SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.12 issue2A Survey of mid and large bodied mammals in Núcleo Caraguatatuba, Serra do Mar State Park, BrazilFloristic aspects of the Itapeva Ecological Station, SP: a protected area in the southern limit of the Cerrado biome author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand

Article

Indicators

Related links

Share


Biota Neotropica

On-line version ISSN 1676-0603

Biota Neotrop. vol.12 no.2 Campinas Apr./June 2012

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032012000200014 

INVENTORY

 

Inventory of the Echinodermata collection from the Universidade Federal de Alagoas

 

Inventário da coleção de Echinodermata da Universidade Federal de Alagoas

 

 

Anderson Luiz Silva Miranda*; Maria Lilian de Freitas Lima; Hilda Helena Sovierzoski; Monica Dorigo Correia

Setor de Comunidades Bentônicas, Laboratórios Integrados de Ciências do Mar e Naturais - LABMAR, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde - ICBS, Universidade Federal de Alagoas - UFAL, Rua Aristeu de Andrade, 452, Farol, Maceió, Alagoas, Brasil

 

 


ABSTRACT

Collections and inventories provide important and essential information for understanding the composition and distribution of biodiversity. This contribution presents an inventory of the species held in the Echinodermata collection in the Setor de Comunidades Bentônicas (LABMAR/ICBS), Universidade Federal de Alagoas. The collections were made over a period of more than 20 years, at several localities of coastal Alagoas. This collection now includes 16,201 catalogued individual specimens, with 50 species in the five extant classes Crinoidea, Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea, based on 640 records; the class Ophiuroidea is best represented. The results of this inventory contribute significantly to knowledge of marine benthic diversity from the state of Alagoas, and the information presented here expands the data for Echinodermata from the northeastern coast of Brazil.

Keywords: biodiversity, echinoderm, taxonomy, benthic macroinvertebrate, Brazil.


RESUMO

As coleções e inventários fornecem importantes e essenciais informações para entender a composição e distribuição da biodiversidade. Esta contribuição apresenta um inventário da coleção de Echinodermata pertencente ao Setor de Comunidades Bentônicas (LABMAR/ICBS), da Universidade Federal de Alagoas. As coletas foram realizadas ao longo de mais de vinte anos em diversas localidades da costa de Alagoas. A coleção conta com 16.201 exemplares tombados e 50 espécies distribuídas entre as cinco classes viventes Crinoidea, Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea e Holothuroidea, com base em 640 registros, sendo a classe Ophiuroidea a melhor representada. O resultado deste inventário vem contribuir significativamente para o conhecimento da diversidade bentônica marinha do Estado de Alagoas ampliando as informações sobre a fauna do filo Echinodermata para a costa nordeste do Brasil.

Palavras-Chave: biodiversidade, equinoderma, taxonomia, macroinvertebrados bentônicos, Brasil.


 

 

Introduction

Zoological catalogues and collections on regional scales are important to understand the composition and distribution of national and global faunas (Mikkelsen & Cracraft 2001). Such data is the principal source of information on biodiversity distribution, providing knowledge of areas yet unexplored, and also reveals local extinctions and reductions in species distributions (Nogueira et al. 2009). Zoological scientific collections are important records of Brazilian biodiversity, because the increasing occupation and intensity of human impacts often result in species extinction (Zaher & Young 2003).

In Brazil, knowledge of zoological collections is still sparse, especially for the North and Northeast regions. For example, information on collections of Echinodermata is mostly limited to the Southeast region, in institutions such as the Museu Nacional of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, the Museu de Zoologia of the Universidade de São Paulo and the Museu de Zoologia of the Universidade de Campinas (Amaral & Jablonski 2005, Ventura et al. 2009). In the Brazilian Northeast, other specific collections with Brazilian specimens of Echinodermata have been established more recently in universities in the states of Bahia (Manso et al. 2008), Paraíba (Gondim et al. 2008), Pernambuco (Lima & Fernandes 2009), and Sergipe (Oliveira et al. 2010).

The first reference to the phylum Echinodermata for the Brazilian coast was based on notes published by Verrill (1868), when this group was still called Radiata, based on samples collected in the Abrolhos area off southern Bahia. Later, Rathbun (1879) surveyed the distribution of species of Echinodermata. The species and distribution of Echinodermata according to salinity in Guanabara Bay, state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ) were characterized by Krau (1950). The first catalogue of echinoderms from the Brazilian coast was made available by Brito (1962). Several studies and remarks about the fauna of Echinodermata along the Brazilian coast have been contributed, especially by Tommasi (1985, 1999). The diversity of Echinodermata from the west coast of the Atlantic Ocean was described by Hendler et al. (1995), who provided taxonomic and ecological information, with some citations for the Brazilian coast. Castro et al. (1999) observed the occurrence of Echinodermata at different depths in Ilha Grande Bay (RJ). Netto et al. (2005) published new records from studies on the São Paulo coast. Xavier (2010) reviewed the literature and listed species of Echinodermata from the Santa Catarina coast.

On the Brazilian northeastern coast, Lima-Verde (1969) studied the Echinodermata from shallow waters from the mouth of the Parnaíba River in Piauí state, to the mouth of the São Francisco River in Alagoas state. Albuquerque (1986) investigated the fauna of Ophiuroidea from the northern and northeastern continental shelf. Echinodermata from the coast of Bahia were characterized for several reef and soft bottom substrates (Alves & Cerqueira 2000, Magalhães et al. 2005, Manso et al. 2008). The diversity of echinoderms from the Ceará coast was characterized by Martins & Queiroz (2006).In the intertidal zone of Cabo Branco, Paraíba state, the echinoderm fauna was analyzed according to habitat (Gondim et al. 2008). New records of Ophiuroidea were reported from shallow waters on the coast of Maceió, Alagoas (Lima et al. 2011).

Most of the catalogues of Echinodermata include mainly representatives of class Ophiuroidea, and some of these publications included descriptions of new species and records (Tommasi 1970, 1999, Tommasi & Abreu 1974). Other studies were based on specimens obtained from oceanographic research cruises that dredged along different parts on the Brazilian coast, and included descriptions, notes, ecological and biogeographical aspects of Ophiuroidea (Monteiro 1987, Manso 1989, Absalão & Manso 1990, Manso 1991, Borges et al. 2002, Borges & Amaral 2006, Ventura et al. 2007, Borges et al. 2011).

This contribution presents a catalogue and information on the collection of material of the phylum Echinodermata, held by the Setor de Comunidades Bentônicas (LABMAR/ICBS), Universidade Federal de Alagoas.

 

Material and Methods

The present inventory is based on specimens from the intertidal zone and shallow waters, including coral reefs, sandstone reefs, beaches, soft bottoms, and the phytal, which is abundant along the coast of Alagoas (Correia & Sovierzoski 2009, Correia 2011).

The specimens were collected from different sites on the coast of Alagoas (8º 55' S and 36º 10' W; 10º 30' S and 36º 23' W), including the following localities, from north to south: Maragogi - Galés (9º 01' 07" S and 35º 12' 13" W); São Miguel dos Milagres - Porto da Rua (9º 15' 11" S and 35º 20' 31" W); Passo de Camaragibe - Camaragibe River bar (9º 18' 47" S and 35º 24' 54" W); Paripueira - Natural Pool (9º 28' 25" S and 35º 32' 40" W); Maceió - Ipioca (9º 29' 55" S and 35º 33' 50" W), Ponta do Prego (9º 31' 48" S and 35º 35' 30" W), Ponta do Meirim (9º 32' 37" S and 35º 36' 52" W), Sereia (9º 34' 04" S and 35º 38' 46" W), Riacho Doce (9º 34' 55" S and 35º 39' 25" W), Guaxuma (9º 35' 33" S and 35º 39' 54" W), Jatiúca (9º 39' 12" S and 35º 41' 46" W), Ponta Verde (9º 39' 57" S and 35º 41' 32" W), Piscina dos Amores (9º 40' 39" S and 35º 42' 10" W), Pajuçara (9º 41' 06" S and 35º 43' 22" W), Sobral sewel outfall (9º 40' 45" S and 35º 45' 00" W); Marechal Deodoro - channel of the Manguaba lagoon (9º 43' 13" S and 35º 48' 23" W), Saco da Pedra (9º 44' 26" S and 35º 48' 59" W) and Francês (9º 46' 03" S and 35º 50' 13" W); Barra de São Miguel - São Miguel River bar (9º 50' 10" S and 35º 53' 05" W); Jequiá da Praia - Lagoa Azeda (9º 58' 04" S and 35º 58' 32" W); Coruripe - Pontal do Coruripe (10º 07' 32" S and 36º 10' 32" W); and Piaçabuçu - Pontal do Peba (10º 21' 25" S and 36º 17' 40" W) (Figure 1).

The samples were transported to the Setor de Comunidades Bentônicas, where they were sorted, anesthetized with 10% MgCl2, and then fixed with 4% formaldehyde for 24 to 48 hours. The specimens were conserved in 70% ethanol and assigned a catalogue number. The material was identified with specialized bibliography to the lowest possible taxonomic category, based on Clark & Downey (1992), Tommasi (1969, 1999), Hendler et al. (1995) and Pawson et al. (2010), and when necessary was sent to a specialist for confirmation of the identification. All remarks on the species of Echinodermata in this collection were entered in a database, available from the Setor de Comunidades Bentônicas, Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL/ECH).

 

Results

The catalogue lists 16,201 individuals in the five extant classes Crinoidea, Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea, and Holothuroidea. To date, the collection includes 640 records representing 50 species. The class Ophiuroidea is best represented, followed by the class Holothuroidea. Classes Asteroidea and Echinoidea include fewer families, with different numbers of genera and species. Only one family and a single species of the class Crinoidea are represented.

Most of the Echinodermata species were collected from reef ecosystems. The reefs provide different substrata composed by algae, corals, and sponges, and of these, macroalgae harbored most individuals of Ophiuroidea and Holothuroidea. Specimens of classes Asteroidea, Echinoidea, and Crinoidea were recorded on coral and sandstone reefs, and some species of Asteroidea and Echinoidea were also found on soft bottoms.

The class Ophiuroidea is the most abundant taxon recorded for the Alagoas coast, with 14,837 individuals, in seven families and 19 species (Table 1).

Class Ophiuroidea

Order Ophiurida Müller & Troschel, 1840

Family Ophiolepididae Ljungman, 1867

Genus Ophiolepis Müller & Troschel, 1840

Ophiolepis impressa Lütken, 1859: one record. Brazil, Alagoas, Paripueira - Natural Pool UFAL/ECH 0620.

Ophiolepis paucispina (Say, 1825): six records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta do Prego reef UFAL/ECH 0478; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0147, 0172, 0249, 0411, 0533.

Family Ophiodermatidae Ljungman, 1867

Genus Ophioderma Müller & Troschel, 1840

Ophioderma appressa (Say, 1825): 15 records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ipioca reef UFAL/ECH 0541; Ponta do Prego reef UFAL/ECH 0537, 0549; Ponta do Meirim reef UFAL/ECH 0517, 0526, 0527; Sereia reef UFAL/ECH 0470, 0535; Jatiúca reef UFAL/ECH 0511; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0210, 0376, 0412; Pajuçara reef UFAL/ECH 0025. Marechal Deodoro - Saco da Pedra reef UFAL/ECH 0331; Francês reef UFAL/ECH 0387 (Figure 2a).

Ophioderma cinerea Müller & Troschel, 1842: nine records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta do Prego reef UFAL/ECH 0546; Ponta do Meirim reef UFAL/ECH 0528; Sereia reef UFAL/ECH 0497; Riacho Doce reef UFAL/ECH 0560; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0016, 0127, 0133, 0587. Marechal Deodoro - Francês reef UFAL/ECH 0615.

Family Ophiocomidae Ljungman, 1867

Genus Ophiocoma L. Agassiz, 1835

Ophiocoma echinata (Lamarck, 1816): four records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Riacho Doce reef UFAL/ECH 0389; Jatiúca reef UFAL/ECH 0624. Marechal Deodoro - Francês reef UFAL/ECH 0228. São Miguel dos Milagres - Porto da Rua reef UFAL/ECH 0175 (Figure 2b).

Ophiocoma wendti Müller & Troschel, 1842: one record. Brazil, Alagoas, Marechal Deodoro - Francês reef UFAL/ECH 0623.

Genus Ophiocomella A.H. Clark, 1939

Ophiocomella ophiactoides (H. L. Clark, 1901): 37 records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta do Meirim reef UFAL/ECH 0529; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0064, 0066, 0067, 0087, 0091, 0110, 0120, 0150, 0160, 0166, 0186, 0197, 0201, 0213, 0225, 0241, 0244, 0248, 0259, 0262, 0265, 0287, 0303, 0329, 0367, 0370, 0374, 0408, 0409, 0442, 0465, 0553, 0593. Maragogi - Galés reef UFAL/ECH 0107, 0109. Marechal Deodoro - Francês reef UFAL/ECH 0614.

Family Ophionereididae Ljungman, 1867

Genus Ophionereis Lütken, 1856

Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825): 16 records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ipioca reef UFAL/ECH 0542; Ponta do Prego reef UFAL/ECH 0547; Ponta do Meirim reef UFAL/ECH 0516; Sereia reef UFAL/ECH 0534, 0563; Riacho Doce reef UFAL/ECH 0390; Jatiúca reef UFAL/ECH 0291, 0636; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0142, 0157, 0267; Pajuçara reef UFAL/ECH 0381. Maragogi - Galés reef UFAL/ECH 0105. Marechal Deodoro - Saco da Pedra reef UFAL/ECH 0334, 0480; Francês reef UFAL/ECH 0475 (Figure 2c).

Ophionereis squamulosa Koehler, 1914: 1 record. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Jatiúca reef UFAL/ECH 0625.

Family Ophiactidae Matsumoto, 1915

Genus Ophiactis Lütken, 1856

Ophiactis brasiliensis Manso, 1988: 10 records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta do Meirim reef UFAL/ECH 0519; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0037, 0068; Piscina dos Amores reef UFAL/ECH 0485; Pajuçara reef UFAL/ECH 0380, 0559, 0626. Maragogi - Galés reef UFAL/ECH 0108. Marechal Deodoro - Francês reef UFAL/ECH 0072, 0639.

Ophiactis lymani Ljungman, 1872: 25 records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta do Meirim reef UFAL/ECH 0518; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0089, 0102, 0118, 0164, 0270, 0301, 0325, 0372, 0403, 0404, 0460, 0461, 0552, 0603. Sobral sewel outfall UFAL/ECH 0114, 0585. Jequiá da Praia - Lagoa Azeda reef UFAL/ECH 0231. Maragogi - Galés reef UFAL/ECH 0106. Marechal Deodoro - Francês reef UFAL/ECH 0343, 0638; Saco da Pedra reef UFAL/ECH 0277, 0305, 0337, 0355.

Ophiactis quinqueradia Ljungman, 1872: four records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0136, 0255. Marechal Deodoro - Saco da Pedra reef UFAL/ECH 0338. Paripueira - Natural Pool UFAL/ECH 0622.

Ophiactis savignyi (Müller & Troschel, 1842): 129 records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta do Meirim reef UFAL/ECH 0554, 0557, 0564; Sereia reef UFAL/ECH 0489, 0617, 0631; Riacho Doce reef UFAL/ECH 0447; Garça Torta reef UFAL/ECH 0055; Jatiúca reef UFAL/ECH 0309, 0349, 0430, 0443, 0628; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0009, 0013, 0036, 0048, 0058, 0060, 0062, 0065, 0070, 0077, 0079, 0081, 0083, 0085, 0088, 0097, 0099, 0101, 0112, 0113, 0117, 0122, 0128, 0134, 0135, 0138, 0143, 0145, 0148, 0158, 0161, 0163, 0180, 0182, 0184, 0193, 0195, 0198, 0205, 0208, 0211, 0220, 0223, 0239, 0242, 0245, 0256, 0257, 0260, 0263, 0269, 0271, 0285, 0298, 0300, 0321, 0322, 0324, 0327, 0365, 0368, 0371, 0398, 0401, 0402, 0436, 0437, 0438, 0457, 0458, 0459, 0543, 0554, 0581, 0592, 0596, 0604, 0606; Piscina dos Amores reef UFAL/ECH 0486; Pajuçara reef UFAL/ECH 0352, 0382, 0627; Sobral sewel outfall UFAL/ECH 0187, 0413, 0424, 0583, 0584, 0599, 0608, 0634. Maragogi - Galés reef UFAL/ECH 0044, 0168. Marechal Deodoro - Saco da Pedra reef UFAL/ECH 0278, 0306, 0308, 0332, 0339, 0354, 0385, 0449, 0450, 0530; Francês reef UFAL/ECH 0023, 0075, 0227, 0272, 0292, 0304, 0342, 0345, 0377, 0616, 0640. Paripueira - Natural pool UFAL/ECH 0358. Passo de Camaragibe - Camaragibe River bar UFAL/ECH 0582. São Miguel dos Milagres - Porto da Rua reef UFAL/ECH 0177.

Family Amphiuridae Ljungman, 1867

Genus Amphipholis Ljungman, 1866

Amphipholis januarii Ljungman, 1866: five records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Jatiúca reef UFAL/ECH 0429; Ponta Verde UFAL/ECH 0200, 0247. Jequiá da Praia - Lagoa Azeda reef UFAL/ECH 0230. Paripueira - Cabeço UFAL/ECH 0618.

Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1828): 96 records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta do Prego reef UFAL/ECH 0550; Ponta do Meirim reef UFAL/ECH 0520, 0558; Sereia reef UFAL/ECH 0490, 0629; Riacho Doce reef UFAL/ECH 0104; Jatiúca reef UFAL/ECH 0347, 0513; Pajuçara reef UFAL/ECH 0032, 0076; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0008, 0014, 0059, 0061, 0063, 0069, 0071, 0078, 0080, 0082, 0084, 0086, 0090, 0098, 0100, 0103, 0115, 0116, 0119, 0144, 0146, 0149, 0159, 0162, 0165, 0173, 0181, 0183, 0185, 0194, 0196, 0199, 0206, 0209, 0212, 0221, 0222, 0224, 0240, 0243, 0246, 0258, 0261, 0264, 0284, 0286, 0297, 0299, 0302, 0323, 0326, 0328, 0366, 0369, 0373, 0405, 0406, 0407, 0439, 0440, 0441, 0462, 0463, 0464, 0501, 0512, 0555, 0556, 0580, 0590, 0595, 0597, 0602, 0605; Sobral sewel outfall UFAL/ECH 0414, 0423, 0427, 0598, 0607, 0635. Maragogi - Galés reef UFAL/ECH 0169. Marechal Deodoro - Saco da Pedra reef UFAL/ECH 0336, 0357; Francês reef UFAL/ECH 0341, 0637. Paripueira - Natural Pool UFAL/ECH 0619.

Genus Amphiura Forbes, 1843

Amphiura kinbergi Ljungman, 1872: one record. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Sobral sewel outfall UFAL/ECH 0576.

Genus Ophiocnida Lyman, 1865

Ophiocnida loveni (Ljungman, 1867): one record. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Jatiúca reef UFAL/ECH 0275.

Ophiocnida scabriuscula (Lütken, 1859): four records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta do Meirim reef UFAL/ECH 0514; Jatiúca reef UFAL/ECH 0252; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0215, 0266.

Family Ophiotrichidae Ljungman, 1867

Genus Ophiothrix Müller & Troschel, 1840

Ophiothrix angulata (Say, 1825): 60 records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta do Prego reef UFAL/ECH 0538, 0551; Sereia reef UFAL/ECH 0471, 0496, 0532, 0562, 0632; Riacho Doce reef UFAL/ECH 0561; Garça Torta reef UFAL/ECH 0052; Guaxuma reef UFAL/ECH 0499; Jatiúca reef UFAL/ECH 0167, 0251, 0276, 0426; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0001, 0002, 0017, 0035, 0188, 0207, 0214, 0226, 0288, 0320, 0330, 0375, 0410, 0466, 0600, 0601; Piscina dos Amores reef UFAL/ECH 0421; Pajuçara reef UFAL/ECH 0420, 0508; Sobral sewel outfall UFAL/ECH 0056, 0425, 0467. Barra de São Miguel - Barra de São Miguel reef UFAL/ECH 0033. Coruripe - Pontal de Coruripe reef UFAL/ECH 0525. Jequiá da Praia - Lagoa Azeda reef UFAL/ECH 0229. Marechal Deodoro - Manguaba lagoon channel UFAL/ECH 0004; Saco da Pedra reef UFAL/ECH 0279, 0307, 0333, 0335, 0353, 0356, 0384, 0388, 0448, 0481; Francês reef UFAL/ECH 0024, 0074, 0268, 0340, 0378, 0386, 0419, 0633. Paripueira - Natural Pool UFAL/ECH 0621. São Miguel dos Milagres - Porto da Rua reef UFAL/ECH 0178 (Figure 2d).

The class Holothuroidea has 1,214 individuals recorded, distributed in eight families and 14 species. Synaptula hydriformis is the most abundant species (Table 2).

Class Holothuroidea

Order Dendrochirotida Grube, 1840

Family Psolidae Perrier, 1902

Genus Lissothuria Verrill, 1867

Lissothuria braziliensis (Théel, 1886): one record. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ipioca reef UFAL/ECH 0575.

Family Phyllophoridae Oestergren, 1907

Genus Phyllophorus Grube, 1840

Phyllophorus (Urodemella) occidentalis Ludwig, 1875: six records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta do Prego reef UFAL/ECH 0539; Riacho Doce reef UFAL/ECH 0394, 0507; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0311; Pajuçara reef UFAL/ECH 0020, 0043.

Genus Stolus Selenka, 1867

Stolus cognatus (Lampert, 1885): four records: Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Riacho Doce reef UFAL/ECH 0393, 0612; Jatiúca reef UFAL/ECH 0250, 0274 (Figure 3a).

Family Sclerodactylidae Panning, 1949

Genus Pseudothyone Panning, 1949

Pseudothyone belli (Ludwig, 1887): one record: Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta do Meirim reef UFAL/ECH 0589.

Family Cucumariidae Ludwig, 1894

Genus Aslia Rowe, 1970

Aslia pygmaea (Théel, 1886a):two records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Sereia reef UFAL/ECH 0609, 0630.

Genus Duasmodactyla Ayres, 1854

Duasmodactyla seguroensis (Deichmann, 1930): eight records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta do Prego reef UFAL/ECH 0446; Riacho Doce reef UFAL/ECH 0392, 0418, 0422, 0613; Jatiúca reef UFAL/ECH 0273; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0040, 0232.

Genus Ocnus Forbes, 1841

Ocnus braziliensis (Verril, 1868): 20 records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Sereia reef UFAL/ECH 0494, 0536; Riacho Doce reef UFAL/ECH 0141, 0415, 0504; Garça Torta reef UFAL/ECH 0050; Jatiúca reef UFAL/ECH 0510; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0022, 0039, 0053, 0121, 0126, 0395; Pajuçara reef UFAL/ECH 0012, 0029, 0042, 0045, 0046. Marechal Deodoro - Saco da Pedra reef UFAL/ECH 0383. Passo de Camaragibe - Camaragibe river bar UFAL/ECH 0350 (Figure 3b).

Ocnus suspectus (Ludwig, 1874): four records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Sereia reef UFAL/ECH 0495; Riacho Doce reef UFAL/ECH 0506, 0611; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0586.

Order Aspichirotida Grube, 1840

Family Holothuriidae Ludwig, 1894

Genus Holothuria Linnaeus, 1767

Holothuria (Halodeima) grisea Selenka, 1867: 15 records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Sereia reef UFAL/ECH 0469, 0493; Riacho Doce reef UFAL/ECH 0391, 0505; Garça Torta reef UFAL/ECH 0049; Jatiúca reef UFAL/ECH 0348; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0038, 0041, 0140; Pajuçara reef UFAL/ECH 0011, 0018, 0019, 0021, 0359. Marechal Deodoro - Saco da Pedra reef UFAL/ECH 0479 (Figure 3c).

Holothuria (Platyperona) parvula (Selenka, 1867): two records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Riacho Doce reef UFAL/ECH 0610; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0487.

Holothuria (Thymiosycia) arenicola Semper, 1868; one record. Brazil, Alagoas, Marechal Deodoro - Francês reef UFAL/ECH 0474.

Family Stichopodidae Haeckel, 1896

Genus Isostichopus Deichmann, 1958

Isostichopus badionotus (Selenka, 1867): two records. Brazil Alagoas, Marechal Deodoro - Francês reef UFAL/ECH 0344, 0531.

Order Apodida Brandt, 1835

Family Synaptidae Burmeister, 1837

Genus Synaptula Oersted, 1849

Synaptula hydriformis (Lesueur, 1824): 40 records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta do Meirim reef UFAL/ECH 0545; Riacho Doce reef UFAL/ECH 0073; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0006, 0015, 0057, 0094, 0111, 0132, 0155, 0174, 0179, 0191, 0203, 0204, 0217, 0218, 0236, 0237, 0253, 0254, 0281, 0282, 0294, 0295, 0296, 0317, 0318, 0362, 0363, 0396, 0399, 0416, 0433, 0434, 0455, 0456, 0500, 0588, 0591, 0594 (Figure 3d).

Family Chiridotidae Oestergren, 1898

Genus Chiridota Eschscholtz, 1829

Chiridota rotifera (Pourtalès, 1851): 35 records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta do Prego reef UFAL/ECH 0477; Garça Torta reef UFAL/ECH 0051; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0007, 0095, 0154, 0156, 0171, 0176, 0189, 0190, 0192, 0202, 0216, 0219, 0234, 0235, 0238, 0280, 0283, 0293, 0315, 0316, 0319, 0361, 0364, 0397, 0400, 0417, 0431, 0432, 0435, 0454, 0476, 0502, 0503.

The class Echinoidea is represented by 97 individuals, including five families and eight species. The most abundant Echinoidea species are Echinometra lucunter, Eucidaris tribuloides and Lytechinus variegatus (Table 3).

Class Echinoidea

Order Cidaroida Claus, 1880

Family Cidaridae Gray, 1825

Genus Eucidaris Pomel, 1883

Eucidaris tribuloides (Lamarck, 1816): five records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Guaxuma reef UFAL/ECH 0498; Ponta Verde UFAL/ECH 0026. Barra de São Miguel - Barra de São Miguel reef UFAL/ECH 0030. Jequiá da Praia - Lagoa Azeda reef UFAL/ECH 0568, 0570 (Figure 4a).

Ordem Diadematoida Duncan, 1889

Family Diadematidae Gray, 1855

Genus Diadema Gray, 1825

Diadema antillarum Philippi, 1845: one record. Brazil, Alagoas, Barra de São Miguel - Barra de São Miguel reef UFAL/ECH 0034 (Figure 4b).

Order Echinoida Claus, 1876

Family Echinometridae Gray, 1825

Genus Echinometra Gray, 1825

Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758): 10 records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Sereia reef UFAL/ECH 0491; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0123, 0137, 0151, 0170, 0312, 0451; Piscina dos Amores reef UFAL/ECH 0290, 0484. Marechal Deodoro - Saco da Pedra reef UFAL/ECH 0310 (Figure 4c).

Family Toxopneustidae Troschel, 1872

Genus Lytechinus A. Agassiz, 1863

Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816): 13 records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Jatiúca reef UFAL/ECH 0129; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0027, 0139, 0152, 0153, 0233, 0313, 0314, 0360, 0452; Piscina dos Amores reef UFAL/ECH 0289. Barra de São Miguel - Barra de São Miguel reef UFAL/ECH 0031. Jequiá da Praia - Lagoa Azeda reef UFAL/ECH 0569 (Figure 4d).

Genus Tripneustes L. Agassiz, 1841b

Tripneustes ventricosus (Lamarck, 1816): seven records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta do Prego reef UFAL/ECH 0548; Sereia reef UFAL/ECH 0468, 0488, 0567; Jatiúca reef UFAL/ECH 0346, 0428, 0482 (Figure 4e).

Order Clypeasteroida L. Agassiz, 1835

Family Mellitidae Stefanini, 1912

Genus Encope L. Agassiz, 1840

Encope emarginata (Leske, 1778): two records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta do Prego reef UFAL/ECH 0444. Marechal Deodoro - Francês reef UFAL/ECH 0473 (Figure 4f).

Genus Leodia Gray, 1851a

Leodia sexiesperforata (Leske, 1778): one record. Brazil, Alagoas, Marechal Deodoro -Francês reef UFAL/ECH 0565.

Genus Mellita L. Agassiz, 1841a

Mellita quinquesperforata (Leske, 1778): two records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta do Meirim reef UFAL/ECH 0515. Coruripe - Lagoa do Pau UFAL/ECH 0524.

The class Asteroidea is represented by 46 individuals, including five families and eight species. Luidia senegalensis and Linckia guildingi are the most abundant species (Table 4).

Class Asteroidea

Order Paxillosida Perrier, 1884

Family Luidiidae Sladen, 1889

Genus Luidia Forbes, 1839

Luidia senegalensis (Lamarck, 1816): three records. Brazil, Alagoas, Jequiá da Praia - Lagoa Azeda reef UFAL/ECH 0572, 0573, 0578.

Luidia alternata (Say, 1825): one record. Brazil, Alagoas, Jequiá da Praia - Lagoa Azeda reef UFAL/ECH 0577.

Family Astropectinidae Gray, 1840

Genus Astropecten Gray, 1840

Astropecten brasiliensis Müller & Troschel, 1842: one record. Brazil, Alagoas, Jequiá da Praia - Lagoa Azeda reef UFAL/ECH 0571.

Order Valvatida Perrier, 1884

Family Oreasteridae Fisher, 1911

Genus Oreaster Müller & Troschel, 1842

Oreaster reticulatus (Linnaeus, 1758): one record. Brazil, Alagoas, Jequiá da Praia - Lagoa Azeda reef UFAL/ECH 0566.

Family Ophidiasteridae Verril, 1870

Genus Linckia Nardo, 1834

Linckia guildingi Gray, 1840: 12 records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta do Prego reef UFAL/ECH 0445, 0523; Sereia reef UFAL/ECH 0492; Jatiúca reef UFAL/ECH 0130, 0509; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0028, 0124, 0131; Piscina dos Amores reef UFAL/ECH 0125, 0522; Pajuçara reef UFAL/ECH 0010; Paripueira - Natural Pool UFAL/ECH 0047 (Figure 5a).

Genus Narcissia Gray, 1840

Narcissia trigonaria Sladen, 1889: one record. Brazil, Alagoas, Jequiá da Praia - Lagoa Azeda reef UFAL/ECH 0579.

Order Spinulosida Perrier, 1884

Family Echinasteridae Verril, 1870

Genus Echinaster Müller & Troschel, 1840

Echinaster brasiliensis Müller & Troschel, 1842: three records. Brazil Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0093, 0096. Jequiá da Praia - Lagoa Azeda reef UFAL/ECH 0574.

Echinaster echinophorus (Lamarck, 1816): four records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Jatiúca reef UFAL/ECH 0483; Ponta Verde reef UFAL/ECH 0092, 0453. Piaçabuçu - Pontal do Peba reef UFAL/ECH 0054 (Figure 5b).

The class Crinoidea is represented by only seven individuals in this collection, all Tropiometra carinata (Table 5).

Class Crinoidea

Order Isocrinida Sieverts-Doreck, 1952

Family Tropiometridae A.H. Clark, 1908

Genus Tropiometra A.H. Clark, 1907

Tropiometra carinata (Lamarck, 1816): seven records. Brazil, Alagoas, Maceió - Ponta do Meirim reef UFAL/ECH 0521; Guaxuma reef UFAL/ECH 0540; Pajuçara reef UFAL/ECH 0003, 0005. Marechal Deodoro - Saco da Pedra reef UFAL/ECH 0351; Francês reef UFAL/ECH 0379, 0472 (Figure 6).

 

 

Discussion

In this collection, the class Ophiuroidea is the most abundant with 19 taxa, including Ophiactis savignyi and Amphipholis squamata with the most records. According to Borges et al. (2011), the ophiuroids are the most diverse and frequently abundant group among the echinoderms, living associated with several types of substrata including sand, algae, mud and rubble, or associated with biological substrata such as corals, sponges and polychaete tubes. Numerical and taxa abundance of the class Ophiuroidea was also observed in the echinoderm fauna associated with several types of substrata from the Bahia coast (Magalhães et al. 2005, Borges & Amaral 2006, Manso et al. 2008).

Holothuroidea is the second best-represented class in abundance and taxonomic richness. This group was considered the least studied class in the South Atlantic (Hadel et al. 1999). Holothuria grisea is very common, and was reported as the most frequent and numerous holothuroid on the Brazilian coast (Tommasi, 1969, 1999). The most numerous species of this class in the collection is S. hydriformis, principally from phytal communities. According to Clark (1908), this species is viviparous and occurs in association with several species of macroalgae.

Several species in the present collection, including the sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus, the sea urchin Eucidaris tribuloides, and the sea stars Echinaster brasiliensis, Luidia senegalensis, Echinaster echinophorus and Narcissia trigonaria, are considered endangered in some localities on the southeastern Brazilian coast (Hadel et al. 1999, Ventura et al. 2009).

Other catalogues report more specimens and taxa of the classes Echinoidea and Asteroidea than the classes Ophiuroidea and Holothuroidea (Alves & Cerqueira 2000, Lima & Fernandes 2009, Oliveira et al. 2010, Xavier 2010). However, the dominance of these groups is associated with the types of substrates where these species can be found (Gondim et al. 2008). Substrates composed of algae, marine grasses, sponges, and other sessile organisms also contribute to increasing the abundance and richness of the echinoderm fauna (Hendler et al. 1995). The variety of types of substrates where the specimens were collected contributed to increasing the abundance and richness of the species listed in this catalogue, mainly of the classes Ophiuroidea and Holothuroidea.

 

Conclusion

This inventory of the phylum Echinodermata collection in the Setor de Comunidades Bentônicas, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, illustrates the diversity of this group in the benthic fauna on the coast of Alagoas. The present catalogue contains 50 species, with 640 records and 16,201 individuals, including 19 species of Ophiuroidea, 14 Holothuroidea, 8 Echinoidea, 8 Asteroidea, and one Crinoidea. This collection is an important reference tool for current and future studies of the marine biodiversity of the phylum Echinodermata from the state of Alagoas and the Brazilian northeastern coast.

 

Acknowledgements

To Profª Drª Cynthia Lara de Castro Manso (Universidade Federal de Sergipe) and Prof. Dr. Carlos Renato Rezende Ventura (Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro) for taxonomic confirmation of some species. To Dr. Janet W. Reid, Research Associate, Virginia Museum of Natural History for revising the English version. Funding was provided by CNPq to Maria Lilian de Freitas Lima and by CAPES to Anderson Luiz Silva Miranda.

 

References

ABSALÃO, R.S. & MANSO, C.L.C. 1990. Influência da convergencia subtropical na fauna de ofiuróides da costa sul do Brasil. In Simpósio de Ecossistemas da Costa Sul e Sudeste Brasileira. ACIESP, São Paulo, v.1, p.215-223.         [ Links ]

ALBUQUERQUE, M.N. 1986. Ophiuroidea Gray, 1840 (Echinodermata) da plataforma continental do Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Tese de Doutorado, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo.         [ Links ]

ALVES, O.F.S. & CERQUEIRA, W.R.P. 2000. Echinodermata das praias de Salvador (Bahia, Brasil). Rev. Bras. Zool. 17(2):543-553. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-81752000000200024         [ Links ]

AMARAL, A.C.Z & JABLONSKI, S. 2005. Conservação da Biodiversidade marinha e costeira do Brasil. Megadiversidade. 1(1):43-51.         [ Links ]

BORGES, M., MONTEIRO, A.M.G. & AMARAL, A.C.Z. 2002. Taxonomy of Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) from the continental shelf and slope of the southern and southeastern Brazilian Coast. Biota Neotrop. 2(2): http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v2n2/pt/download?article+BN02302022002+abstract (último acesso em 19/12/2011)        [ Links ]

BORGES, M. & AMARAL, A.C.Z. 2006. Filo Echinodermata: Classe Ophiuroidea. In Manual de Identificação dos Invertebrados Marinhos da Região Sudeste-sul do Brasil (A.C.Z. Amaral, A.E. Rizzo & E.P. Arruda, eds.). Editora da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, p.235-272.         [ Links ]

BORGES, M., YOKOYAMA, L.Q. & AMARAL, A.C.Z. 2011. Ophiuroidea. In Biodiversidade e ecossistemas bentônicos marinhos do litoral Norte de São Paulo Sudeste do Brasil (A.C.Z. Amaral & S.A.H. Nallin, eds.) http://www.ib.unicamp.br/biblioteca/pubdigitais (último acesso em 14.02.2012)        [ Links ]

BRITO, I.M. 1962. Ensaio de catálogo dos equinodermas do Brasil. Avulso - Cent. Estud. Zool. Univ. Bras. 13(1):1-4.         [ Links ]

CASTRO, C.B., ECHEVERRÍA, C.A., PIRES, D.O. & FONSECA, C.G. 1999. Distribuição do bentos (Cnidaria e Echinodermata) em costões rochosos da baía da Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. In Ecologia dos ambientes costeiros do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (S.H.G. Silva & H.P. Lavrado, eds.). PPGE-UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, v.7, p.179-193. Série Oecologia Brasiliensis.         [ Links ]

CLARK, H.L. 1908. The apodous holothurians; a monograph of the Synaptidae and Molpadiidae, including a report on the representatives of these families in the collections of the United States National Museum. Smithson. Contrib. Knowledge. 35:1-231.         [ Links ]

CLARK, A.M. & DOWNEY, M.E. 1992. Starfishes of the Atlantic. Chapman & Hall, London.         [ Links ]

CORREIA, M.D. 2011. Scleractinian corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from reef ecosystems on the Alagoas coast, Brazil. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 91(3):659-668. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315410000858         [ Links ]

CORREIA, M.D. & SOVIERZOSKI, H.H. 2009. Ecossistemas Costeiros de Alagoas - Brasil. Technical Books Editora, Rio de Janeiro.         [ Links ]

GONDIM, A.I., LACOUTH, P., ALONSO, C. & MANSO, C.L.C. 2008. Echinodermata da Praia do Cabo Branco, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 8(2): http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v8n2/pt/abstract?inventory+bn02408022008 (último acesso em 19/12/2011).         [ Links ]

HADEL, V.F., MONTEIRO, A.M.G., DITADI, A.S.F., TIAGO, C.G. & TOMMASI, L.R. 1999. Filo Echinodermata. In Biodiversidade do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil - Invertebrados Marinhos (A.E. Migotto & C.G. Tiago, eds.). FAPESP, São Paulo, v.3, p.259-271.         [ Links ]

HENDLER, G., MILLER, J.E., PAWSON, D.L. & KIER, P.M. 1995. Echinoderms of Florida and Caribbean: Sea Stars, Sea Urchins and allies. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.         [ Links ]

KRAU, L. 1950. Observações sobre os Echinodermas da Baía de Guanabara. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 48(1):357-362.         [ Links ]

LIMA, E.J.B. & FERNANDES, M.L.B. 2009. Diversidade de equinodermos (Echinodermata) no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Rev. Bras. Zoocienc. 11(1):55-63.         [ Links ]

LIMA, M.L.F., CORREIA, M.D., SOVIERZOSKI, H.H. & MANSO, C.L.C. 2011 New records of Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) from shallow waters off Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil. Mar. Biodivers. Rec. 4:1-10.         [ Links ]

LIMA-VERDE, J.C. 1969. Primeira contribuição ao inventário dos equinodermas do nordeste brasileiro. Arq. Cienc. Mar. 9(1):9-13.         [ Links ]

MAGALHÃES, W.F., MARTINS, L.R. & ALVES, O.F.S. 2005. Inventário dos Echinodermata do Estado da Bahia. Braz. J. Aquat. Sci. Tech. 9(1):59-63.         [ Links ]

MANSO, C.L.C. 1989. Os Echinodermata da plataforma continental interna entre Cabo Frio e Saquarema, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Rev. Bras. Biol. 49(2):355-359.         [ Links ]

MANSO, C.L.C. 1991. Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) da região Sul-Sudeste do Brasil coletados durante as operações do N/Oc "Almirante Saldanha". Dissertação de Mestrado, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba.         [ Links ]

MANSO, C.L.C., ALVES, O.F.S. & MARTINS, L.R. 2008. Echinodermata da Baía de Todos os Santos e Baía de Aratu (Bahia, Brasil). Biota Neotrop. 8(3): http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v8n3/en/abstract?article+bn02208032008 (último acesso em 19/12/2011)        [ Links ]

MARTINS, I.X. & QUEIROZ, A.C.M. 2006. Echinodermos do litoral do Estado do Ceará. In Biota marinha da costa oeste do Ceará (H. Matthews-Cascon & T.M.C. Lotufo, eds.). MMA, Brasília, v.24, p.199-220.         [ Links ]

MIKKELSEN, P.M. & CRACRAFT, J. 2001. Marine biodiversity and the need for systematic inventories. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):525-534.         [ Links ]

MONTEIRO, A.M.C. 1987. Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) da região de Ubatuba (SP) - Aspectos Morfológicos e Ecológicos. Tese de Doutorado, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo.         [ Links ]

NETTO, L.F., HADEL, V.F. & TIAGO, C.G. 2005. Echinodermata from São Sebastião Channel (São Paulo, Brazil). Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3):207-218.         [ Links ]

NOGUEIRA, C., VALDUJO, P.H., PAESE, A., RAMOS NETO, M.B. & MACHADO, R.B. 2009. Desafios para identificação de áreas para conservação da biodiversidade. Megadiversidade 5(1-2):43-53.         [ Links ]

OLIVEIRA, J.P., OLIVEIRA, J. & MANSO, C.L.C. 2010. Inventário da coleção de equinodermos do LABIMAR, Campus Profº Alberto Carvalho, Universidade Federal de Sergipe. Scientia Plena 6(12):1-14.         [ Links ]

PAWSON, D.L., PAWSON, D.J. & KING, R.A. 2010. A taxonomic guide to the Echinodermata of the South Atlantic Bight, USA: 1. Sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). Zootaxa 2449:1-48.         [ Links ]

RATHBUN, R. 1879. A List of the Brazilian Echinoderms, with notes on their distribution, etc. Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts Sci. 5(3):139-151.         [ Links ]

TOMMASI, L.R. 1969. Lista dos Holothuroidea recentes do Brasil. Contrib. avulsas Inst. Oceanogr., Oceanogr. Biol. 15:1-50.         [ Links ]

TOMMASI, L.R. 1970. Os ofiuróides recentes do Brasil e de regiões vizinhas. Contrib. avulsas Inst. Oceanogr., Oceanogr. Biol. 20:1-16.         [ Links ]

TOMMASI, L.R. 1985. Equinodermes da região da Ilha Vitória (SP). Bol. Inst. Oceanogr. 13:1-5.         [ Links ]

TOMMASI, L.R. 1999. Echinodermata marinhos registrados no litoral brasileiro, recentes e fósseis do Brasil. http://www.bdt.org.br/zoologia/echinodermata/124pp (último acesso em 12/04/2007).         [ Links ]

TOMMASI, L.R. & ABREU, J. 1974. Equinodermes do Brasil. IV. Sobre seis espécies novas de Ophiuroidea da região ao largo da Ilha Grande (RJ). Bol. Inst. Oceanogr. 23:17-32.         [ Links ]

VENTURA, C.R.R., VERÍSSIMO, I., LIMA, R.N.P., BARCELLOS, C.F. & OIGMAN-PSZCZOL, S.S. 2007. Echinodermata In Biodiversidade Marinha da Baía da Ilha Grande (J.C. Creed, D.O. Pires & M.A.O. Figueiredo, orgs.). MMA, Brasília, p. 271-290.         [ Links ]

VENTURA, C.R.R., CERQUEIRA, W.R.P., COSTA-LOTUFO, L.V., FREIRE, C.A.O., HADEL, V.F., MANSO, C.L.C., MONTEIRO, A.M.G., SILVA, J.R.M.C. & TIAGO, C.G. 2009. Echinodermata. In Estado da Arte e Perspectivas para a Zoologia no Brasil (R.M. Rocha & W.A. Boeger, eds). UFPR, Curitiba, v.1, p.183-201.         [ Links ]

VERRILL, A.E. 1868. Notes on the Radiata in the Museum of Yale College; 4 - Notice of coral and echinoderms collected by Prof. C. F. Hartt at the Abrolhos Reefs province of Bahia, Brazil. Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts Sci. 1:351-371.         [ Links ]

XAVIER, L.A.R. 2010. Inventário dos equinodermos do Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Braz. J. Aquat. Sci. Tech. 14(2):73-78.         [ Links ]

ZAHER, H. & YOUNG, P.S. 2003. As coleções zoológicas brasileiras: panorama e desafios. Cienc. Cult. 55(3):24-26.         [ Links ]

 

 

Received 05/10/2011
Revised 08/04/2012
Accepted 20/04/2012

 

 

* Corresponding author: Anderson Luiz Silva Miranda, e-mail: silver_soad@hotmail.com