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Brazilian Journal of Biology

Print version ISSN 1519-6984On-line version ISSN 1678-4375

Braz. J. Biol. vol.78 no.4 São Carlos Nov. 2018  Epub Feb 05, 2018 

Notes and Comments

New evidence of the evolutionary relationship of the flavida complex with the genus Panstrongylus (Hemiptera, Triatominae) by karyosystematic

K. C. Borsattoa 

Y. V. Reisa 

F. F. F. Moreirab 

M. T. V. Azeredo-Oliveiraa 

K. C. C. Alevia  * 

aLaboratório de Biologia Celular, Departamento de Biologia, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas – IBILCE, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” – UNESP, Rua Cristóvão Colombo, 2265, Jardim Nazareth, CEP 15054-000, São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil

bLaboratório de Biodiversidade Entomológica – LBE, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz – IOC, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz – FIOCRUZ, Av. Brasil 4365, Pavilhão Mourisco, 2º andar, Manguinhos, CEP 21040-360, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Scientific note

The Triatominae subfamily (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) is composed of 152 species belonging to 18 genera and five tribes (Galvão, 2014; Alevi et al., 2016; Mendonça et al., 2016; Souza et al., 2016; Rosa et al., 2017). The Triatomini tribe is the most diverse and one of the most important from the point of views epidemiological (Galvão, 2014; WHO, 2015). Schofield and Galvão (2009) grouped these triatomines in complexes and specifics subcomplexes mainly based on morphological characters and geographic disposition. The flavida complex consists of the species Nesotriatoma bruneri Usinger, 1944, N. flavida (Neiva, 1911) and N. obscura Maldonado and Farr, 1962 [although recently it has been suggested that N. bruneri and N. flavida should be again synonymized (Alevi et al., 2016)].

Recently, Justi et al. (2014, 2016) claim that although the complexes and subcomplexes show no taxonomic validity they must be monophyletic groups. Thus, the authors presented a phylogenetic reconstruction for the species groupings proposed by Schofield and Galvão (2009) and observed that many groups are not monophyletic (brasiliensis, maculata, matogrossensis, flavida and sordida subcomplexes). The flavida complex although it has formed a monophyletic group, curiously was presented as evolutionarily related to Panstrongylus genus, as has been observed by other authors (Hypsa et al., 2002).

Therefore, we will group all information related to the number and morphology of the chromosomes of Nesotriatoma spp. and Panstrongylus spp. with intuited of analyze the chromosomal relationship of these triatomines.

All species of Panstrongylus genus (except P. megistus and P. lutzi) and Nesotriatoma genus presents the karyotype 2n = 23 (20A + X1X2Y) (Table 1). Furthermore, all species of both genera (except P. lutzi) showed the same system of sex determination, as well as the same chromosomal characteristics (Table 1).

Table 1 Chromosomal characteristics of the species of flavida complex and Panstrongylus genus. 

Species Chromosome number Sex determination Relative size of sex chromosomes Relative size of autosomes Reference
N. flavida 2n = 23 X1X2Y Y>Xs Small variation Dujardin et al. (2002)
N. bruneri 2n = 23 X1X2Y Y>Xs Small variation Alevi et al. (2016)
N. obscura - - -
P. chinai 2n = 23 X1X2Y Y>Xs Small variation Pérez et al. (2002)
P. diasi - - -
P. geniculatus 2n = 23 X1X2Y Y>Xs Small variation Pérez et al. (2002)
P. guentheri - - -
P. hispaniolae - - -
P. howardi 2n = 23 X1X2Y Y>Xs Small variation Dujardin et al. (2002)
P. humeralis - - -
P. lenti - - -
P. lutzi 2n = 24 X1X2 X3Y Y>Xs Small variation Santos et al. (2016), Alevi et al. (2017)
P. lignarius 2n = 23 X1X2Y Y>Xs Small variation Pérez et al. (2002)
P. megistus 2n = 21 X1X2Y Y>Xs Small variation Schreiber and Pellegrino (1950)
P. mitarakaensis - - -
P. rufotuberculatus 2n = 23 X1X2Y Y>Xs Small variation Pérez et al. (2002)
P. tupynambai 2n = 23 X1X2Y Y>Xs Small variation Pérez et al. (2002)

X: X sex chromosome; Y: Y sex chromosome.

Recently, by means of dated phylogeny was supported that the ancestral of Nesotriatoma arrived in the Antillean islands approximately 14.8-18.8 millions of years (associated with rodent subfamily Capromyinae) (Justi et al., 2016) and by phylogenetic analysis we can see that Nesotriatoma and Panstrongylus share an ancestor comum (Justi et al., 2014, 2016). Was suggested that the ancestor of these vectors presented karyotype 2n = 23 and that during the divergence and karyotype evolution of species occurred one event punctual of simploidy in the autosome of P. megistus and agmatoploidy in the X sex chromosome of P. lutzi (Alevi and Azeredo-Oliveira, 2018).

Thus, by karyosystematic we confirm the phylogenetic relationship between flavida complex and Panstrongylus genus. We suggest that experimental hybrid crosses are to be conducted for analysis of possible prezygotic and postzygotic barriers installed in the Panstrongylus and Nesotriatoma genus.


The study was supported by Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa e Extensão de São José do Rio Preto (Process number 60/2015—FAPERP, Brazil) and the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, Brazil).


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Received: March 01, 2017; Accepted: April 26, 2017

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