & Gonzaga, 2002) Pernambuco Pygmy-Owl DOF EX CR
Nyctiphrynus ocellatus (Tschudi, 1844) Ocellated Poorwill OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Lurocalis semitorquatus (Gmelin, 1789) Short-tailed Nighthawk OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Glaucis hisurtus (Gmelin, 1788) Rufous-breasted Hermit OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Phaethornis ruber (Linnaeus, 1758) Reddish Hermit OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Phaethornis margarettae camargoi (Grantsau, 1988) Margaretta’s Hermit OOF,DOF,SSF CR
Florisuga fusca (Vieillot, 1817) Black Jacobin OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Lophornis magnificus (Vieillot, 1817) Frilled Coquette OOF,SSF
Discosura longicaudus (Gmelin, 1788) Racket-tailed Coquette OOF
Chlorestes notata (Reich, 1793) Blue-chinned Sapphire OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Thalurania watertonii (Bourcier, 1847) Long-tailed Woodnymph OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ EN EN
Hylocharis sapphirina (Gmelin, 1788) Ruphous-throated Sapphire OOF,DOF, SSF
Hylocharis cyanus (Vieillot, 1818) White-chinned Sapphire OOF,DOF,SSF
Heliothryx auritus (Gmelin, 1788) Black-eared Fairy OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Heliomaster squamosus (Temminck, 1823) Stripe-breasted Starthroat OOF,SSF
Calliphlox amethystina (Bodaert, 1783) Amethyst Woodstar OOF,SSF
Trogon viridis Linnaeus, 1766 White-tailed Trogon OOF,DOF,SSF
Trogon curucui Linnaeus, 1766 Blue-crowned Trogon OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Trogon rufus Gmelin, 1788 Black-throated Trogon OOF
Momotus momota marcgravianus Pinto & Camargo, 1961 Amazonian Motmot OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ EN
Galbula ruficauda Cuvier, 1816 Rufous-tailed Jacamar OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Ramphastos vitellinus ariel Vigors, 1826 Channel-billed Toucan OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ EN
Pteroglossus inscriptus Swainson, 1822 Lettered Aracari OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Pteroglossus aracari (Linnaeus, 1758) Black-nacked Aracari OOF,DOF,SSF
Picumnus pernambucensis Zimmer, 1947 Pernambuco Piculet OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Veniliornis affinis (Swainson, 1821) Red-stained Woodpecker OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Piculus flavigula (Bodaert, 1783) Yellow-throated Woodpecker OOF,DOF,SSF
Piculus chrysochloros (Vieillot, 1818) Golden-green Woodpecker OOF,DOF
Micrastur ruficollis (Vieillot, 1817) Barred Forest-Falcon OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Micrastur semitorquatus (Vieillot, 1817) Collared Forest-Falcon OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Brotogeris tirica (Gmelin, 1788) Plain Parakeet OOF,DOF,SSF
Touit surdus (Kuhl, 1820) Golden-tailed Parrotlet OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ VU VU
Pionus reichenowi Heine, 1844 Blue-headed Parrot OOF,DOF,SSF VU
Pionus maximiliani (Kuhl, 1820) Scaly-headed Parrot OOF,DOF
Amazona amazonica (Linnaeus, 1766) Orange-winged Parrot OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Terenura sicki Teixeira & Gonzaga, 1983 Orange-bellied Antwren OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ CR EN
Myrmotherula axillaris (Vieillot, 1817) White-flanked Antwren OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Myrmotherula snowi Teixeira & Gonzaga, 1985 Alagoas Antwren OOF,SSF,ETZ CR CR
Thamnomanes caesius caesius (Temminck, 1820) Cinereous Antshrike OOF,DOF,SSF VU
Dysithamnus mentalis (Temminck, 1820) Plain Antvireo OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Herpsilochmus atricapillus Pelzeln, 1868 Black-capped Antwren OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Herpsilochmus pectoralis Sclater, 1857 Pectoral Antwren SEMIDEPENDENT VU
Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus Vieillot, 1816 Rufous-winged Antwren OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Thamnophilus pelzelni Hellmayr, 1924 Planalto Slaty-Antshrike OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Thamnophilus caerulescens pernambucensis Naumburg, 1937 Variable Antshrike OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF VU
Thamnophilus aethiops distans Pinto, 1954 White-shouldered Antshrike OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ EN
Hypoedaleus guttatus (Vieillot, 1816) Spot-backed Antshrike OOF
Myrmoderus ruficauda soror (Pinto, 1940) Scalloped Antbird OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ EN EN
Pyriglena pernambucensis Zimmer, 1931 Pernambuco Fire-eye OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ VU
Cercomacroides laeta sabinoi (Pinto, 1939) Willis’s Antbird OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Drymophila squamata (Lichtenstein, 1823) Scaled Antbird OOF,SSF
Conopophaga cearae Cory, 1916 Ceara Gnateater OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF EN
Conopophaga melanops nigrifrons Pinto, 1954 Black-cheeked Gnateater OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ VU
Formicarius colma Boddaert, 1783 Rufous-capped Antthrush OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Chamaeza campanisona (Lichtenstein, 1823) Short-tailed Antthrush SSF
Sclerurus macconnelli bahiae Chubb, 1919 Tawny-throated Leaftosser SSF,ETZ VU
Sclerurus caudacutus calligineus Pinto, 1954 Black-tailed Leaftosser OOF CR
Dendrocincla taunayi Pinto, 1939 Pernambuco Woodcreeper OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ EN
Sittasomus griseicapillus (Vieillot, 1816) Olivaceous Woodcreeper OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Xiphorhynchus atlanticus (Cory, 1916) Northern Lesser Woodcreeper OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ VU
Xiphorhynchus guttatus (Lichtenstein, 1820) Buff-throated Woodcreeper OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Campylorhamphus trochilirostris trochilirostris (Lichtenstein, 1820) Red-billed Scythebill OOF EN
Dendrocolaptes medius (Todd, 1920) Todd’s Woodcreeper OOF EN
Dendrocolaptes platyrostris Spix, 1825 Planalto Woodcreeper OOF
Xenops minutus alagoanus Pinto, 1954 Plain Xenops OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ VU
Xenops rutilans Temmincki, 1821 Streaked Xenops OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Automolus lammi Zimmer, 1947 Pernambuco Foliage-Gleaner OOF,DOF,SSF EN VU
Philydor novaesi Teixeira & Gonzaga, 1983 Alagoas Foliage-Gleaner OOF,SSF EX CR
Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (Mazar-Barnett & Buzzetti, 2014) Cryptic Treehunter OOF,SSF EX
Synallaxis infuscata Pinto, 1950 Pinto’s Spinetail OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ EN EN
Cranioleuca semicinerea (Reichenbach, 1853) Grey-headed Spinetail OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Neopelma pallescens (Lafresnaye, 1853) Pale-bellied Tyrant-Manakin OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Ceratopipra rubrocapilla (Temminck, 1821) Red-headed Manakin OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Manacus manacus (Linnaeus, 1766) White-bearded Manakin OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Chiroxiphia pareola (Linnaeus, 1766) Blue-backed Manakin OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Oxyruncus cristatus Swainson, 1821 Sharpbill OOF,SSF
Myiobius barbatus (Gmelin, 1789) Whiskered Flycatcher OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Myiobius atricaudus Lawrence, 1863 Black-tailed Flycatcher DOF,SSF,ETZ
Schiffornis turdina intermedia Pinto, 1954 Thrush-like Schiffornis OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ VU
Iodopleura pipra leucopygia Salvin, 1885 Buff-throated Purpletuft OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ CR
Tityra inquisitor (Lichtenstein, 1823) Black-crowned Tityra OOF
Tityra cayana (Linnaeus, 1766) Black-tailed Tityra OOF,DOF,SSF
Pachyramphus marginatus (Lichtenstein, 1823) Black-capped Becard OOF,DOF,SSF
Pachyramphus validus (Lichtenstein, 1823) Crested Becard OOF,SSF
Lipaugus vociferans (Wied, 1820) Screaming Piha OOF,DOF
Xipholena atropurpurea (Wied, 1820) White-winged Cotinga OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ VU EN
Procnias averano (Hermann, 1783) Bearded Bellbird OOF,SSF,ETZ
Procnias nudicollis (Vieillot, 1817) Bare-throated Bellbird OOF VU
Carpornis melanocephala (Wied, 1820) Black-headed Berryeater OOF VU VU
Piprites chloris (Temminck, 1822) Wing-barried Piprites DOF
Platyrinchus mystaceus niveigularis Pinto, 1954 White-throated Spadebill OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ VU
Mionectes oleagineus (Lichtenstein, 1823) Ochre-bellied Flycatcher OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Leptopogon amaurocephalus Tschudi, 1846 Sepia-capped Bellbird OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Corythopis delalandi (Lesson, 1830) Southern Antpipit OOF
Phylloscartes ceciliae Teixeira, 1987 Alagoas Tyrannulet OOF,SSF,ETZ CR EN
Rhynchocyclus olivaceus (Temminck, 1820) Olicaceous Flatbill OOF,DOF,SSF
Tolmomyias poliocephalus (Taczanowski, 1884) Gray-crowned Flycatcher OOF,DOF,SSF
Tolmomyias flaviventris (Wied, 1831) Yellow-breasted Flycatcher OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps (Lafresnaye, 1846) Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher OOF,SSF
Myiornis auricularis (Vieillot, 1818) Eared Pygmy-Tyrant OOF,SSF
Hemitriccus griseipectus naumburgae (Zimmer, 1945) White-bellied Tody-Tyrant OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ VU
Hemitriccus mirandae (Snethlage, 1925) Buff-breasted Tody-Tyrant OOF,DOF,ETZ VU VU
Ornithion inerme Hartlaub, 1853 White-lored Tyrannulet OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Elaenia mesoleuca (Deppe, 1830) Olivaceous Elaenia OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Myiopagis gaimardii (d’Orbigny, 1839) Forest Elaenia OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Myiopagis caniceps (Swainson, 1835) Gray Elaenia OOF,DOF,ETZ
Myiopagis viridicata (Vieillot, 1817) Greenish Elaenia OOF,DOF,SSF
Attila spadiceus uropygiatus (Wied, 1831) Bright-rumped Attila OOF,DOF,SSF VU
Legatus leucophaius (Vieillot, 1818) Piratic Flycatcher OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Myiarchus tuberculifer (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Dusky-capped Flycatcher OOF,DOF,SSF
Rhytipterna simplex (Lichtenstein, 1823) Grayish Mourner OOF,DOF,SSF
Casiornis fuscus Sclater & Salvin, 1873 Ash-throated Casiornis OOF,DOF,SSF
Myiodynastes maculatus (Statius Muller, 1776) Streaked Flycatcher OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Megarynchus pitangua (Linnaeus, 1766) Boat-billed Flycatcher OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Cnemotriccus fuscatus (Wied, 1831) Fuscous Flycatcher OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Lathrotriccus euleri (Cabanis, 1868) Euler’s Flycatcher OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Contopus cinereus (Spix, 1825) Tropical Pewee OOF,SSF,ETZ
Vireo chivi (Vieillot, 1817) Chivi Vireo OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Pheugopedius genibarbis (Swainson, 1838) Moustached Wren OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Cantorchilus longirostris (Vieillot, 1819) Long-billed Wren OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Ramphocaenus melanurus Vieillot, 1819 Long-billed Gnatwren OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Turdus flavipes Vieillot, 1818 Yellow-legged Thrush OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Turdus fumigatus Lichtenstein, 1823 Cocoa Thrush OOF,DOF,SSF
Turdus albicollis Vieillot, 1818 White-necked Thrush OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Arremon taciturnus (Hermann, 1783) Pectoral Sparrow OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Setophaga pitiayumi (Vieillot, 1817) Tropical Parula OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Geothlypis aequinoctialis (Gmelin, 1789) Masked Yellowthroat OOF,SSF,PF
Basileuterus culicivorus (Deppe, 1830) Golden-crowned Warbler OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Myiothlypis flaveola Baird, 1865 Flavescent Warbler OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Anumara forbesi (Sclater, 1886) Forbes’s Blackbird SEMIDEPENDENT VU EN
Saltator maximus (Statius Muller, 1776) Buff-throated Saltator OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Saltator fuliginosus (Daudin, 1800) Black-throated Grosbeak OOF,DOF,SSF
Ramphocelus bresilius (Linnaeus, 1766) Brazilian Tanager OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Lanio cristatus (Linnaeus, 1766) Flame-crested Tanager OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Tangara cyanomelas (Wied, 1830) Silver-breasted Tanager OOF,DOF,SSF
Tangara fastuosa (Lesson, 1831) Seven-colored Tanager OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ VU VU
Tangara cyanocephala (Statius Muller, 1776) Red-necked Tanager OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Cissopis leverianus (Gmelin, 1788) Magpie Tanager DOF
Tersina viridis (Illiger, 1811) Swallow Tanager OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Dacnis cayana (Linnaeus, 1766) Blue Dacnis OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Cyanerpes cyaneus (Linnaeus, 1766) Red-legged Honeycreeper OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ,PF
Chlorophanes spiza (Linnaeus, 1758) Green Honeycreeper OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Hemithraupis guira (Linnaeus, 1766) Guira Tanager OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Hemithraupis flavicollis melanoxantha (Liechtenstein, 1823) Yellow-backed Tanager OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Conirostrum speciosum (Temminck, 1824) Chestnut-vented Conebill OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Tiaris fuliginosus (Wied, 1830) Sooty Grassquit OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ
Habia rubica (Vieillot, 1817) Red-crowned Ant-Tanager OOF,DOF,SSF
Caryothraustes canadensis frontalis (Hellmayr, 1905) Yellow-green Grosbeak OOF,DOF,SSF EN
Spinus yarrellii (Audubon, 1839) Yellow-faced Siskin SEMIDEPENDENT VU VU
Euphonia cyanocephala (Vieillot, 1818) Golden-rumped Euphonia OOF,SSF
Euphonia pectoralis (Lathan, 1801) Chestnut-bellied Euphonia OOF,DOF,SSF,ETZ

Vegetation types: OOF – Open Ombrophilous Forest; DOF – Dense Ombrophilous Forest; ETZ – Ecological Tension Zone; SSF – Seasonal Semideciduous Forest; and PF – Pioneer Formation.

Category of threat: EX – Extict; CR – Critically Endangered; EN – Endangered; VU – Vulnerable.

Table 2 Localities in the Pernambuco Endemism Center where ornithological surveys were conducted with their respective geographical coordinates, vegetation types, and species richness of forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened birds. 

Locality Municipality (State) Coordinates Vegetation Type Richness
F E T
PM de Maceió Maceió (AL) 9°36'S; 35°45”W OOF 28 5 6
Mata do Catolé Satuba/Maceió (AL) 9°33'S; 35°47'W OOF 42 6 7
Mata do Matão Campo Alegre (AL) 9°46'S; 36°14'W OOF 45 7 9
Mata de Guardiana-Pitimijú Cajueiro (AL) 9°20'S; 36°09'W OOF 23 4 4
APP Restinga Praia do Francês e Barra de São Miguel Barra de São Miguel/Marechal Deodoro (AL) 9°45'S; 35°49'W PF/ OOF 14 1 2
Mata da Lagartixa Cajueiro/Capela (AL) 9°18'S; 36°07'W OOF 24 3 4
Fazenda Brejo Teotônio Vilela (AL) 9°54'S; 36°18'W SSF 27 0 1
RPPN Madeiras Junqueiro (AL) 9°51'S; 36°19'W SSF 44 4 6
Usina Santo Antônio I Barra de Santo Antônio (AL) 9°23'S; 35°37'W OOF 52 8 12
Usina Santo Antônio II Barra de Santo Antônio (AL) 9°23'S; 35°35'W OOF 47 6 8
Mata do Bamburral II Maceió (AL) 9°26'S; 35°41'W OOF 38 8 12
Engenho Coimbra/Usina Serra Grande Ibateguara (AL) 9°00'S; 35°50'W OOF 120 21 31
Mata do Pinto/Usina Serra Grande São José da Laje (AL) 8°58'S; 36°06'W SSF 95 17 22
Fazenda Riachão/Usina Coruripe Coruripe (AL) 10°03'S; 36°16'W SSF 31 7 8
Mata do Capiatã/Usina Coruripe Coruripe (AL) 10°00'S; 36°16'W SSF 36 5 6
Mata da Sálvia/Usina Utinga Leão Rio Largo (AL) 9°32'S; 35°50'W OOF 39 6 11
Mata do Cedro/Usina Utinga Leão Rio Largo (AL) 9°31'S; 35°54'W OOF 45 11 12
ESEC Murici Murici/Messias (AL) 9°12'S; 35°52'W OOF 142 25 39
Mata da Sela/Usina Cachoeira Flexeiras (AL) 9°22'S; 35°43'W OOF 30 6 6
Mata da Encosta do Grotão/Usina Camaragibe Matriz de Camaragibe (AL) 9°06'S; 35°34'W DOF 9 1 1
Mata de Santa Justina/Usina Santo Antônio Passo de Camaragibe (AL) 9°13'S; 35°30'W OOF 44 9 10
Grotão do Brás/Mata de Santa Justina/Usina Santo Antônio Passo de Camaragibe (AL) 9°13'S; 35°31'W OOF 17 4 5
RPPN Vila d'Água Murici (AL) 9°16'S; 35°53'W OOF 31 2 1
Rebio Pedra Talhada Quebrangulo (AL)/Lagoa do Ouro (PE) 9°14'S; 36°25'W SSF 89 12 20
Mata do Alto Guzerá/Usina Serra Grande Ibateguara (AL) 8°59'S; 35°58'W SSF 48 8 7
Mata do Apolinário/Usina Serra Grande São José da Laje (AL) 8°57'S; 36°02'W SSF 50 8 7
Mata de Aquibadã/Usina Serra Grande Ibateguara (AL) 8°58'S; 35°54'W OOF 57 10 11
Mata do Bom Jesus 1/Usina Serra Grande São José da Laje (AL) 9°00'S; 35°50'W SSF 28 2 4
Mata do Bom Jesus 2/Usina Serra Grande São José da Laje (AL) 9°00'S; 36°06'W SSF 41 4 6
Mata da Cachoeira/Usina Serra Grande São José da Laje (AL) 8°56'S; 36°03'W SSF 76 16 18
Mata do Canivete/Usina Serra Grande São José da Laje (AL) 8°57'S; 36°05'W SSF 60 10 12
Mata do Capoeirão/Usina Serra Grande São José da Laje (AL) 8°56'S; 36°04'W SSF 58 12 13
Mata do Encanamento/Usina Serra Grande São José da Laje (AL) 8°57'S; 36°00'W SSF 64 13 15
Mata do Espinho/Usina Serra Grande São José da Laje (AL) 8°57'S; 36°01'W SSF 67 15 15
Fragmento X/Usina Serra Grande São José da Laje (AL) 8°56'S; 36°02'W SSF 54 10 13
Mata de Ibateguara/Usina Serra Grande Ibateguara (AL) 8°57'S; 35°36'W OOF 19 3 3
Mata do Mal Assombro/Usina Serra Grande São José da Laje (AL) 8°58'S; 36°05'W SSF 80 15 17
RPPN Boa Sorte Murici (AL) 9°11'S; 35°55'W OOF 66 13 17
RPPN Fazenda São Pedro Pilar (AL) 9°33'S; 35°57'W OOF 34 6 7
Fazenda Cachoeira Pindoba (AL) 9°28'S; 36°20'W OOF 30 2 2
Rebio Guaribas Mamanguape/Rio Tinto (PB) 6°43'S; 35°11'W SSF /ETZ 67 7 12
Mata da Millenium Mataraca (PB) 6°30'S; 34°58'W SSF 40 3 7
RPPN Engenho Gargaú Santa Rita (PB) 7°01'S; 34°57'W SSF 53 9 11
PE Mata do Pau Ferro Areia (PB) 6°58'S; 35°44'W OOF 57 5 8
RPPN Fazenda Pacatuba Sapé (PB) 7°02'S; 35°09'W SSF 55 9 12
Fragmento A/Caaporã Caaporã (PB) 7°28'S; 34°57'W DOF 33 3 3
Fragmento B/Caaporã Caaporã (PB) 7°28'S; 34°57'W DOF 21 1 2
Fragmento C/Caaporã Caaporã (PB) 7°28'S; 34°57'W DOF 32 1 2
Fragmento D/Caaporã Caaporã (PB) 7°27'S; 34°58'W DOF 32 2 2
Fragmento E/Caaporã Caaporã (PB) 7°27'S; 34°57'W DOF 28 2 4
Fazenda Cidade Viva Conde (PB) 7°13'S; 34°57'W ETZ 38 3 3
PE Dois Irmãos Recife (PE) 8°00'S; 34°55'W OOF 70 10 14
ESEC Caetés Paulista (PE) 7°55'S; 34°55'W OOF 61 9 13
Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin Igarassu (PE) 7°48'S; 34°57'W OOF 52 5 7
Mata do Camocim/ESEC Tapacurá São Lourenço da Mata (PE) 8°02'S; 35°11'W SSF 65 9 13
Mata do Toró/ESEC Tapacurá São Lourenço da Mata (PE) 8°03'S; 35°10'W SSF/ DOF 50 5 8
RVS Mata do Sistema Gurjaú Cabo de Santo Agostinho (PE) 8°13'S; 35°03'W DOF 79 11 17
Mata do Córrego da Mina/Usina São José Igarassu (PE) 7°45'S; 35°00'W OOF 41 6 8
Mata de Zambana/Usina São José Igarassu (PE) 7°42'S; 34°59'W DOF 53 9 11
Mata dos Macacos/Usina São José Igarassu (PE) 7°45'S; 34°59'W OOF 28 1 3
Mata da Palmeira/Usina São José Igarassu (PE) 7°43'S; 34°59'W DOF/ OOF 39 5 7
Mata de Piedade/Usina São José Igarassu (PE) 7°48'S; 34°59'W OOF 39 6 7
RVS Mata do Curado Recife (PE) 8°04'S; 34°57'W OOF 33 4 6
Mata da Ronda Pombos (PE) 8°12'S; 35°22'W SSF 45 8 9
PM João Vasconcelos Sobrinho Caruaru (PE) 8°22'S; 36°02'W ETZ 45 7 12
Mata do Estado São Vicente Férrer (PE) 7°37'S; 35°30'W ETZ 77 20 22
Torre do Microondas Taquaritinga do Norte (PE) 7°54'S; 36°02'W SSF 23 5 4
Jardim Botânico do Recife Recife (PE) 8°04'S; 34°58'W OOF 19 2 3
Mata do CMNE Recife (PE) 8°04'S; 34°58'W OOF 14 1 2
REBIO Saltinho Tamandaré/Rio Formoso (PE) 8°43'S; 35°10'W DOF 106 18 26
Mata de Maria Maior/Usina Serra Grande Canhotinho (PE) 9°01'S; 36°10'W SSF 86 15 19
Mata da Gia Barreiros (PE) 8°49'S; 35°08'W DOF 34 2 5
RPPN Fazenda Santa Beatriz do Carnijó Moreno (PE) 8°08'S; 35°04'W DOF 30 4 4
Engenho Nabuco Maraial (PE) 8°47'S; 35°45'W OOF 59 10 15
Engenho Gigante Maraial (PE) 8°47'S; 35°46'W OOF 71 13 19
RVS Mata do Amparo Itamaracá (PE) 7°46'S; 34°51'W DOF/PF 30 4 3
RVS Mata do Engenho São João Itamaracá (PE) 7°45'S; 34°52'W DOF/PF 19 2 1
RVS Mata Engenho Macaxeira Itamaracá (PE) 7°44'S; 34°51'W DOF/PF 15 0 0
RVS Mata Lanço dos Cações Itamaracá (PE) 7°42'S; 34°50'W DOF/PF 14 0 0
RVS Mata de Santa Cruz Itamaracá (PE) 7°42'S; 34°51'W DOF/PF 15 1 1
RVS Mata do Jaguaribe Itamaracá (PE) 7°44'S; 34°51'W DOF/PF 16 1 1
RPPN Frei Caneca/RPPN Pedra D'Anta Jaqueira/Lagoa dos Gatos (PE) 8°43'S; 35°50'W SSF/OOF 120 21 32
Mata de Xanguá/Usina Trapiche Rio Formoso (PE) 8°37'S; 35°11'W DOF 108 19 28
Mata do Benedito/Engenho Jussará Gravatá (PE) 8°17'S; 35°35'W SSF 56 13 15
Mata do Jussará/Engenho Jussará Gravatá (PE) 8°18'S; 35°35'W SSF 27 4 5
Mata do Gringo/Engenho Jussará Gravatá (PE) 8°17'S; 35°34'W SSF 24 4 5
Engenho Cachoeira Linda Barreiros (PE) 8°49'S; 35°18'W DOF 104 18 25
Engenho Roncadorzinho Barreiros (PE) 8°48'S; 35°17'W DOF 78 14 20
Engenho Água Azul Timbaúba (PE) 7°36'S; 35°24'W SSF 74 18 22
Mata de Aldeia Abreu e Lima/Camaragibe/Pau D'alho (PE) 7°54'S; 35°03'W OOF 75 10 13
Mata do CIMNC Araçoiaba/Igarassu/Paudalho (PE) 7°50'S; 35°07'W SSF/OOF 44 4 7
RPPN Bituri Brejo da Madre de Deus (PE) 8°12'S; 36°23'W SSF 32 3 7
Engenho Opinioso Amaraji (PE) 8°20'S; 35°32'W SSF 38 7 7
Sítio Vale Verde Gravatá (PE) 8°16'S; 35°33'W SSF 28 4 4
RPPN Eco Fazenda Morim São José da Coroa Grande (PE) 8°52'S; 35°13'W DOF 90 16 22
Mata da Cunha/Fazenda Soberana São Benedito do Sul (PE) 8°51'S; 35°54'W OOF 52 11 12
Grota do Inferno/Engenho Sacramento Água Preta (PE) 8°42'S; 35°24'W DOF 74 12 17
Mata da Ferrugem/Engenho Sacramento Água Preta (PE) 8°40'S; 35°25'W DOF 56 11 14
Mata do Dêra/Usina Trapiche Sirinhaém (PE) 8°34'S; 35°10'W DOF 80 14 20
Engenho Jaguaré/Usina Trapiche Sirinhaém (PE) 8°33'S; 35°11'W DOF 77 14 18
Complexo do Jaguarão/Usina Cucaú Rio Formoso/Sirinhaém (PE) 8°35'S; 35°15'W DOF 68 13 17
Mata de Zefa dos Cahorros/Usina Cucaú Gameleira (PE) 8°36'S; 35°19'W DOF 29 5 5
Mata de Duas Bocas/Usina Cucaú e Usina Santo André Tamandaré (PE) 8°43'S; 35°14'W DOF 35 8 10
RFU Mata do Janga Paulista (PE) 7°56'S; 34°50'W OOF/PF 19 2 1
APA Mata do Engenho Uchôa Recife (PE) 8°05'S; 34°57'W OOF/PF 14 2 1
RVS Mata do Engenho Moreninho Moreno (PE) 8°06'S; 35°06'W DOF 41 3 4
Engenho Massaranduba do Norte Goiana (PE) 7°36'S; 34°50'W DOF/PF 22 2 4
Engenho Bita/ESEC Bita e Utinga Ipojuca (PE) 8°22'S; 35°03'W DOF 35 3 4
Engenho Utinga/ESEC Bita e Utinga Cabo de Santo Agostinho/Ipojuca (PE) 8°20'S; 35°03'W DOF 48 7 9
Fragmento 1/Usina Ipojuca Ipojuca (PE) 8°22'S; 35°05'W DOF 21 3 3
Fragmento 2/Usina Ipojuca Ipojuca (PE) 8°23'S; 35°06'W DOF 14 1 0
Engenho Providência Cabo de Santo Agostinho (PE) 8°20'S; 35°07'W DOF 37 5 8
Mata/Loteamento/Bonito EcoParque Bonito (PE) 8°34'S; 35°43'W SSF/ETZ 48 6 7
PNM Mucuri-Hymalaia Bonito (PE) 8°32'S; 35°43'W SSF/ETZ 51 8 9
Restinga da Praia do Gamela Sirinhaém (PE) 8°40'S; 35°05'W PF 10 0 0
PE Mata de Zumbi Cabo de Santo Agostinho (PE) 8°18'S; 34°59'W DOF 62 9 13
PE Mata de Duas Lagoas Cabo de Santo Agostinho (PE) 8°18'S; 34°59'W DOF 52 7 8
Mata do Franco Sirinhaém (PE) 8°36'S; 35°08'W DOF 14 3 3
Mata do Franco II Sirinhaém (PE) 8°36'S; 35°08'W DOF 16 2 2
RPPN Jussaral Catende (PE) 8°36'S; 35°43'W SSF 52 9 14
RPPN Mata Estrela Senador Antônio Farias Baía Formosa (RN) 6°22'S; 35°00'W SSF/PF 28 4 7
PE Mata da Pipa Tibau do Sul (RN) 6°14'S; 35°03'W SSF/PF 20 0 2
Parque das Dunas Natal (RN) 5°50'S; 35°11'W PF 19 1 2

Vegetation types: OOF – Open Ombrophilous Forest; DOF – Dense Ombrophilous Forest; ETZ – Ecological Tension Zone; SSF – Seasonal Semideciduous Forest; and PF – Pioneer Formation.

Richness of bird groups: F – Forest; E – Endemic; and T – Threatened.

The map created through the interpolation method showed greater concentration of forest-dependent birds between the states of Pernambuco and Alagoas, as well as some isolated spots in east and north Pernambuco and in north and west Paraíba (Figure 2a). The maps of the endemic and threatened birds showed similar patterns, but with less representation in the state of Paraíba. Moreover, all three groups of birds had very low densities in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (mainly in the far north) and in the south of the state of Alagoas (Figure 2b, c).

Figure 2 Geographic distribution maps of the total species richness of forest-dependent (a) endemics (b) and threatened birds (c) of the Pernambuco Endemism Center. 

There was virtually no difference in the distribution of the species richness of the groups of birds between the phytophysiognomies, with the exception of the areas of pioneer formations (restingas), which presented lower species richness than all other formations (Figure 3; Table 3).

Figure 3 Distribution of the values of species richness of forest, endemic and/or threatened birds in each vegetation type of the Pernambuco Endemism Center (bars indicate 95% of confidence intervals). Vegetation types: OOF – Open Ombrophilous Forest; DOF – Dense Ombrophilous Forest; ETZ – Ecological Tension Zone; SSF – Seasonal Semideciduous Forest; and PF – Pioneer Formation. 

Table 3 Comparison by ANOVA and p values of the Tukey test of species richness of forest-dependent, endemic and threatened birds among the vegetation types of the Pernambuco Endemism Center. The values in bold represent the significant differences with an alpha of 0.05. 

Forest Endemic Threatened
ANOVA F(4;127) = 2.9023; p = 0.024 F(4;127) = 3.033; p = 0.019 F(4;127) = 2,547; p = 0.042
Tukey (p) ETZ SSF OOF DOF ETZ SSF OOF DOF ETZ SSF OOF DOF
PF 0.001 0.012 0.030 0.076 0.001 0.013 0.044 0.142 0.002 0.030 0.061 0.151
ETZ 0.966 0.878 0.700 0.000 0.968 0.833 0.554 0.924 0.816 0.593
SSF 0.998 0.970 0.000 0.994 0.908 0.999 0.970
OOF 0.997 0.991 0.996

Vegetation types: OOF – Open Ombrophilous Forest; DOF – Dense Ombrophilous Forest; ETZ – Ecological Tension Zone; SSF – Seasonal Semideciduous Forest and PF – Pioneer Formation.

Only 32.5% of the forest fragments analysed was found into the boundaries of officially protected areas. The ESEC de Murici is the protected area with the highest number of species of the three bird groups, followed by RPPN Frei Caneca/RPPN Pedra D’Anta, REBIO de Saltinho and RPPN Eco Fazenda Morim (Figure 4a). The non-protected areas that had the largest concentrations of birds from all three groups were: Engenho Coimbra, Mata de Xanguá, Engenho Cachoeira Linda and Mata do Estado (Figure 4b). The protected and non-protected areas with the highest number of species of the three groups overlapped with the following IBAs: Murici, Serra do Urubu, Guadalupe, Engenho Coimbra, and Mata do Estado.

Figure 4 The four protected (a) and non-protected (b) areas with the heighest number of bird species of the three groups in the Pernambuco Endemism Center. T – Threatened with extinction; E – Endemic; and F – Forest-dependent. 

4 Discussion

The maps of the target birds made through the information generated by the IDW modeling technique were pretty accurate and showed higher densities in the areas between the states of Alagoas and Pernambuco. Roda et al. (2011) found a distribution more concentrated in that same area for seven endemic and threatened birds. This same pattern of distribution with highest densities of records between the states of Pernambuco and Alagoas was found for some species of forest raptors (Roda and Pereira, 2006).

As the richness concentration of the target species is distributed almost regularly in all vegetation types, then other variables must be acting on the distribution of these birds. It is known that the bird distribution occurs due to a set of several biotic and abiotic variables, and other factors such as movement and interaction (see Newton, 2003). Owing to the fact that the vegetation heterogeneity and complexity also contribute effectively to the species richness and distribution (Karr, 1990), then, this can be the answer to the great richness of bird groups in Pernambuco and Alagoas that have more quantities of forest fragments in later successional stages. Conversely, northern Paraíba and Rio Grande do Norte have low floristic diversity and are lower and drier compared to areas further south (Cestaro, 2002; Olmos, 2003), leading to the lower concentration of birds. Another factor that may be affecting the results is the small number of sampling points further north, although the variables mentioned above may be responsible for the larger concentration of the target birds in Pernambuco and Alagoas.

Among all areas, protected or not protected, the ESEC of Murici was the site that presented the greatest concentration of birds from all three groups. The importance of this reserve (and IBA Murici) is already well known, being considered the place with the largest number of threatened birds of the Americas (Wege and Long, 1995; Bencke et al., 2006). Furthermore, Murici also deserves attention by unique bird records that are absent in other parts of the PEC, such as Geotrygon violacea (Temminck, 1809), Trogon rufus Gmelin, 1788, Hypoedaleus guttatus (Vieillot, 1816), Carpornis melanocephala (Wied, 1820), and Corythopis delalandi (Lesson, 1830).

The three Biological Reserves (Saltinho, Pedra Talhada and Guaribas) also play an important role in the conservation of noteworthy birds, such as Leptodon forbesi (Swann, 1922), Touit surdus (Kuhl, 1820), Xipholena atropurpurea (Wied, 1820), and Spinus yarrellii (Audubon, 1839). Moreover, these three biological reserves are inserted in three IBAs (Guadalupe, Mamanguape and Reserva Biológica de Pedra Talhada), confirming the importance of these sites for the conservation of endemic and threatened birds.

The private reserves also are places of great importance for the conservation of endemic and threatened birds in the Atlantic Forest (Oliveira et al., 2010). The RPPN Frei Caneca and the RPPN Pedra D’Anta make up a single forest block, being an area of extreme importance for bird conservation in the Neotropical region (Mazar-Barnett et al., 2005; Roda, 2006). These two reserves are also inserted into an IBA (Serra do Urubu), and have formerly hosted Philydor novaesi (Teixeira & Gonzaga, 1983), and Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (Mazar-Barnett & Buzzetti, 2014), which are now likely to be extinct (Brasil, 2014; Pereira et al., 2014).

Many unprotected forest patches deserve attention in future conservation plans in the region, especially those that were identified with a greater concentration of birds from all three groups, and which are at the same time located in some IBA. Below, we suggest and emphasize that some forest fragments should be turned into protected areas due to two features mentioned earlier:

  • The forests of Engenho Coimbra and Mata do Pinto in Alagoas. Both belonging to the Serra Grande mill and are inserted in the IBAs Engenho Coimbra and São José da Laje/Canhotinho, respectively. According to Silveira et al. (2003a), the Engenho Coimbra comprises one of the most continuous and best-preserved fragments in north-east Brazil. Important birds that can be found there include Penelope superciliaris alagoensis Nardelli, 1993, Terenura sicki (Teixeira & Gonzaga, 1983), and Odontophorus capueira plumbeicollis (Cory, 1915).

  • The forest fragments of Engenho Cachoeira Linda and Mata de Xanguá/Usina Trapiche in south Pernambuco. Both of them are situated within IBA Guadalupe and have important bird records, such as L. forbesi, T. sicki, Anumara forbesi (Sclater, 1886), Myrmoderus ruficauda soror (Pinto, 1940), and X. atropurpurea.

  • The forests in mountainous areas in the municipalities of Bonito and Gravatá. There are still some well-preserved forests; however there are very few protected areas and there is no IBA. There, we can find L. forbesi, Phylloscartes ceciliae (Teixeira, 1987), T. sicki, and Myrmotherula snowi (Teixeira & Gonzaga, 1985).

We conclude that, despite the “simplicity” of the IDW method, the information on the distribution pattern of the bird groups studied in this work were presented for the first time very clearly, concisely and visually, even when comparing it with previous work concerning the distribution pattern of some birds in the region.

In addition, we showed that some protected areas in this region really ensure the conservation of endemic and threatened birds due to the high density of them and being within the limits of the IBAs. Furthermore, we suggested and emphasized the need for the protection of some places of extreme importance for bird conservation. In this way, we hope that these areas may be analyzed with special attention from now on for the next implementation of protected areas programs in the Atlantic Forest.

Acknowledgements

We thank the ornithologists Sergio Leal, Galileu Coelho, Ciro Albano, Francisco Sargot Martin, Mauricio Periquito, Frederico Sonntag, Anita Studer and Marcelo Silva for providing some of their bird records and lists. The first author would like to thank CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Nível Superior) for providing the scholarship for this study. We also thank the owners and directors of the mills, protected and, non-protected areas that we visited. Thanks to John Medcraft and Alexander Lees for revising the English and for great comments.

(With 4 figures)

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Received: April 22, 2015; Accepted: October 01, 2015; Revised: November 30, 2016

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