SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.16 issue3The herpetofauna of Parque Nacional da Serra das Confusões, state of Piauí, Brazil, with a regional species list from an ecotonal area of Cerrado and CaatingaList of Odonates from the Floresta Nacional de São Francisco de Paula (FLONA - SFP), with two new distribution records for Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand

Journal

Article

Indicators

Related links

Share


Biota Neotropica

On-line version ISSN 1676-0611

Biota Neotrop. vol.16 no.3 Campinas  2016  Epub July 14, 2016

https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-BN-2015-0151 

Inventory

Inventory of the fish fauna from Ivaí River basin, Paraná State, Brazil

Inventário da ictiofauna da bacia do rio Ivaí, Paraná, Brasil

Augusto Frota1  2  4 

Gabriel de Carvalho Deprá1  2 

Letícia Machado Petenucci1 

Weferson Júnio da Graça1  3 

1Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Coleção Ictiológica do Núcleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura, Av. Colombo, 5790. CEP 87020-900. Maringá, PR, Brasil.

2Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais, Av. Colombo, 5790. CEP 87020-900. Maringá, PR, Brasil.

3Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Biologia e Núcleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura, Av. Colombo, 5790. CEP 87020-900. Maringá, PR, Brasil.


Abstract

We compiled data on fish fauna of the Ivaí River basin from recent specialised literature, standardised sampling and records of species deposited in fish collections. There were 118 fish species of eight orders and 29 families. Of these, 100 species are autochthonous (84.8%), 13, allochthonous (11.0%) and five, exotic (4.2%). The main causes for the occurrence of non-native species are escapes from aquaculture, introduction for fishing purposes and the construction of the Itaipu hydroelectric plant. The predominance of small and medium-sized Characiformes and Siluriformes, including 13 species new to science, accounts for approximately 11.0% of all species and 13.0% of all native species. About 10.2% of all species and 12.0% of all native species are endemic to the upper stretch of the Ivaí River, isolated by numerous waterfalls in tributary rivers and streams. The Ivaí River basin is subjected to various anthropogenic interferences such as pollution, eutrophication, siltation, construction of dams, flood control, fisheries, species introduction and release of fingerlings. These activities raise concerns about biodiversity of Brazilian inland waters especially regarding the fish fauna; the basin of the Ivaí River already has species classified in categories of extinction risk: Brycon nattereri and Apareiodon vladii (Vulnerable) and Characidium heirmostigmata and Steindachneridion scriptum (Endangered). The high species richness of native fish, endemism of some, high environmental heterogeneity, high risk of extinction and lack of knowledge of several other species along with the eminent human activities raise the need to enrich the scientific knowledge for future conservation efforts for the studied basin.

Keywords ichthyofauna; upper Paraná River; checklist; biogeographic barriers; conservation

Resumo

Nós compilamos dados sobre a diversidade da ictiofauna da bacia do rio Ivaí proveniente de recentes informações contidas em estudos divulgados na literatura especializada, coletas padronizadas e registros das espécies depositadas em coleções ictiológicas. Foram registradas 118 espécies de peixes pertencentes a oito ordens e 29 famílias. Dessas, 100 são autóctones, (84.8%), 13 são alóctones (11.0%) e cinco são exóticas (4.2%). As principais causas da ocorrência de espécies não nativas são escapes da piscicultura, introduções para pesca e a construção da usina hidrelétrica de Itaipu. Ocorre o predomínio de espécies de Characiformes e Siluriformes com porte pequeno e médio, sendo que 13 espécies são novas, o que representa aproximadamente 11.0% do total de espécies e 13.0% do total de espécies nativas. Ainda, aproximadamente 10.2% do total de espécies e 12.0% do total de espécies nativas correspondem a espécies endêmicas, isoladas pela presença de inúmeras cachoeiras em rios e riachos afluentes no trecho superior do rio Ivaí. A bacia do rio Ivaí está sujeita a uma variedade de interferências antrópicas como poluição, eutrofização, assoreamento, construção de represas, controle do regime de cheias, pesca, introduções de espécies e soltura de alevinos. Tais atividades apontam alarmantes preocupações com a biodiversidade das águas continentais brasileiras sobretudo para a ictiofauna, sendo que a bacia do rio Ivaí já apresenta espécies listadas em categorias de ameaças de extinção como Brycon nattereri e Apareiodon vladii (Vulneráveis) e Characidium heirmostigmata e Steindachneridion scriptum (Em Perigo). Devido à alta riqueza de espécies de peixes nativos, endemismo de algumas, alta heterogeneidade ambiental, sérios riscos de extinções e desconhecimento de várias outras espécies somados às eminentes ações antrópicas deve-se enriquecer o aporte científico de futuros apelos conservacionistas para a bacia aqui inventariada.

Palavras-chave peixes; alto rio Paraná; lista de espécies; barreiras biogeográficas; conservação

Introduction

Of the Brazilian basins, the Paraná River basin is the second largest drainage area after the Amazon basin (Stevaux et al. 1997, Galves et al. 2009). According to Agostinho et al. (2007), the upper section of the Paraná River is the most investigated with regards to Brazilian freshwater fish. This stretch covers water systems that cross the states of Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná. In the latter, it extends to the upstream region of the city of Guaíra, formerly Sete Quedas, now submerged by the Itaipu lake.

Studies on fish of the upper Paraná River basin have increased in recent years but are still mainly concentrated in basins of the São Paulo State (Langeani et al. 2007). Although these authors have surveyed the number of species with records in the upper Paraná River basin and totaled 310 valid species and 50 likely new species, a study performed by Galves et al. (2009) on the fish fauna surveys of the main tributaries of the upper Paraná River basin indicated a gap of these studies in relation to the Ivaí River basin, which is an important left bank tributary of the Paraná River, in the Paraná State.

There are only few surveys on fish fauna in the Ivaí River basin, especially for the tributaries, Barra Bonita River (Maier et al. 2008), Bonito River (Viana et al. 2013), some streams located in the Perobas Biological Reserve (Delariva & Silva 2013) and a first-order stream in the municipality of Marialva (Araújo et al. 2011); and there are few genetic studies with some species of Loricariidae (Zawadzki et al. 2004, Portela-Castro et al. 2007, Paiva et al. 2013) or ecological studies (Luiz et al. 2003, Luiz et al. 2005) and description of new species (Graça & Pavanelli 2008, Roxo et al. 2014, Tencatt et al. 2014, Zawadzki et al. 2016) with fish of this basin.

This study aims to provide a compilation of data on the diversity of the fish fauna of the Ivaí River basin from recent specialised literature, standardised sampling and records of species deposited in fish collections. In addition, endemism and threats to the species are discussed.

Material and Methods

1. Study area

A dense drainage network with many tributaries composes the watershed of the Ivaí River, the second largest in the Paraná State, located at the geographical coordinates 22º56'17'' - 25º35'27'' S and 50º44'17'' - 53º41'43'' W (Destefani 2005). The Ivaí River is a left bank tributary of the Paraná River in the Paraná State and has 35,845 km2 drainage area, which is approximately 685 km in length (Maack 1981). This river is formed in the municipality of Ivaí by the confluence of the rivers Patos and São João (Santos et al. 2008), both in the State Park of Serra da Esperança, on the border between the second and third plateau of the Paraná State (Maack 1981).

The Ivaí River basin has different geological and geomorphological characteristics, since it runs through different lithologies and drains distinct morphological and topographical environments (Destefani 2005). In this way, this author has defined three sections for the basin considering the geology, geomorphology, topography and slope: upper, middle and lower stretches (Figure 1).

Figure 1 Map of the Ivaí River basin, showing the most thoroughly sampled sites (green dots). Each dot may correspond to more than one collection site. Limits between upper, medium and lower sections are represented by red triangles. 

The upper section is the longest with about 440 km and has the highest slopes of the whole basin, especially from the source of the Patos River until its confluence with the São João River; also there are rapids and waterfalls due to the type of geological substrate formed by sedimentary rocks, which, according to Maack (1981), promote a stepped relief formed by ridges. By crossing the slope of the Serra da Esperança, the Ivaí River enters the third plateau and flows upon basaltic rocks, giving rise to the middle section, which is approximately 170 km. In this section, the slope is much smaller, with a less energetic relief; there are small and shallow waterfalls as well as important rapids as the Ferro and Índio rapids, intercalated by backwaters of gentle slope (Destefani 2005). The lower section is the floodplain and is approximately 164 km in length. Therein, the river flows over sandstones of the Caiuá formation and of alluvial sediments, with a very small slope of 20 meters until flowing into the Paraná River (Destefani 2005).

Other studies show some physical characteristics of each part of the Ivaí River basin, such as altitude, temperature and rainfall. Paiva (2008) stated that the altitude in the upper section of this basin has, on average, 800 m, but it can reach up to 1,250 m, in the middle stretch, the average altitude is 500 meters, and in the lower reaches, 250 m, on average. Ichiba (2006) reports the average annual temperatures for each section of the basin: 18ºC for the upper reaches, 20ºC in the middle and 22ºC in the lower reaches. The research of Sousa (2006) determined the average annual rainfall for the same sections: 1,800 mm for the upper reaches, 1,600 mm in the middle and 1,400 mm for the lower reaches.

2. Database

The list of species for the Ivaí River basin was developed by consulting the material deposited in the fish collections of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina (MZUEL); Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (MZUSP); Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia, Curitiba (MHNCI), Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Porto Alegre (MCP) and the Coleção Ictiológica do Nupélia, Maringá (NUP), which are available at http://splink.cria.org.br. This list was compared with the species listed for the upper Paraná River basin in Langeani et al. (2007). Species with doubtful occurrence or identification were reviewed by experts.

To complement the information, recent collections were conducted under the permission #14028-1 (Sistema de Informação e Autorização em Biodiversidade - Sisbio, Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade) in 21 streams of the upper reaches of the basin, the region with the lowest number of samples. The origin of each species was determined according to by Langeani et al. (2007), in which autochthonous species are native to the upper Paraná River basin, the allochthonous species were introduced from other basins belonging to the Neotropical region and the exotic were introduced from other continents. The origin of each species were obtained from Reis et al. (2003), Langeani et al. (2007), Graça & Pavanelli (2007) and Julio Júnior et al. (2009), which compile data of several long-term studies carried out by the Nupélia - Universidade Estadual de Maringá.

Threat level was determined in accordance with the Portaria do Ministério do Meio Ambiente Nº 445, of December 17th, 2014 and changed by Nº 98, of April 28th, 2015, which recognize species of fish and aquatic invertebrates of Brazilian fauna threatened with extinction classified in the following categories: Extinct in the Wild (EW), Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN) and Vulnerable (VU). For endemism determinations, some species were considered as restricted to the basin by Graça & Pavanelli (2008), Roxo et al. (2014), Tencatt et al. (2014), Zawadzki et al. (2016) and personal communications from Cláudio H. Zawadzki (UEM); other species were considered endemic by means of analysis and comparison of data obtained with comparative material from adjacent basins.

3. Fish identification

Identification follows Graça & Pavanelli (2007), Graça & Pavanelli (2008), Tencatt et al. (2014) and Roxo et al. (2014). Some individuals of Trichomycterus identified as Trichomycterus sp., Trichomycterus sp. 1 Trichomycterus sp. 2 and Trichomycterus sp. 3 in the studies of Maier et al. (2008), Araújo et al. (2011), Delariva & Silva (2013) and Viana et al. (2013), which are deposited in the fish collection of Nupélia, were re-examined and identified as Trichomycterus davisi (Haseman, 1911). In addition, some species recorded in the collections analysed were re-examined and identifications were rectified, namely: Hypostomus aspilogaster (Cope, 1894) is Hypostomus ancistroides (Ihering, 1911); Hypostomus sp. is Hypostomus sp. 1; Hypostomus sp. 1 is Hypostomus sp. 2; Hypostomus sp. 3 is Hypostomus hermanni (Ihering, 1905); Corumbataia sp. is Hisonotus pachysarkosZawadzki, Roxo & Graça, 2016; Bryconamericus exodon (Eigenmann, 1907) is Piabarchus aff. stramineus (Eigenmann, 1908); Creagrutus sp. is Bryconamericus sp.; Hyphessobrycon sp. is Diapoma guarani (Mahnert & Géry, 1987); Hyphessobrycon aff. guarani Mahnert & Géry, 1987 is Planaltina sp.; Mimagoniates microlepis (Steindachner, 1877) is Piabarchus aff. stramineus; Oligosarcus sp. is Oligosarcus paranensis Menezes & Géry, 1983; Piabina sp. is Piabina argentea Reinhardt, 1867; Serrasalmus spilopleura Kner, 1858 is Serrasalmus maculatus Kner, 1858; Phalloceros aff. caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868) is Phalloceros harpagos Lucinda, 2008; Gymnotus aff. carapo (Linnaeus, 1758) is Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (Valenciennes, 1839), Crenicichla niederleinii (Holmberg, 1891) and Crenicichla haroldoi Luengo & Britski, 1974 are Crenicichla jaguarensis Haseman, 1911. Five species have had taxonomic changes recently: Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 considered a junior synonym of A. lacustris (Lütken, 1875) by Lucena and Soares (2016); three new genus changes of Bryconamericus stramineus to Piabarchus, Hyphessobrycon guarani to Diapoma by Thomaz et al. (2015) and Hisonotus insperatus Britski & Garavello, 2003 and H. oliveirai to Curculionichthys by Roxo et al. (2015).

Results

There were 118 fish species registered in the Ivaí River basin (Table 1) belonging to eight orders and 29 families (Table 2). The most species-rich orders are Siluriformes and Characiformes (Table 1), with 51 and 48 species, respectively (Table 2). Together, they represent 83.9% of all species registered. The richest families are Loricariidae and Characidae with, respectively, 24 and 20 species (Table 2), representing approximately 37.2% of the species.

Table 1 Ichthyofauna from the Ivaí River basin: species, voucher specimens, origin of each species, threat level and endemism. The symbol # refers to species added to the list due to personal observation. The asterisk (*) represents endemic species. 

Species Voucher Origin/Threat level
ELASMOBRANCHII
Myliobatiformes
Potamotrygonidae
1 Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel, 1963 NUP10918 Allochthonous
ACTINOPTERYGII
Characiformes
Acestrorhynchidae
2 Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Lütken, 1875) NUP5541 Autochthonous
Anostomidae
3 Leporinus amblyrhynchus Garavello & Britski, 1987 NUP5554 Autochthonous
4 Leporinus friderici (Bloch, 1794) # Autochthonous
5 Leporinus octofasciatus Steindachner, 1915 NUP10636 Autochthonous
6 Schizodon nasutus Kner, 1858 NUP1440 Autochthonous
Bryconidae
Bryconinae
7 Brycon nattereri Günther, 1864 NUP8534 Autochthonous/(VU)
Salmininae
8 Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816) # Autochthonous
Characidae
9 Astyanax bockmanni Vari & Castro, 2007 NUP5487 Autochthonous
10 Astyanax lacustris (Lütken, 1875) NUP3941 Autochthonous
11 Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) NUP11538 Autochthonous
12 Astyanax aff. paranae Eigenmann, 1914 NUP11794 Autochthonous
13 Hemigrammus cf. marginatus Ellis, 1911 NUP1498 Autochthonous
14 Moenkhausia aff. gracilima Eigenmann, 1908 NUP9746 Autochthonous
15 Oligosarcus pintoi Campos, 1945 NUP16388 Autochthonous
16 Oligosarcus paranensis Menezes & Géry, 1983 NUP16381 Autochthonous
Aphyocharacinae
17 Aphyocharax sp. NUP5550 Autochthonous
Characinae
18 Galeocharax knerii (Steindachner, 1879) NUP10737 Autochthonous
19 Roeboides descalvadensis Fowler, 1932 NUP5531 Allochthonous
Cheirodontinae
20 Odontostilbe sp. NUP5533 Autochthonous
21 Serrapinnus notomelas (Eigenmann, 1915) NUP17827 Autochthonous
Stevardiinae
22 Bryconamerius aff. iheringii (Boulenger, 1887) NUP16083 Autochthonous
23 Bryconamericus turiuba Langeani, Lucena, Pedrini & Tarelho-Pereira, 2005 NUP16369 Autochthonous
24 Bryconamericus sp. NUP17150 Autochthonous*
25 Diapoma guarani (Mahnert & Géry, 1987) NUP5066 Autochthonous
26 Piabarchus aff. stramineus (Eigenmann, 1908) NUP16385 Autochthonous
27 Piabina argentea Reinhardt, 1867 NUP5010 Autochthonous
28 Planaltina sp. NUP17152 Autochthonous*
Curimatidae
29 Cyphocharax modestus (Fernández-Yépez, 1948) NUP11730 Autochthonous
30 Cyphocharax nagelii (Steindachner, 1881) NUP5530 Autochthonous
31 Steindachnerina brevipinna (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889) NUP5538 Allochthonous
32 Steindachnerina cf. corumbae Pavanelli & Britski, 1999 NUP16396 Autochthonous
33 Steindachnerina insculpta (Fernández-Yépez, 1948) NUP5529 Autochthonous
Crenuchidae
34 Characidium aff. zebra Eigenmann, 1909 NUP1383 Autochthonous
35 Characidium gomesi Travassos, 1956 NUP11718 Autochthonous
36 Characidium heirmostigmata Graça & Pavanelli, 2008 NUP17136 Autochthonous*/(EN)
Erythrinidae
37 Erythrinus erythrinus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) NUP11729 Allochthonous
38 Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) NUP1499 Allochthonous
39 Hoplias intermedius (Günther, 1864) NUP10020 Autochthonous
40 Hoplias sp. 2 NUP14323 Autochthonous
41 Hoplias sp. 3 NUP15907 Autochthonous
Hemiodontidae
42 Hemiodus orthonops Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 # Allochthonous
Parodontidae
43 Apareiodon affinis (Steindachner, 1879) NUP5539 Autochthonous
44 Apareiodon piracicabae (Eigenmann, 1907) NUP4548 Autochthonous
45 Apareiodon vladii Pavanelli, 2006 NUP16081 Autochthonous/(VU)
46 Apareiodon sp. NUP1501 Autochthonous*
47 Parodon nasus Kner, 1859 NUP9857 Autochthonous
Prochilodontidae
48 Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1850) NUP6064 Autochthonous
Serrasalmidae
49 Serrasalmus maculatus Kner, 1858 # Autochthonous
Cypriniformes
Cyprinidae
50 Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 NUP860 Exotic
Cyprinodontiformes
Poeciliidae
51 Cnesterodon sp. NUP5475 Autochthonous*
52 Phalloceros harpagos Lucinda, 2008 NUP5551 Autochthonous
53 Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 NUP11792 Allochthonous
Gymnotiformes
Apteronotidae
54 Apteronotus aff. albifrons (Linnaeus, 1766) NUP3058 Allochthonous
55 Apteronotus caudimaculosus Santana, 2003 NUP10613 Autochthonous
56 Porotergus ellisi Arámburu, 1957 NUP3057 Allochthonous
Gymnotidae
57 Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (Valenciennes, 1839) NUP15364 Autochthonous
58 Gymnotus sylvius Albert & Fernandes-Matioli, 1999 NUP11281 Autochthonous
Perciformes
Centrarchidae
59 Micropterus salmoides (La Cepède, 1802) NUP2672 Exotic
Cichlidae
60 Cichlasoma paranaense Kullander, 1983 NUP11728 Autochthonous
61 Crenicichla britskii Kullander, 1982 NUP3575 Autochthonous
62 Crenicichla jaguarensis Haseman, 1911 NUP10797 Autochthonous
63 Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) NUP5524 Autochthonous
64 Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) NUP15900 Exotic
65 Tilapia rendalli (Boulenger, 1897) NUP858 Exotic
Sciaenidae
66 Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) # Allochthonous
Siluriformes
Auchenipteridae
67 Glanidium cf. cesarpintoi Ihering, 1928 NUP5543 Autochthonous
68 Tatia neivai (Ihering, 1930) NUP11045 Autochthonous
69 Parauchenipterus galeatus (Linnaeus, 1766) # Autochthonous
Callichthyidae
70 Callichthys callichthys (Linnaeus, 1758) NUP6122 Autochthonous
71 Corydoras aff. aeneus (Gill, 1858) NUP11736 Autochthonous
72 Corydoras ehrhardti Steindachner, 1910 NUP15899 Autochthonous
73 Corydoras lacrimostigmata Tencatt, Britto & Pavanelli, 2014 NUP1446 Autochthonous*
Cetopsidae
74 Cetopsis gobioides Kner, 1858 NUP11673 Autochthonous
Doradidae
75 Trachydoras paraguayensis (Eigenmann & Ward, 1907) NUP2084 Allochthonous
Loricariidae
Hypoptopomatinae
76 Curculionichthys insperatus (Britski & Garavello, 2003) NUP3578 Autochthonous
77 Curculionichthys oliveirai (Roxo, Zawadzki & Troy, 2014) NUP16070 Autochthonous*
78 Hisonotus francirochai (Ihering, 1928) NUP16379 Autochthonous
79 Hisonotus pachysarkos Zawadzki, Roxo & Graça, 2016 NUP16258 Autochthonous*
Hypostominae
80 Ancistrus sp. NUP15978 Autochthonous
81 Hypostomus ancistroides (Ihering, 1911) NUP16080 Autochthonous
82 Hypostomus albopunctatus (Regan, 1908) NUP10109 Autochthonous
83 Hypostomus commersoni Valenciennes, 1836 NUP856 Allochthonous
84 Hypostomus hermanni (Ihering, 1905) NUP9806 Autochthonous
85 Hypostomus iheringii (Regan, 1908) NUP 4837 Autochthonous
86 Hypostomus margaritifer (Regan, 1908) NUP4921 Autochthonous
87 Hypostomus aff. paulinus (Ihering, 1905) NUP15329 Autochthonous
88 Hypostomus strigaticeps (Regan, 1908) NUP4530 Autochthonous
89 Hypostomus regani (Ihering, 1905) NUP4979 Autochthonous
90 Hypostomus cf. topavae (Godoy, 1969) NUP4529 Autochthonous
91 Hypostomus sp. 1 NUP 2597 Autochthonous*
92 Hypostomus sp. 2 NUP10917 Autochthonous*
93 Hypostomus sp. 3 NUP 4745 Autochthonous*
94 Megalancistrus parananus (Peters, 1881) NUP4466 Autochthonous
Loricariinae
95 Farlowella amazonum (Günther, 1864) NUP1450 Autochthonous
96 Loricaria prolixa Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1978 NUP3359 Autochthonous
97 Rineloricaria pentamaculata Langeani & Araújo, 1994 NUP16079 Autochthonous
98 Rineloricaria cf. latirostris (Boulenger, 1900) NUP5527 Autochthonous
Neoplecostominae
99 Neoplecostomus sp. NUP10113 Autochthonous*
Heptapteridae
100 Cetopsorhamdia iheringi Schubart & Gomes, 1959 NUP5483 Autochthonous
101 Heptapterus mustelinus (Vallenciennes, 1835) NUP11667 Autochthonous
102 Imparfinis borodini Mees & Cala, 1989 NUP4549 Autochthonous
103 Imparfinis mirini Haseman, 1911 NUP3582 Autochthonous
104 Imparfinis schubarti (Gomes, 1956) NUP11809 Autochthonous
105 Pimelodella avanhandavae Eigenmann, 1917 NUP5553 Autochthonous
106 Pimelodella gracilis (Valenciennes, 1835) NUP1783 Autochthonous
107 Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) NUP16090 Autochthonous
108 Phenacorhamdia tenebrosa (Schubart, 1964) NUP16072 Autochthonous
Ictaluridae
109 Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818) NUP757 Exotic
Pimelodidae
110 Iheringichthys labrosus (Lütken, 1874) NUP5544 Autochthonous
111 Pimelodus microstoma Steindachner, 1877 NUP5534 Autochthonous
112 Pimelodus ornatus Kner, 1858 NUP10747 Allochthonous
113 Pimelodus paranaensis Britski & Langeani, 1988 NUP9143 Autochthonous
114 Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) # Autochthonous
115 Steindachneridion scriptum (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1918) NUP2511 Autochthonous/(EN)
Trichomycteridae
116 Trichomycterus davisi (Haseman, 1911) NUP16071 Autochthonous
117 Trichomycterus diabolus Bockmann, Casatti & de Pinna, 2004 NUP5482 Autochthonous
Synbranchiformes
Synbranchidae
118 Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch, 1795 NUP5552 Autochthonous

Table 2 Number of species in the Ivaí River basin, sorted by Order and Family. 

Order Family Number of species %
1. Characiformes 48 40.7
1. Acestrorhynchidae 1 0.8
2. Anostomidae 4 3.4
3. Bryconidae 2 1.7
4. Characidae 20 16.9
5. Curimatidae 5 4.2
6. Crenuchidae 3 2.5
7. Erythrinidae 5 4.2
8. Hemiodontidae 1 0.8
9. Parodontidae 5 4.2
10. Prochilodontidae 1 0.8
11. Serrasalmidae 1 0.8
2. Cypriniformes 1 0.8
12. Cyprinidae 1 0.8
3. Cyprinodontiformes 3 2.5
13. Poeciliidae 3 2.5
4. Gymnotiformes 5 4.2
14. Apteronotidae 3 2.5
15. Gymnotidae 2 1.7
5. Perciformes 8 6.8
16. Centrarchidae 1 0.8
17. Cichlidae 6 5.1
18. Sciaenidae 1 0.8
6. Siluriformes 51 43.2
19. Auchenipteridae 3 2.5
20. Callichthyidae 4 3.4
21. Cetopsidae 1 0.8
22. Doradidae 1 0.8
23. Loricariidae 24 20.3
24. Heptapteridae 9 7.6
25. Ictaluridae 1 0.8
26. Pimelodidae 6 5.1
27. Trichomycteridae 2 1.7
7. Synbranchiformes 1 0.8
28. Synbranchidae 1 0.8
8. Myliobatiformes 1 0.8
29. Potamotrygonidae 1 0.8

The Ivaí River basin has 13 new species to science (species marked with an asterisk are endemic to the Ivaí River basin; Figure 2, Table 1): Ancistrus sp., Apareiodon sp.*, Aphyocharax sp., Bryconamericus sp.*, Cnesterodon sp.*, Hoplias sp. 2, Hoplias sp. 3, Hypostomus sp. 1*, Hypostomus sp. 2*, Hypostomus sp. 3*, Neoplecostomus sp.*, Odontostilbe sp. and Planaltina sp.*, representing 11.0% of all species and 13.0% of native species. Eight of the new species plus Characidium heirmostigmataGraça & Pavanelli, 2008, Corydoras lacrimostigmataTencatt, Britto & Pavanelli, 2014, Curculionichthys oliveirai (Roxo, Zawadzki & Troy, 2014) and Hisonotus pachysarkosZawadzki, Roxo & Graça, 2016 make a total of twelve endemic species (Figure 2, Table 1), corresponding to 10.2% of all species and 12.0% of all native species. Fish species of the Ivaí River basin listed in the Portaria do Ministério do Meio Ambiente Nº 445 and changed by Nº 98 fall into the conservation status categories Endangered (EN) and Vulnerable (VU) (Table 1). The following species are considered to be the most threatened: Apareiodon vladii Pavanelli, 2006; Brycon nattereri Günther, 1864; Characidium heirmostigmataGraça & Pavanelli, 2008; and Steindachneridion scriptum (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1918).

Figure 2 Representative specimens of endemic and new fish species to the Ivaí River basin. Their catalogue numbers in the Coleção Ictiológica do Nupélia (NUP) and standard lengths are presented after the names of species. A) Bryconamericus sp., NUP 17150, 66.7 mm; B) Planaltina sp., NUP 17152, 39.6 mm; C) Characidium heirmostigmata, NUP 17136, 46.6 mm; D) Apareiodon sp., NUP 1501, 89.7 mm; E) Cnesterodon sp. (male), NUP 4167, 19.2 mm; F) Cnesterodon sp. (female), NUP 5475, 30.3 mm; G) Corydoras lacrimostigmata, NUP 1446, 33.6 mm; H) Curculionichthys oliveirai - NUP 16070, 28.7 mm; I) Hisonotus pachysarkos, NUP 16258, 35.8 mm; J) Neoplecostomus sp., NUP 10113, 81.1 mm; K) Hypostomus sp. 1, NUP 2597, 86.8 mm; L) Hypostomus sp. 2; NUP 10917, 141.1 mm; M) Hypos.tiftomus sp. 3; NUP 4745, 139.97 mm; N) Ancistrus sp., NUP 15978, 101.7 mm; O) Odontostilbe sp., NUP 5553, 70.3 mm; P) Aphyocharax sp., NUP 5550, 39.1 mm; Q) Hoplias sp. 2, NUP 14323, 94.2 mm; R) Hoplias sp. 3, NUP 15907, 101.7 mm. 

Five exotic species were captured (Figure 3). Of these, the carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758), and the tilapias, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Tilapia rendalli (Boulenger, 1897), probably colonised the basin by escaping from fish farms. This also explains the presence of the other two exotic species, the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818), and the black bass, Micropterus salmoides (La Cépède, 1802), along with introduction for sport-fishing purposes. From the 13 allochthonous species (Figure 2, Table 1), nine invaded the upper Paraná River and the Ivaí River from the lower Paraná basin through the spawning channel of the Itaipu Reservoir (Canal da Piracema), opened December 2002. Those species are: Apteronotus aff. albifrons (Linnaeus, 1766), Hemiodus orthonops Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903, Hypostomus commersoni Valenciennes, 1836, Pimelodus ornatus Kner, 1858, Porotergus ellisi Arámburu, 1957, Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel, 1963, Roeboides descalvadensis Fowler, 1932, Steindachnerina brevipinna (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889) and Trachydoras paraguayensis (Eigenmann & Ward, 1907). Two other allochthonous species, Erythrinus erythrinus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) and Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Agassiz, 1829), were introduced by sport fishers; one species, Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840), was introduced by escape from fish farming; and another species, Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859, was introduced for mosquito control.

Figure 3 Graphic showing the percentages of the origins of species in the Ivaí River basin. 

Discussion

The ichthyofauna of the Ivaí River basin, comprised of 118 species, has an alpha diversity superior to that of all other river systems confined to the Paraná State. There are 110 species in the Tibagi River basin (Shibatta et al. 2002), 76 in the Pirapó River basin (Pagotto et al. 2012), 62 in the Piquiri River basin (Gubiani et al. 2006), 54 in the Jordão River basin (Frota et al. in prep.) and 48 in the Areia river basin (Frota et al. in prep.). The Iguaçu River basin, another important system in the Paraná State, although not completely comprised in it, lacks a complete inventory, but Baumgartner et al. (2012) found in its lower stretch 106 species, an amount similar to that of the Ivaí River as a whole. Other comparable systems within the upper Paraná River basin for which inventories are available show similar species richness. The Mogi Guaçu River has about 135 species (Meschiatti & Arcifa 2009, Oliveira et al. 2009), and the Corumbá Reservoir and its influence area, 119 (Pavanelli et al. 2007). The upper Paraná floodplain harbors 182 fish species, a number considerably higher than that observed in the Ivaí River basin, but that region also presents a higher habitat diversity (Graça & Pavanelli 2007).

In the headwaters of the Ivaí River, there is a predominance of small and medium-sized (15 cm or less in length) Characiformes and Siluriformes. As already highlighted by Viana et al. (2013) in their study of the Bonito River, backwaters separated by rapids typically bear a wide variety of microhabitats. Those environments favour species with greater ability to stay in the water column (e.g., Astyanax and Bryconamericus), as well as benthic species equipped with spines that allow them to attach to rocks and resist the water flow (e.g., loricariids and Trichomycterus). On the other hand, higher-order waterbodies have greater water volume and light incidence, which result in increased primary production and greater availability of resources (Ferreira et al. 2010). Thus, the lower reaches of the Ivaí River basin bear large-sized pelagic (e.g., the characiforms Salminus and Leporinus) and benthic (e.g., the siluriforms Pseudoplatystoma and Steindachneridion) species. In addition, higher-order streams offer a wider array of food items, which allows the coexistence of several trophic guilds ranging from detritivores and planktivores to piscivores, also contributing to their species richness (Ferreira et al. 2010).

The proportion of new species in relation to the total observed in the Ivaí River basin (11.0%) is close to the 14.4% reported by Langeani et al. (2007) for the entire upper Paraná River. Of the new species from the Ivaí River, only five are not endemic, and have already been recognized as so in previous studies performed in other river systems (e.g., Graça & Pavanelli 2007). That shows how poorly known the Ivaí River basin is and that the sampling of low-order streams can reveal unknown species even in a relatively well-sampled river basin such as that of the upper Paraná River. The identification of areas of endemism is extremely important considering that they compose basic geographic units that allow understanding of the evolution of complex regional biota (Morrone 1994) and that should be prioritised for biodiversity conservation (Löwenberg-Neto & Carvalho 2004). Historical biogeography may explain this endemism as a result of speciation processes caused by the emergence of geographic barriers mainly in the upper reaches of the basin, located on the Serra da Esperança. Maack (1981) stated that this mountain range is part of the Triassic-Jurassic relief and corresponds, among other basins, to areas draining the headwaters of the Ivaí River. The sandy and clayey rocks of the geological formations that underlie the Serra da Esperança, combined with the dense drainage network, allow the development of a very uneven relief, with altitudes up to 1,200 m (Maack 1981). Thus, tectonism imposed deformations to the basis, forming some local inflections on the ground, as the Ponta Grossa Arch, and had close relationship with the basaltic effusion in the Mesozoic. Because of these orogenetic features, in that region there are numerous waterfalls, some over 50 meters high, such as Saltos São João and São Francisco (Maack 1981). According to Ribeiro (2006), the formation of some of the Paraná State river basins was strongly affected by the origin of the Ponta Grossa Arch, which may have had an influence on speciation processes.

According to IUCN (2012), the categories Vulnerable and Endangered contain species to which the best available evidence indicates they are at, respectively, high and very high risk of extinction in the wild. Environments with species listed in these categories should be prioritized in terms of conservation. It is therefore important to create more Conservation Units and National Plans that focus the full protection of these sites, such as stretches of the upper Ivaí River basin where most records of Characidium heirmostigmata (Endangered), Apareiodon vladii and Brycon nattereri (vulnerable) were made. Additionally, for many species there is no adequate information to assess, directly or indirectly, the risk of extinction, therefore more studies are necessary to determine a more appropriate threat classification.

Agostinho et al. (2005) provided alarming data on the habitat conditions of Brazilian freshwater species and listed the main causes of biodiversity loss: pollution, eutrophication, siltation, construction of dams, flood control, fisheries and species introduction. This is also true for the Ivaí River basin (Affonso et al. 2015). In its drainage area, there are nearly one million inhabitants, of which only 36% have domestic sewage treatment (Paraná 2010). Also contributing to the pollution of its waters, the area comprises virtually no conservation units and little riparian vegetation due to the intensive use of the soil for agriculture and cattle raising (Paraná 2010). These activities greatly contribute to the siltation of the waterbodies, which was observed in the sites sampled herein and by Viana et al. (2013), and lead to destruction of native vegetation that provide important food items in the diet of some species.

Hydropower enterprises threaten fish biodiversity by controlling the hydrological regime and changing the longitudinal distribution of the species (Petry et al. 2011). This affects the reproductive success of the migratory species by influencing the timing, duration and intensity of floods and droughts (Pelicice et al. 2015). In the last few years, several projects for building hydroelectric plants of different proportions in the Ivaí River basin have been put forward. Those projects were received with apprehension not only by ecologists (Affonso et al. 2015), but also by communities that would be directly affected by their implantation. By demonstrating that the number of new, endemic and threatened species in the Ivaí River is greater than previously imagined, the present paper reinforces the need to promote popular manifestations against those dams.

Although overfishing is not a major problem in the Ivaí River basin, sport fishing contributes to the accidental or intentional introduction of species. In that basin, escapes from fish farms and invasion from the lower Paraná River basin also contribute to the presence of non-native species. Among the ones observed in the Ivaí River basin, few have been studied for their potential of invasion and possible antagonistic interactions with native species. That is the case of Plagioscion squamosissimus, which has been demonstrated to consume the same food items as other piscivores in the upper Paraná flodplain and thus, to be a probable competitor (Pereira et al. 2015). Similar studies are not available for Micropterus salmoides, but the fact that this species is also a piscivore indicate that it also has a potential to affect negatively native species from the Ivaí River. This calls for a close observation upon invasive species, as in the study of Pelicice & Agostinho (2009), who reported on the relationship between the expansion of Cichla kelberi Kullander & Ferreira in the Rosana Reservoir and the decline of fish communities associated with macrophyte stands. Although this species is absent from the Ivaí River Basin, a similar threat may be posed by M. salmoides and P. squamosissimus.

An activity that has become quite common in the Ivaí River is the careless release of thousands of fingerlings of the species of sport fishes, e.g. Leporinus spp., Piaractus mesopotamicus, Pseudoplatystoma spp., Prochilodus spp. and Salminus spp. Although welcomed by the population, this practice is stated by Agostinho et al. (2007) as frequently inefficient (because the river was devoid of its ancestral capacity of supporting large fish populations) or even harmful to the natural populations. It potentially causes loss of genetic diversity and of important alleles selected along many years by their advantages to the survival of the species in that particular habitat, as well as introduction of new pathogens and parasites (Agostinho et al. 2010). Thus, until those actions are carried out based on a large body of knowledge on the life history and population genetics of the species that are being reintroduced, they will continue to be no more than a waste of public money and an additional threat to the native species, as well as a deceiving electoral strategy.

From the results obtained, it becomes evident the need for efforts to preserve the Ivaí River basin, given its high environmental heterogeneity, high species richness, endemism and high risk of extinction of some species. In addition, the lack of information on biology and ecology of various species and the eminent human activities that affect much of the waterbodies in the basin, raise the need for continuity of studies on fish fauna in this basin.

Acknowledgements

We are deeply grateful to Steven Grant for English review; to Francisco Alves Teixeira (Nupélia), Wladimir Marques Domingues (Nupélia) and Rodrigo Júnio da Graça (PGB and Nupélia) for the aid in the field trip; to Claudimar dos Santos by cataloging the vouchers; to Cláudio Zawadzki (UEM) and Angélica Corrêa Dias for Loricariidae identification, Luiz Fernando Caserta Tencatt for Corydoras identification, Luiz Roberto Malabarba and Fernando Camargo Jerep for Hyphessobrycon identification; Ricardo Vicari (UEPG) for material donations, and Vinícius Abilhoa (MHNCI), Francisco Langeani (DZSJRP), Osvaldo Oyakawa (MZUSP) and Carlos Lucena (MCP) for loans of comparative material; to Guilherme Okuda Landgraf and Luiz Fernando Pesenti Junior for taking some of the pictures; to Fundação Araucária (SETI-PR) for financial support and Nupélia and PEA from logistical support. AF and GCD has been suppoted by scholarship from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and WJG has been supported by personal grants from Fundação Araucária (Seti-PR).

References

AFFONSO, I.P., AZEVEDO, R.F., SANTOS, N.L.C., DIAS, R.M., AGOSTINHO, A.A. & GOMES, L.C. 2015. Pulling the plug: strategies to preclude expansion of dams in Brazilian rivers with high-priority for conservation. Natureza & Conservação 13(2): 199-203. [ Links ]

AGOSTINHO, A.A., GOMES, L.C. & PELICICE, F.M. 2007. Ecologia e manejo de recursos pesqueiros em reservatórios do Brasil. Eduem, Maringá, 501 p. [ Links ]

AGOSTINHO, A.A., THOMAZ, S.M. & GOMES, L.C. 2005. Conservação da biodiversidade em águas continentais do Brasil. Megadiversidade 1(1): 70-78. [ Links ]

AGOSTINHO, A.A., PELICICE, F.M., GOMES, L.C. & JÚLIO JÚNIOR, H.F. 2010. Reservoir Fish Stocking: When One Plus One May Be Less Than Two. Natureza & Conservação 8(2): 103-111. [ Links ]

ARAÚJO, M.I., DELARIVA, R.L., BONATO, K.O. & SILVA, J.C. 2011. Fishes in first order stream in Ivaí River drainage basin, upper Paraná River Basin, Paraná state, Brazil. Check List 7(6): 774-777. [ Links ]

BAUMGARTNER, G., PAVANELLI, C.S., BAUMGARTNER, D., BIFI, A. G., DEBONA, T. & FRANA, V.A. 2012. Peixes do Baixo Rio Iguaçu. Eduem, Maringá, 203 p. [ Links ]

CARVALHO, C.J.B. 2009. Padrões de endemismo e a conservação da biodiversidade. Megadiversidade 5(1-2): 77-86. [ Links ]

DESTEFANI, E.V. 2005. Regime hidrológico do rio Ivaí. Dissertação de Mestrado, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá. [ Links ]

DELARIVA, R.L. & SILVA, J.C. 2013. Fish fauna of headwater streams of Perobas Biological Reserve, a conservation unit in the Atlantic Forest of the Northwestern Paraná State, Brazil. Check List 9(3): 549-554. [ Links ]

FERREIRA, F.C., SOUZA, U.P. & PETRERE JR, M. 2010. Zonação longitudinal da ictiofauna em ambientes lóticos. Boletim da Sociedade Brasileira de Limnologia 38: 1-9. [ Links ]

GALVES, W., SHIBATTA, O.A. & JEREP, F.R. 2009. Estudos sobre a diversidade de peixes da bacia do alto rio Paraná: uma revisão histórica. Semina 30(2): 141-154. [ Links ]

GRAÇA, W.J. & PAVANELLI, C.S. 2007. Peixes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná e áreas adjacentes. Eduem, Maringá, 241 p. [ Links ]

GRAÇA, W.J & PAVANELLI, C.S. 2008. Characidium heirmostigmata, a new characidiin fish (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the upper rio Paraná basin, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology 6(1): 53-56. [ Links ]

GUBIANI, E.A., HOLZBACH, A.J., BAUMGARTNER, G., NETO, L.B.R. & BERGMANN, F. 2006. Fish, Piquiri River, Upper Paraná River Basin, Paraná State, Brazil. Check List 2(3): 9-14. [ Links ]

ICHIBA, S.H.K. 2006. Estudo das temperaturas do ar no Estado do Paraná. Dissertação de Mestrado, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá. [ Links ]

IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. 2 ed. UK: IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge. [ Links ]

JÚLIO JÚNIOR, H.F., TÓS, C.D., AGOSTINHO, A.A ; PAVANELLI, C.S. 2009. A massive invasion of fish species after eliminating a natural barrier in the upper rio Paraná basin. Neotropical Ichthyology 7(4): 709-718. [ Links ]

LANGEANI, F., CASTRO, R.M.C., OYAKAWA, O.T., SHIBATTA, O.A., PAVANELLI, C.S. & CASATTI, L. 2007. Diversidade da ictiofauna do Alto Rio Paraná: composição atual e perspectivas futuras. Biota Neotropica 7(3): 181-197 http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/pt/abstract?article+bn0340703 (último acesso em 11/03/2015). [ Links ]

LÖWENBERG-NETO, P. & CARVALHO, C.J.B. 2004. Análise Parcimoniosa de Endemicidade (PAE) na delimitação de áreas de endemismos: inferências para conservação da biodiversidade na Região Sul do Brasil. Natureza e Conservação 2(2): 58-65. [ Links ]

LUCENA, C.A. & SOARES, H.G. 2016. Review of species of the Astyanax bimaculatus "caudal peduncle spot" subgroup sensu Garutti & Langeani (Characiformes, Characidae) from the rio La Plata and rio São Francisco drainages and coastal systems of southern Brazil and Uruguay. Zootaxa 4071(1): 101-125. [ Links ]

LUIZ, E.A., GOMES, L.C., AGOSTINHO, A.A. & BULLA, C.K. 2003. Influência de processos locais e regionais nas assembleias de peixes em reservatórios do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Acta Scientiarum 25(1): 107-114. [ Links ]

LUIZ, E.A., PETRY, A.C., PAVANELLI, C.S., GOMES, L.C., JÚLIO JR, H.F., LATINI, J.D. & DOMINGUES, V.M. 2005. As assembleias de peixes de Reservatórios Hidrelétricos do Estado do Paraná e Bacias limítrofes. In Biocenoses em Reservatórios: padrões espaciais e temporais (L. Rodrigues, S.M. Thomaz, A.A. Agostinho & L.C. Gomes, orgs.). Editora RIMA, São Carlos, p. 169-184. [ Links ]

MAACK, R. 1981. Geografia Física do Estado do Paraná. 2 ed. José Olympio, Rio de Janeiro, 442 p. [ Links ]

MAIER, A., ZAWADZKI, C.H., GRAÇA W.J. & BIFI, A.G. 2008. Fish, Barra Bonita River, upper Paraná River basin, state of Paraná, Brazil. Check List 4(3): 336-340. [ Links ]

MESCHIATTI, A.J. & ARCIFA, M.S. 2009. A review on the fishfauna of Mogi-Guaçu River basin: a century of studies. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia 21(1): 135-159. [ Links ]

MORRONE, J. J. 1994. On the identification of areas of endemism. Systematic Biology 43: 438-44. [ Links ]

OLIVEIRA, A.K., APONE, F., BIRINDELLI, J.L.O & PEREZ JÚNIOR, O.R. 2009. Fish, tributaries of middle Rio Mogi Guaçu, upper rio Paraná basin, São Paulo state, Southeastern Brazil. Check List 5(3): 488-494. [ Links ]

PAIVA, D.G. 2008. Análise do índice de relação entre fluxo de base e desflorestamento por meio de imagens orbitais e análise hidrológica: baixo curso do rio Ivaí - PR. Dissertação de Mestrado, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá. [ Links ]

PAIVA, S., ZAWADZKI, C.H., RUVULO-TAKASUSUKI, M.C.C., LAPENTA, A.S. & RENESTO, E. 2013. Allozyme analysis of the four species of Hypostomus (Teleostei: Loricariidae) from the Ivaí river, upper Paraná river basin, Brazil. Acta Scientiarum 35(4): 571-578. [ Links ]

PAGOTTO, J.P.A., VERÍSSIMO, S., GOULART, E. & MISE, F. T. 2012. Fishes (Osteichthyes: Actinopterygii) from the Pirapó River drainage, upper Paraná River basin, Paraná state, Brazil. Check List 8(3) 463-468. [ Links ]

PARANÁ. Secretaria do Estado do Meio Ambiente e Recursos Hídricos - SEMA. 2010. Bacias hidrográficas do Paraná. SEMA, Curitiba http://www.meioambiente.pr.gov.br/arquivos/File/corh/Revista_Bacias_Hidrograficas_do_Parana.pdf (último acesso em 11/12/2015). [ Links ]

PAVANELLI, C.S., GRAÇA, W.J., ZAWADZKI, C.H., BRITSKI, H.A., VIDOTTI, A.P., AVELINO, G.S. & VERÍSSIMO, S. 2007. Fishes from the Corumbá Reservoir, Paranaíba River drainage, upper Paraná River basin, State of Goiás, Brazil. Check List 3(1): 58-64 [ Links ]

PELICICE, F.M. & AGOSTINHO, A.A. 2009. Fish fauna destruction after the introduction of a non-native predator (Cichla kelberi) in a Neotropical reservoir. Biological Invasions 11: 1789-1801. [ Links ]

PELICICE, F.M., POMPEU, P.S., AGOSTINHO, A.A. 2015. Large reservoirs as ecological barriers to downstream movements of Neotropical migratory fish. Fish and Fisheries 16(4): 697-715. [ Links ]

PEREIRA, L.S., AGOSTINHO, A.A. & GOMES, L.C. 2015. Eating the competitor: a mechanism of invasion. Hydrobiologia 746(1): 223-231. [ Links ]

PETRY, A.C., THOMAZ, S.M. & ESTEVES, F.A. 2011. Comunidade de peixes. In: Fundamentos de Limnologia (F.A. Esteves, org.). 3ed. Editora Interciência, Rio de Janeiro, p. 609-624. [ Links ]

PORTELA-CASTRO, A.L.B., JÚLIO JR, H.F., MARTINS DOS SANTOS, I.C. & PAVANELLI, C.S. 2007. Occurence of two cytotypes in Bryconamericus aff. iheringii (Characidae): karyotype analysis by C- and G-banding and replication bands. Genetica 133(2): 113-118. [ Links ]

REIS, R.E., KULLANDER, S.O. & JR. FERRARIS, C.J. 2003. Check list of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America. EDIPUCRS, Porto Alegre, 742 p. [ Links ]

RIBEIRO, A.C. 2006. Tectonic history and the biogeography of the freshwater fishes from the coastal drainages of eastern Brazil: an example of faunal evolution associated with a divergent continental margin. Neotropical Ichthyology 4(2): 225-246. [ Links ]

ROXO, F.F., ZAWADZKI, C.H. & TROY, W.P. 2014. Description of two new species of Hisonotus Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 (Ostariophysi, Loricariidae) from the rio Paraná-Paraguay basin, Brazil. Zookeys 395: 57-78. [ Links ]

ROXO, F.F., SILVA, G.S.C., OCHOA, L.E. & OLIVEIRA, C. 2015. Description of a new genus and three new species of Otothyrinae (Siluriformes, Loricariidae). ZooKeys 534: 103-134. [ Links ]

SANTOS, M.L., STEVAUX, J.C., GASPARETTO, N.V.L. & FILHO, E.E.S. 2008. Geologia e geomorfologia da planície aluvial do rio Ivaí em seu curso inferior. Revista Brasileira de Geomorfologia 9(1): 23-34. [ Links ]

SHIBATTA, O.A., ORSI, M.L., BENNEMANN, S.T. & SILVA-SOUZA, A.T. 2002. Diversidade e distribuição de peixes na bacia do rio Tibagi. In: A Bacia do Rio Tibagi (M.E. Medri, E. Bianchini, O.A. Shibatta, J.A. Pimenta, eds.). M.E. Medri, Londrina, p. 403-424. [ Links ]

SOUSA, P. 2006. Estudo da variabilidade da precipitação no Estado do Paraná associado à anomalia da TSM no oceano Pacífico. Dissertação de Mestrado, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá. [ Links ]

STEVAUX, J.C., SOUZA-FILHO, E.E. & JABUR, I.C. 1997. A história quaternária do rio Paraná em seu alto curso. In: A planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná: aspectos físicos, biológicos e socioeconômicos (A.E.A.M. Vazzoler, A.A. Agostinho, N.S. Hahn, eds.). EDUEM, Maringá, p. 47-72. [ Links ]

TENCATT, L.F.C., BRITTO, M.R. & PAVANELLI, C.S. 2014. A new species of Corydoras Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) from the upper rio Paraná basin, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology 12(1): 89-96. [ Links ]

THOMAZ, A.T., ARCILA, D., ORTÍ, G. & MALABARBA, L.R. 2015. Molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Stevardiinae Gill, 1858 (Characiformes: Chracidae): classification and the evolution of reproductive traits. BMC Evolutionary Biology 15(146): 1-25. [ Links ]

VIANA, D., ZAWADZKI, C.H., OLIVEIRA, E.F., VOGEL, H.F. & GRAÇA, W.J. 2013. Estrutura da ictiofauna do rio Bonito, bacia hidrográfica do rio Ivaí, sistema alto rio Paraná, Brasil. Biota Neotropica 13(2): 218-226 http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v13n2/pt/abstract?inventory+bn03013022013 (último acesso em 11/03/2015). [ Links ]

ZAWADZKI, C.H., RENESTO, E., PAIVA, S. & LARA-KAMEI, M.C.S. 2004. Allozyme differentiation of four populations of Hypostomus (Teleostei: Loricariidae) from Ribeirão Keller, a small stream in the upper Rio Paraná basin, Brazil. Genetica 121(3): 251-257. [ Links ]

ZAWADZKI, C.H., ROXO, F.F. & GRAÇA, W.J. 2016. Hisonotus pachysarkos, a new species of cascudinho from the rio Ivaí basin, upper rio Paraná system, Brazil (Loricariidae: Otothyrinae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 26(4): 373-383. [ Links ]

Received: December 14, 2015; Revised: June 21, 2016; Accepted: June 27, 2016

4Corresponding author: Augusto Frota, e-mail: frota.augusto@gmail.com

Creative Commons License This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.