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Print version ISSN 1676-0603
Biota Neotrop. vol.10 no.3 Campinas July/Sept. 2010
Primeiras ocorrências de Eumops perotis (Molossidae) no Estado do Paraná e sintese dos registros conhecidos para o Brasil
Urubatan Moura Skerratt SuckowI, *; Gledson Vigiano BianconiII; Lays Cherobim ParolinI; Isaac Passos LimaIII
IGraduação em Ciências Biológicas, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná - PUCPR, Rua Imaculada Conceição, 1155, CEP 80215-901, Curitiba, PR, Brasil, e-mail: email@example.com
IIInstituto Neotropical de Pesquisa e Conservação, Rua Purus, 33, CEP 82520-75, Curitiba, PR, Brasil, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
IIILaboratório de Mastozoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro - UFRRJ, BR 465, Km 7, CEP 23890-000, Seropédica, RJ, Brasil, e-mail: email@example.com
Eumops perotis has just a few confirmed records in South America and an uneven distribution throughout the continent. In this paper, we show the first occurrence of this molossid in the State of Paraná, Southern Brazil and summarize all the known localities for the country.
Keywords: Chiroptera, Molossidae, distribution, new records, South America.
Eumops perotis apresenta poucos registros confirmados para a América do Sul, distribuídos de forma desigual por quase todos os países do continente. Nesta comunicação, nós relatamos a primeira ocorrência deste molossídeo no Estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil e sumarizamos as demais localidades conhecidas para o país.
Palavras-chave: Chiroptera, Molossidae, distribuição, novos registros, América do Sul.
The genus Eumops was described by Miller (1906) in order to differentiate ten Chiropteran species that had been classified previously as Molossus Geoffroy, 1805 and Promops Gervais, 1856. The taxonomic record of the genus is complex and problematic; especially due disagreement regarding the patterns of craniodental measurements in the known forms (see Sanborn 1932, Eger 1977, Freeman 1981, Eger 2007, McDonough et al. 2008). Following the taxonomic review recommended by Simmons (2005), with the addition of the review of the South American forms summarized by Eger (2007) and contributions of Timm & Genoways (2004) and Baker et al. (2009), the Eumops genus is currently represented by fourteen species: E. auripendulus (Shaw, 1800); E. bonariensis (Peters, 1874); E. dabbenei Thomas, 1914; E. delticus Thomas, 1914; E. glaucinus (Wagner, 1843); E. hansae Sanborn, 1932; E. nanus (Miller, 1900); E. patagonicus Thomas, 1924; E. perotis (Schinz, 1821); E. trumbulli (Thomas, 1901); E. maurus (Thomas, 1901); E. floridanus (Allen, 1932); E. underwoodi Goodwin, 1940; and E. wilsoni Baker, McDonough, Swier, Larsen, Carrera and Ammerman, 2009. Only the latter three species do not have confirmed records in Brazil (Tavares et al. 2008; Eger 2007; Sodré et al. 2008).
Eumops perotis is widely distributed across the American continent (Sanborn 1932, Eger 1977, Koopman 1982, Eger 2007). It has been recorded in the United States, Mexico, Cuba, Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, Equator, Peru, Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil (Sanborn 1932, de la Puente 1951, Marinkelle 1968, Best et al. 1996, Barquez et al. 1999, Simmons 2005, Eger 2007) (Figure 1). This species is the largest among its congeners, with forearm length ranging from 73 to 83 mm (Eger 1977, Best et al. 1996, Gregorin & Taddei 2002). The ears are well-developed (from 36 to 47 mm), extending beyond the nose (Sanborn 1932, Eger 1977), and the lip is without cutaneous folds (Gregorin & Taddei 2002). Fur color ranges from light brown to dark gray, with a slightly paler abdomen and the wing membranes have a blackish tone (Best et al. 1996, Barquez et al. 1999). The cranium is robust and flat, and it has the largest measurements within the genus. The dental formula is 1/2, 1/1, 2/2, 3/3 × 2 = 30, presenting a small first premolar which is usually displaced to the labial side of the maxillary tooth row; the first and the second molars are identical, with four comissures (Barquez et al. 1999). The third comissure of the third molar is one-quater the length of the second comissure (Eger 1977). In this paper we report the first occurrence of E. perotis in the State of Paraná, Southern Brazil, and summarize the records of the species in the country.
Material and Methods
We evaluated eight adult samples of the genus Eumops from three towns in the State of Paraná: Londrina (23° 19' S and 51° 10' W), one male caught in August, 2004; Maringá (23° 24' S and 51° 57' W), one female caught in October, 2007 and another one in July, 2009; and Três Barras do Paraná (25° 25' S and 53° 10' W), four females and two males caught in November, 2008. The latter seven specimens were sent to the "Laboratório Central do Estado" (Secretaria de Estado da Saúde do Paraná) and diagnosed as rabies-negative. Later, they were preserved in alcohol at the Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia, Brazil, with the numbers CTX 8679, CTX 8680, CTX 8681, CTX 8682, CTX 8683, CTX 8684, CTX 8685, CTX 8686, respectively. The specimens had their skulls removed (they were all very damaged with the basicranium broken) and linear measurements (mm) of total length, tail length, ear length, forearm length, greatest length of skull, condyloincisive length, zygomatic breadth, postorbital constriction, maxillary toothrow length, breadth across molars and breadth across canines.
Results and Discussion
The morphological measurements we obtained are within the range described for E. perotis in South America (e.g. Eger 1977, Barquez et al. 1999) (Table 1). The records known for Brazil come from the States of Amazonas, Pará (Piccinini 1974), Maranhão, Piauí (Eger 1977), Mato Grosso (Escarlate-Tavares & Pessoa 2005), Minas Gerais (Eger 1977, Falcão et al. 2003, Stutz et al. 2004), Rio de Janeiro (Schinz 1821 - type locality: "Campo dos Goytacazes, Villa São Salvador"; Eger 1977), São Paulo (Sodré & Uieda 2001, Breviglieri et al. 2004, Uieda & Chaves 2005), and Rio Grande do Sul (Pacheco & Freitas 2003). Fossils of this species dated from the Quaternary have also been found in the North East of Brazil, State of Bahia (Czaplewski & Cartelle 1998).
According to Eger (1977), there is a E. perotis male preserved in alcohol at the Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique (IRSNB), attributed to a location in the State of Goiás named "Parano do Manhana" (sic). We have investigated the origin of this specimen together with the curator of the IRSNB (G. Lenglet in litt.), and have corrected its provenance to "Paranã do Manhana", a locality in the high Amazon River where the Hungarian naturalist Carl Lako worked and gathered naturalia starting in the 1920s, when he stayed in the state of Amazonas, Brazil (v. Keve & Samuél 1969, Hershkovitz 1985, 1987, Gutsche et al. 2007). In the registers of the IRSNB (original label 1449) the specimen appears as caught in July 1930, bought to Mr. Flemming, and entered the museum in 1936 (G. Lenglet in litt.). Its occurrence in the northwestern region of Brazil is a second example of apparent sympatry of E. perotis and E. trumbulli, as already determined by collection records of both species in northern Bolivia (Eger, 2007).
Thus, we are reporting the first records of E. perotis for the State of Paraná, in Southern Brazil. The absence or very few records of this and other molossid bats in vast geographical areas of Brazil is probably due to the methods generally used in inventories and/or the lack of effort to capture them. In Brazil, the State Health Departments access a large number of bats annually in order to diagnose the rabies virus. This material, which has a singular scientific value, can be utilized through partnerships with researchers to increase the knowledge of species which are difficult to sample by traditional methods.
We are indebted to the Divisão de Vigilância em Zoonoses e Intoxicações (Secretaria de Estado da Saúde do Paraná) for access to study material and Marcelo Alejandro Villegas Vallejos for reviewing this paper. We also thank Enrico Bernard and Suely A. Marques-Aguiar, curator of the Mammals Division of the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, for information on the species in the states of Amazonas and Pará, George Lenglet, curator of the Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, for information sent concerning the species label of "Paranã do Manhana", and especially to Fernando Costa Straube for his valuable literature review on the life of Carl Lako in Brazil and Judith Eger for additional suggestions that improved the manuscript.
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