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Biota Neotropica

Print version ISSN 1806-129XOn-line version ISSN 1676-0611

Biota Neotrop. vol.18 no.4 Campinas  2018  Epub Aug 16, 2018 


Endemic angiosperms in Bahia Coastal Forests, Brazil: an update using a newly delimited area

Angiospermas endêmicas da Floresta Costeira da Bahia, Brasil: uma atualização utilizando uma nova delimitação de área

Piera Ostroski1  *

Felipe Zamborlini Saiter2 

André Márcio Amorim3  4 

Pedro Fiaschi5 

1Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia de Fungos, Algas e Plantas, Florianópolis, SC, Brasil

2Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo, Campus Santa Teresa, Santa Teresa, ES, Brasil

3Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, BA, Brasil

4Comissão Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira, Ilhéus, BA, Brasil

5Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Botânica, Florianópolis, SC, Brasil


The forest along the coast of Bahia state, in northeastern Brazil, has been acknowledged as an area of endemism for several groups of organisms. The first study concerning endemic angiosperm species in this region, through which 395 taxa were registered, was conducted 15 years ago. However, this number is probably underrated. In this article, we present an updated checklist of angiosperm taxa in Bahia Coastal Forests (BCF) based on geographic distribution data available from the Brazilian Plant List (Flora do Brasil 2020). The records were checked in herbaria, recent taxonomic literature, and, when necessary, reviewed by experts. The final checklist consists of 547 taxa endemic to BCF, distributed in 69 families, with seven endemic genera: Bahiella (Apocynaceae), Santosia (Asteraceae), Harleyodendron (Fabaceae), Cubitanthus (Linderniaceae), Anomochloa and Parianella (Poaceae), and Andreadoxa (Rutaceae). The families with highest richness in endemic taxa were Bromeliaceae (108 spp.), Fabaceae (41 spp.) and Myrtaceae (32 spp.). This updated checklist shares only 143 taxa with a previous list published about 15 years ago. Those two lists differ mostly due to slightly different area limits, and to the large number of additional endemic species described since then. We hope our list will be used as a resource in future studies and contributes to the conservation of the highly diverse Bahia Coastal Forest.

Keywords: Atlantic Forest; checklist; conservation; endemism; hotspot


A floresta costeira do estado da Bahia, no nordeste do Brasil, tem sido apontada como área de endemismo para diversos grupos de organismos. O primeiro levantamento de espécies de angiospermas endêmicas dessa região foi realizado há cerca de 15 anos e revelou a ocorrência de 395 táxons. Entretanto, esse número provavelmente está subestimado. Neste trabalho apresentamos uma lista atualizada de táxons de angiospermas endêmicas da Floresta Costeira da Bahia (FCB), tendo como base as informações de distribuição geográfica disponíveis na lista da Flora do Brasil. Estas informações foram posteriormente checadas em registros de herbários, estudos taxonômicos recentes e, quando necessário, revisadas por especialistas. A lista final de espécies é constituída por 547 táxons endêmicos da Floresta Costeira da Bahia, distribuídos em 69 famílias e incluindo sete gêneros endêmicos: Bahiella (Apocynaceae), Santosia (Asteraceae), Harleyodendron (Fabaceae), Cubitanthus (Linderniaceae), Anomochloa e Parianella (Poaceae), and Andreadoxa (Rutaceae). As famílias mais ricas em táxons endêmicos são Bromeliaceae (108 spp.), Fabaceae (41 spp.) e Myrtaceae (32 spp.). Apenas 143 táxons são compartilhados por esta lista atualizada e uma lista preliminar publicada há cerca de 15 anos. As duas listas diferem especialmente por ligeiras diferenças nos limites da área de estudo e também pelo acréscimo de novas espécies endêmicas descritas desde então. Espera-se que a lista seja usada como ferramenta para estudos futuros e para a conservação da rica flora costeira da Bahia.

Palavras-chave: Checklist; conservação; endemismo; hotspot; Mata Atlântica


The Atlantic Forest is considered a biodiversity hotspot due to the occurrence of a high number of endemic and threatened species (Myers et al. 2000). The natural distribution of the Atlantic Forest was originally continuous along the Brazilian coast and extended to some areas in Argentina and Paraguay (Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica 2013). Nowadays, it is one of the eight most critically endangered hotspots, as only 12,5% of the original forest remains (Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica 2014). Nevertheless, it is the richest Brazilian phytogeographic domain in plant diversity, with 8,728 endemic species of angiosperms (Flora do Brasil 2020, under construction).

Some studies have emphasized the division of the Atlantic Forest in northern and southern regions (Cracraft 1985, Colombi et al. 2010, Martins 2011) with a limit along the Doce river, in the north of Espírito Santo state. The floristic differences between these two regions were highlighted by Oliveira-Filho & Fontes (2000) and Oliveira-Filho et al. (2005), who observed several taxa with Amazonian affinities occuring in the northern region, while taxa with subtropical Andean affinities are mostly found in the southern region (Berry et al. 2004, Santos et al. 2007, Menini Neto et al. 2016). Other authors recognize three main centers of endemism in the Atlantic Forest: northern (Pernambuco and Alagoas states), southern (from Rio de Janeiro to Santa Catarina states), and central (southern Bahia and Espírito Santo states) (Murray-Smith et al. 2009, Thomas et al. 1998).

Recently, Saiter et al. (2016a) divided the central region of the Atlantic Forest in three subregions based on the composition of tree species, indicating the most important abiotic factors affecting that division. Contrary to previous knowledge, the rivers did not play an important role in this division, which lies about 100 km north of the Doce river and is best explained by climatic factors, such as moisture, elevation and temperature (Saiter et al. 2016a). One of the regions, referred to as Bahia Coastal Forests (BCF) by Saiter et al. (2016a), encompasses the northern extreme of Espírito Santo and most of the coast of the state of Bahia. Due to high biodiversity and the incidence of endemic and threatened species, this region has been designated as a hot-point within the Atlantic Forest hotspot (Martini et al. 2007). Many studies to this date on different groups of organisms support this claim, as the region is considered an area of endemism for frogs (Carnaval et al. 2009), birds (Silva et al. 2004), Myrtaceae (Murray-Smith et al. 2009) and trees in general (Thomas et al. 2003).

An estimate of endemic vascular plant species present in two protected areas in southern Bahia showed that the distribution of 59% of the species is restricted to Bahia and Espírito Santo states (Thomas et al. 1998). These results motivated the compilation of a preliminary list of endemic angiosperm species in the region comprising Espírito Santo to the north of the Doce river and the south of Bahia, including inland Seasonal Dry Forests (Thomas et al. 2003) (Figure 1a). This list consisted of 395 endemic species of angiosperms in the region (Thomas et al. 2003), among which several are known to occur only in dry forests, such as Chrysophyllum subspinosum Monach. (Sapotaceae) and Colicodendron bahianum Cornejo & Ilts (Capparaceae). That study reported eight endemic genera in this area: Arapatiella R.S.Cowan, Brodriguesia R.S.Cowan and Harleyodendron R.S.Cowan (Fabaceae), Atractantha McClure, Anomochloa Brogn., Alvimia Calderón ex Soderstr. & Londoño, and Sucrea Soderstr. (Poaceae), and Trigoniodendron E.F.Guim & Miguel (Trigoniaceae) (Thomas et al, 2003).

Figure 1 a) Study area in which Thomas et al. (2003) based their list of endemic species. b) Bahia Coastal Forest (BCF) according to Saiter et al. (2016a). c) Municipalities with at least 50% of its area within the BCF (light grey), and those added to the study area based on IBGE (1993) (dark grey). Coordinates: UTM. Datum WGS 84. 

Checklists of endemic taxa are critical to overcome issues that hinder conservation strategies in highly biodiverse regions, such as: 1) basic taxonomic information (Linnean shortfall, or "which species are there?"), and 2) lack of geographic information (Wallacean shortfall, or "where do these species occur?") (Whittaker et al. 2005). Both shortfalls are part of reality in Bahia Coastal Forests, world-renowned as one of the highest diversity areas in tree species (Thomas et al. 1998, Martini et al. 2007, Murray-Smith et al. 2009).

We aimed to provide a list of endemic species of angiosperms in Bahia Coastal Forest following Saiter et al. (2016a) to verify whether the current list agrees with the preliminary checklist by Thomas et al. (2003). We expect this updated list to further highlight the importance of BCF as a critical area for biodiversity conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

Material and Methods

1. Study area

To delimit the study area we used the BCF sensuSaiter et al. (2016a) (Figure 1b) with a slight modification to include the municipalities whose territory was at least 50% inside that perimeter. Municipalities were used as a base for the retrieval of taxonomic information from online datasets (see data collection). To remove the arbitrary northern limit from Saiter et al. (2016a) (Figure 1b), the study area was expanded to include seven municipalities complying with the 50% territory criterion (Figure 1c). Municipal limits were defined based on data from the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE 1993) (Figure 1c).

The resulting area comprised 156 municipalities, which account for approximately 99,000 km2 (Figure 1c) at southern Bahia state, and a small fraction from northern Espírito Santo state and northeastern Minas Gerais state, contrasting with an area of about 119,000 km2 at southern Bahia which included more inland areas, and northen Espírito Santo with a southern limit at the Doce River (Thomas et al. 2003) (Figure 1a).

2. Data collection

To compile the checklist of endemic species of angiosperms in BCF, we started by performing a data search in the Brazilian Plant List (Flora do Brasil 2020) on March 9, 2017, using the following filters simultaneously: "group: angiosperms", "endemism: only endemic to Brazil", "origin: native", "state: Bahia", and "phytogeographic domain: Atlantic Forest". We decided not to search only for species endemic to the Atlantic Forest in Bahia to avoid excluding species that could also occur in the north of Espírito Santo and in a small area in northeastern Minas Gerais (Figure 1c). The initial search resulted in 3,338 species, 59 subspecies and 154 varieties (3,551 taxa). These records were then checked in the SpeciesLink database ( Each taxon map generated by the SpeciesLink website was visually checked, first to remove taxa that were clearly not endemic to BCF, i.e. those with several records outside the study area. Each of the 1,336 remaining taxa were then mapped with QGis 2.14 (Quantum GIS Development Team 2016) and we verified whether the points of occurrence were enclosed in the limits of the study area, which resulted in the further removal of 701 taxa.

From the 635 taxa left, the records with incongruent data were verified by experts or checked using recent taxonomic studies (Appendix 1). This step resulted in 30 additional non-endemic species discarded from the list. The taxa for which no scientific records were found in Google Scholar (, Biodiversity Heritage Library (, SpeciesLink (, and the Brazilian Plant List (Flora do Brasil 2020) were complemented by a search for location records in the CEPEC herbarium. Once this verification was completed, 53 species from the list had to be removed because no records were available and a further five species were removed due to lack of precise geographic information.


The final checklist consisted of 547 angiosperm taxa endemic to BCF (535 species, six subspecies, and six varieties) in 69 families (none endemic) and 230 genera (Table 1). Seven genera are endemic to BCF: Bahiella J.F.Morales (Apocynaceae), Santosia R.M.King & H.Rob. (Asteraceae), Harleyodendron (Fabaceae, Figure 2f), Cubitanthus Barringer (Linderniaceae), Anomochloa and Parianella Hollowell, F.M.Ferreira & R.P.Oliveira (Poaceae), and Andreadoxa Kallunki (Rutaceae). The genera with the highest number of endemic species in the BCF were Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae) (33 spp.), Pavonia Cav. (Malvaceae) and Myrcia DC. (Myrtaceae), each with 16 species. The three families with the highest numbers of endemic taxa (species + infraspecific taxa) were Bromeliaceae (108), Fabaceae (41) and Myrtaceae (32).

Table 1 Checklist of angiosperms endemic to Bahia Coastal Forest sensu Saiter et al. (2016a)

Aphelandra ignea Nees ex Steud.
Clistax bahiensis Profice & Leitman
Harpochilus phaeocarpus Nees
Herpetacanthus magnobracteolatus Indriunas & Kameyama
Herpetacanthus strongyloides Indriunas & Kameyama
Herpetacanthus tetrandrus (Nees & Mart.) Herter
Justicia antirrhina Nees & Mart.
Justicia physogaster Lindau
Lepidagathis cuneiformis Kameyama
Mendoncia bahiensis Profice
Mendoncia blanchetiana Profice
Pseuderanthemum albiflorum (Hook.) Radlk.
Pseuderanthemum verbenaceum (Nees & Mart.) Radlk.
Ruellia sessilifolia (Nees) Lindau
Schaueria gonyostachya (Nees & Mart.) Nees
Schaueria hirsuta Nees
Schaueria marginata Nees
Schaueria pyramidalis A.L.A.Côrtes
Kuhlmanniodendron macrocarpum Groppo, Favaretto & Fiaschi
Lecosia formicarum Pedersen
Griffinia arifolia Ravenna
Griffinia parviflora Ker Gawl.
Griffinia paubrasilica Ravenna
Annona bahiensis (Maas & Westra) H.Rainer *
Duguetia magnolioidea Maas *
Duguetia restingae Maas *
Duguetia reticulata Maas *
Guatteria stenocarpa Lobão, Maas & Mello-Silva
Hornschuchia cauliflora Maas & Setten *
Hornschuchia leptandra D.M.Johnson *
Hornschuchia obliqua Maas & Setten *
Hornschuchia polyantha Maas *
Hornschuchia santosii D.M.Johnson *
Malmea obovata R.E.Fr. *
Pseudoxandra bahiensis Maas *
Unonopsis bahiensis Maas & Orava
Xylopia involucrata M.C.Dias & Kinoshita *
Aspidosperma thomasii Marc.-Ferr. *
Bahiella blanchetii (A.DC.) J.F.Morales
Bahiella infundibuliflora J.F.Morales
Lacmellea bahiensis J.F.Morales
Marsdenia carvalhoi Morillo & Carnevali
Matelea riparia Morillo
Matelea santosii Morillo & Fontella
Oxypetalum laciniatum Rapini & Farinaccio
Rauvolfia atlantica Emygdio
Anthurium bromelicola subsp. bahiense Mayo et al. *
Anthurium illepidum Schott
Anthurium molle E.G.Gonç. & J.G.Jardim
Anthurium teimosoanum E.G.Gonç. & J.G.Jardim
Asterostigma riedelianum (Schott) Kuntze
Dracontioides salvianii E.G.Gonç.
Philodendron aemulum Schott
Zomicarpa steigeriana Maxim. ex Schott
Schefflera aurata Fiaschi
Bactris soeiroana Noblick ex A.J.Hend.
Geonoma pohliana subsp. rubescens (Wendland ex Drude) Henderson
Geonoma pohliana subsp. unaensis Henderson
Syagrus × camposportoana (Bondar) Glassman
Syagrus itapebiensis (Noblick & Lorenzi) Noblick & Meerow
Syagrus santosii K. Soares & C.A.Guim.
Aristolochia brunneomaculata I.Abreu & Giul.
Aristolochia longispathulata F.González *
Hagenbachia brasiliensis Nees & Mart.
Acmella paniculata (Wall. ex DC.) R.K.Jansen
Austroeupatorium morii R.M.King & H.Rob.
Barrosoa atlantica R.M.King & H.Rob. *
Diacranthera hebeclinia H.Rob.
Litothamnus ellipticus R.M.King & H.Rob. *
Mikania amorimii Borges & Forzza
Mikania kubitzkii R.M.King & H.Rob. *
Mikania mattos-silvae R.M.King & H.Rob. *
Mikania santosii R.M.King & H.Rob. *
Piptocarpha riedelii (Sch.Bip.) Baker
Santosia talmonii R.M.King & H.Rob. *
Vernonanthura vinhae (H.Rob.) H.Rob. *
Begonia delicata Gregório & J.A.S.Costa
Begonia elianeae Gregório & J.A.S.Costa
Begonia epibaterium Mart. ex A.DC.
Begonia goldingiana L.Kollmann & A.P.Fontana
Begonia mattos-silvae L.B.Sm. ex S.F.Sm. & Wassh. *
Begonia pinheironis L.B.Sm. ex S.F.Sm. & Wassh. *
Begonia russelliana L.B.Sm. ex S.F.Sm. & Wassh. *
Begonia saxifraga A.DC.
Begonia subacida Irmsch.
Begonia sylvatica Meisn. ex A.DC.
Handroanthus parviflorus Espírito-Santo & M.M. Silva-Castro
Aechmea amicorum B.R.Silva & H.Luther
Aechmea amorimii Leme *
Aechmea ampla L.B.Sm.
Aechmea andersoniana Leme & H.Luther
Aechmea andersonii H.Luther & Leme
Aechmea carvalhoi E.Pereira & Leme
Aechmea correia-araujoi E.Pereira & Moutinho
Aechmea curranii (L.B.Sm.) L.B.Sm. & M.A.Spencer
Aechmea digitata L.B.Sm. & R.W.Read
Aechmea discordiae Leme
Aechmea disjuncta (L.B.Sm.) Leme & J.A.Siqueira
Aechmea echinata (Leme) Leme *
Aechmea farinosa (Regel) L.B.Sm.
Aechmea glandulosa Leme
Aechmea gregaria Leme & L.Kollmann
Aechmea guaratingensis Leme & L.Kollmann
Aechmea heterosepala Leme
Aechmea incompta Leme & H.Luther
Aechmea ituberaensis Leme & L.Kollmann
Aechmea laevigata Leme
Aechmea lanata (L.B.Sm.) L.B.Sm. & M.A.Spencer
Aechmea limae Leme
Aechmea lymanii W.Weber
Aechmea miniata Beer ex Baker
Aechmea mira Leme & H.Luther
Aechmea mollis L.B.Sm.
Aechmea pendulispica Leme & L.Kollmann
Aechmea ramusculosa Leme
Aechmea tentaculifera Leme, Amorim & J.A. Siqueira
Aechmea turbinocalyx Mez
Aechmea viridipetala A.F.Costa & Amorim
Aechmea viridostigma Leme & H.Luther
Aechmea weberi (E.Pereira & Leme) Leme
Alcantarea cerosa Leme, A.P.Fontana & O.A.B.Ribeiro
Alcantarea pataxoana Versieux
Araeococcus montanus Leme
Araeococcus nigropurpureus Leme & J.A.Siqueira
Araeococcus sessiliflorus Leme & J.A.Siqueira
Billbergia fosteriana L.B.Sm.
Billbergia macrocalyx Hook.
Canistrum fosterianum L.B.Sm.
Canistrum guzmanioides Leme
Canistrum lanigerum H.Luther & Leme
Canistrum sandrae Leme
Canistrum seidelianum W.Weber
Cryptanthus colnagoi Rauh & Leme
Cryptanthus coriaceus Leme
Cryptanthus ilhanus Leme
Cryptanthus lyman-smithii Leme
Cryptanthus pseudopetiolatus Philcox *
Cryptanthus ruthiae Philcox
Cryptanthus ubairensis I.Ramírez
Cryptanthus vexatus Leme
Cryptanthus viridovinosus Leme
Cryptanthus walkerianus Leme & L.Kollmann
Hohenbergia barbarespina Leme & Fraga
Hohenbergia brachycephala L.B.Sm.
Hohenbergia burle-marxii Leme & W.Till
Hohenbergia capitata Schult. & Schult.f.
Hohenbergia castellanosii L.B.Sm. & Read
Hohenbergia correia-araujoi E.Pereira & Moutinho
Hohenbergia flava Leme & C.C.Paula
Hohenbergia hatschbachii Leme *
Hohenbergia itamarajuensis Leme & Baracho
Hohenbergia littoralis L.B.Sm.
Hohenbergia pabstii L.B.Sm. & Read
Hohenbergia reconcavensis Leme & Fraga
Hohenbergia sandrae Leme
Lymania alvimii (L.B.Sm. & R.W.Read) R.W.Read *
Lymania azurea Leme
Lymania brachycaulis (E.Morren ex Baker) L.F.Sousa
Lymania corallina (Brong. ex Beer) R.W.Read
Lymania globosa Leme
Lymania languida Leme
Lymania marantoides (L.B.Sm.) R.W.Read
Lymania spiculata Leme & Forzza *
Neoregelia azevedoi Leme
Neoregelia crispata Leme *
Neoregelia longisepala E.Pereira & I.A.Penna *
Neoregelia rothinessa Leme, H.Luther & W.Till
Neoregelia silvomontana Leme & J.A.Siqueira
Neoregelia viridolineata Leme
Neoregelia wilsoniana M.B.Foster
Orthophytum buranhense Leme & A.P.Fontana
Orthophytum guaratingense Leme & L.Kollmann
Orthophytum rubrum L.B.Sm.
Portea alatisepala Philcox *
Portea filifera L.B.Sm.
Portea grandiflora Philcox *
Portea kermesina K.Koch
Portea nana Leme & H.Luther
Quesnelia alborosea A.F.Costa & T.Fontoura
Quesnelia clavata Amorim & Leme
Quesnelia dubia Leme
Quesnelia koltesii Amorim & Leme
Ronnbergia brasiliensis E.Pereira & I.A.Penna *
Ronnbergia carvalhoi Martinelli & Leme *
Ronnbergia neoregelioides Leme
Ronnbergia silvana Leme
Vriesea dictyographa Leme
Vriesea graciliscapa W.Weber
Vriesea longisepala A.F.Costa
Vriesea minuta Leme
Vriesea minutiflora Leme
Vriesea roberto-seidelii W.Weber
Vriesea ruschii L.B.Sm. subsp. ruschii
Vriesea sandrae Leme
Vriesea silvana Leme
Protium icicariba var. talmonii Daly *
Trattinnickia lorenziana Daly & M.F.F.Melo
Rhipsalis hileiabaiana (N.P.Taylor & Barthlott) N.Korotkova & Barthlott *
Kielmeyera itacarensis Saddi
Kielmeyera marauensis Saddi
Colicodendron martianum Cornejo
Caryocar edule Casar.
Couepia bondarii Prance *
Couepia coarctata Prance *
Couepia impressa subsp. cabraliae Prance *
Couepia longipetiolata Prance *
Licania bahiensis Prance
Licania lamentanda Prance *
Licania littoralis Warm. var. littoralis
Licania santosii Prance *
Licania turbinata Benth.
Parinari alvimii Prance *
Tovomita iaspidis L.Marinho & Amorim
Tovomita megantha L.Marinho & Amorim
Dichorisandra jardimii Aona & M.C.E.Amaral
Dichorisandra leucophthalmos Hook.
Dichorisandra leucosepala Aona & M.C.E.Amaral
Dichorisandra marantoides Aona & Faden
Dichorisandra ordinatiflora Aona & Faden
Dichorisandra radicalis Nees & Mart.
Dichorisandra subtilis Aona & M.C.E.Amaral
Connarus blanchetii var. laurifolius (Baker) Forero
Connarus cuneifolius Baker
Connarus portosegurensis Forero
Rourea bahiensis Forero *
Rourea carvalhoi Forero et al. *
Rourea discolor Baker
Rourea macrocalyx Carbonó et al. *
Rourea tenuis G.Schellenb.
Cayaponia nitida Gomes-Klein & Pirani
Fevillea bahiensis G.Rob. & Wunderlin
Gurania wawrei Cogn.
Asplundia maximiliani Harling
Becquerelia discolor Kunth
Hypolytrum bahiense M.Alves & W.W.Thomas *
Hypolytrum jardimii M.Alves & W.W.Thomas *
Hypolytrum lucennoi M.Alves & W.W.Thomas
Stephanopodium magnifolium Prance *
Tapura martiniae Amorim & D.Lisboa
Tapura zei-limae Amorim & Fiaschi
Davilla bahiana Aymard
Davilla macrocarpa Eichler
Dioscorea macrothyrsa Uline
Diospyros amabi B.Walln.
Diospyros riedelii (Hiern) B.Walln.
Diospyros scottmorii B.Walln.
Actinocephalus ochrocephalus (Körn.) Sano
Erythroxylum compressum Peyr.
Erythroxylum leal-costae Plowman
Erythroxylum martii Peyr.
Erythroxylum mattos-silvae Plowman *
Erythroxylum membranaceum Plowman *
Erythroxylum santosii Plowman *
Erythroxylum splendidum Plowman *
Actinostemon lasiocarpus (Müll.Arg.) Baill.
Algernonia bahiensis (Emmerich) G.L.Webster *
Bernardia gambosa Müll.Arg.
Bernardia micrantha Pax & K.Hoffm.
Croton sapiifolius Müll.Arg.
Croton thomasii Riina & P.E.Berry
Dalechampia armbrusteri G.L.Webster
Dalechampia viridissima G.L.Webster *
Gymnanthes gaudichaudii Müll.Arg.
Ophthalmoblapton pedunculare Müll.Arg.
Andira carvalhoi R.T.Penn. & H.C.Lima *
Andira marauensis N.F.Mattos *
Arapatiella psilophylla (Harms) R.S.Cowan *
Canavalia cassidea G.P.Lewis *
Canavalia dolichothyrsa G.P.Lewis *
Chamaecrista amabilis H.S.Irwin & Barneby *
Chamaecrista amorimii Barneby *
Chamaecrista onusta H.S.Irwin & Barneby *
Chamaecrista salvatoris (H.S.Irwin & Barneby) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Copaifera majorina Dwyer
Dahlstedtia bahiana (A.M.G.Azevedo) M.J.Silva & A.M.G.Azevedo
Harleyodendron unifoliolatum R.S.Cowan *
Inga aptera (Vinha) T.D.Penn. *
Inga conchifolia L.P.Queiroz
Inga pedunculata (Vinha) T.D.Penn. *
Inga pleiogyna T.D.Penn.
Machaerium aureum Filardi & H.C.Lima
Moldenhawera blanchetiana var. multijuga L.P.Queiroz et al.
Moldenhawera intermedia G.P.Lewis & L.P.Queiroz
Moldenhawera luschnathiana Yakovlev
Moldenhawera nutans L.P.Queiroz et al.
Muellera longiunguiculata (MJ.Silva & AMG.Azevedo) MJ.Silva & AMG.Azevedo
Ormosia lewisii D.B.O.S.Cardoso, C.H.Stirt. & Torke *
Ormosia limae D.B.O.S.Cardoso & L.P.Queiroz
Ormosia timboensis D.B.O.S.Cardoso, Meireles & H.C.Lima
Parapiptadenia ilheusana G.P.Lewis *
Phanera carvalhoi (Vaz) Vaz
Piptadenia killipii var. cacaophila G.P.Lewis *
Piptadenia ramosissima Benth.
Piptadenia santosii Barneby ex G.P.Lewis *
Schnella lilacina (Wunderlin & Eilers) Wunderlin
Senegalia amorimii M.J.F.Barros & M.P.Morim
Senegalia olivensana (G.P.Lewis) Seigler & Ebinger
Senegalia piptadenioides (G.P.Lewis) Seigler & Ebinger
Swartzia alternifoliolata Mansano
Swartzia arenophila R.B.Pinto, Torke & Mansano
Swartzia curranii R.S.Cowan
Swartzia pinheiroana R.S.Cowan *
Swartzia riedelii R.S.Cowan
Swartzia thomasii R.B.Pinto, Torke & Mansano
Zollernia magnifica A.M.Carvalho & Barneby *
Macrocarpaea atlantica J.R.Grant & V.Trunz
Macrocarpaea dolichophylla J.R.Grant & V.Trunz
Macrocarpaea orbiculata J.R.Grant & V.Trunz
Pleurisanthes brasiliensis (Val.) Tiegh.
Neomarica brachypus (Baker) Sprague
Neomarica floscella A.Gil & M.C.E.Amaral
Neomarica portosecurensis (Ravenna) Chukr *
Neomarica unca (Ravenna) A.Gil
Nectandra micranthera Rohwer
Ocotea montana (Meisn.) Mez
Ocotea ramosissima L.C.S.Assis e Mello-Silva
Ocotea sperata P.L.R.Moraes et van der Werff
Ocotea thinicola van der Werff et P.L.R.Moraes
Eschweilera complanata S.A.Mori
Eschweilera mattos-silvae S.A.Mori *
Eschweilera sphaerocarpa M.Ribeiro & S.A.Mori
Cubitanthus alatus (Cham. & Schltdl.) Barringer
Spigelia genuflexa Popovkin & Struwe
Strychnos alvimiana Krukoff & Barneby *
Strychnos setosa Krukoff & Barneby
Psittacanthus excrenulatus Rizzini
Psittacanthus salvadorensis Kuijt
Struthanthus longiflorus Rizzini
Bunchosia itacarensis W.R.Anderson *
Heteropterys sanctorum W.R.Anderson *
Peixotoa sericea C.E.Anderson *
Stigmaphyllon hispidum C.E.Anderson
Stigmaphyllon macropodum A.Juss.
Byttneria cristobaliana Dorr
Pavonia cauliflora (Nees) Fryxell ex G.L.Esteves
Pavonia ciliata G.L.Esteves & Krapov. *
Pavonia crispa Krapov. *
Pavonia gerleniae Gonçalez & M.C.Duarte
Pavonia goetheoides (Hassl.) Fryxell ex G.L.Esteves
Pavonia latibracteolata Krapov. *
Pavonia longifolia A.St.-Hil.
Pavonia macrobracteolata Gonçalez & M.C.Duarte
Pavonia ovaliphylla G.L.Esteves & Krapov. *
Pavonia paucidentata Fryxell
Pavonia pilifera Krapov.
Pavonia rubriphylla G.L.Esteves
Pavonia sancti Krapov.
Pavonia spectabilis Krapov. *
Pavonia spiciformis Krapov. *
Pavonia stipularis Krapov. *
Goeppertia fasciata (Linden ex K.Koch) Borchs. & S.Suárez
Goeppertia rufibarba (Fenzl) Borchs. & S.Suárez
Ischnosiphon bahiensis L.Andersson *
Monotagma grallatum Hagberg & R. Erikss. *
Stromanthe bahiensis Yosh.-Arns, Mayo & J.M.A. Braga
Schwartzia geniculatiflora Gir.-Cañas & Fiaschi
Bertolonia alternifolia Baumgratz, Amorim & A.B.Jardim
Bertolonia bullata Baumgratz, Amorim & A.B.Jardim
Huberia carvalhoi Baumgratz
Huberia sessilifolia R. Godenberg & Michelangelo
Meriania inflata Michelangeli & R.Goldenb.
Miconia lurida Cogn.
Ossaea loligomorpha R.Goldenb. & Reginato
Ossaea sulbahiensis D'El Rei Souza
Physeterostemon aonae Amorim, Michelangeli & R.Goldenb.
Physeterostemon fiaschii R.Goldenb. & Amorim
Physeterostemon jardimii R.Goldenb. & Amorim
Physeterostemon thomasii Amorim, Michelangeli & R.Goldenb.
Pleiochiton amorimii Reginato & R.Goldenb.
Tibouchina bahiensis Wurdack *
Tibouchina bradeana Renner
Tibouchina paulo-alvinii Guimarães da Vinha *
Tibouchina stipulacea Vinha *
Tibouchina taperoensis Wurdack *
Tibouchina tomentulosa Wurdack
Guarea anomala T.D.Penn
Trichilia florbranca T.D.Penn. *
Trichilia magnifoliola T.D.Penn. *
Curarea crassa Barneby *
Dorstenia setosa Moric.
Calyptranthes blanchetiana O.Berg
Eugenia barrana Sobral
Eugenia beruttii (Mattos) Mattos
Eugenia fissurata Mattos
Eugenia itacarensis Mattos *
Eugenia longifolia DC.
Eugenia serraegrandis Sobral
Eugenia sessilifolia DC.
Eugenia unana Sobral
Marlierea lealcostae G.M.Barroso & Peixoto
Marlierea verticillaris O.Berg
Myrcia abrantea (O.Berg) E.Lucas & Sobral
Myrcia cataphyllata M.F.Santos
Myrcia felisbertii (DC.) O.Berg
Myrcia gigantea (O.Berg) Nied.
Myrcia grazielae NicLugh.
Myrcia marianae Staggemeier & E.Lucas
Myrcia monoclada Sobral
Myrcia pendula Sobral
Myrcia pseudomarlierea Sobral
Myrcia raminfinita L.Marinho & E.Lucas
Myrcia spathulifolia Proença
Myrcia stigmatosa O.Berg
Myrcia teimosa Sobral
Myrcia tetraphylla Sobral
Myrcia thomasii B.S.Amorim & A.R.Lourenço
Myrcia truncata Sobral
Plinia callosa Sobral *
Plinia longiacuminata Sobral
Plinia muricata Sobral *
Plinia rara Sobral *
Plinia spiciflora (Nees & Mart.) Sobral
Neea alumnorum M.Pignal, Soares Filho & Romaniuc
Neea duckei (Huber) Furlan
Ouratea bahiensis Sastre *
Ouratea gigantophylla (Erhard) Engl.
Ouratea longipes Sastre *
Ouratea papulosa Sastre
Ouratea platicaulis Sastre *
Anathallis velvetina Luer & Toscano
Aspasia silvana F.Barros *
Bifrenaria silvana V.P.Castro *
Brassavola reginae Pabst
Bulbophyllum teimosense E.C.Smidt & Borba
Cattleya alaorii (Brieger & Bicalho) Van den Berg
Cattleya grandis (Lindl. & Paxton) A.A.Chadwick
Cattleya kerrii Brieger & Bicalho *
Cirrhaea silvana V.P.Castro & Campacci *
Coryanthes bahiensis Marçal & Chiron
Coryanthes bueraremensis Campacci & Bohnke
Elleanthus hymenophorus (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f.
Encyclia fimbriata C.A.Bastos, Van den Berg & Meneguzzo
Epidendrum garciae Pabst
Gomesa silvana (V.P.Castro & Campacci) M.W.Chase & N.H.Williams
Gongora meneziana V.P.Castro & G.Gerlach
Koellensteinia abaetana L.P.Queiroz
Leptotes bohnkiana Campacci
Masdevallia sururuana Campacci
Pabstiella dasilvae Chiron & Xim.Bols.
Promenaea silvana F.Barros & Cath. *
Prosthechea bohnkiana V.P.Castro & G.F.Carr
Prosthechea bueraremensis (Campacci) Campacci
Stanhopea bueraremensis Campacci & Marçal
Stenia bohnkiana V.P.Castro & G.F.Carr
Oxalis alata var. hirta Lourteig *
Oxalis bela-vitoriae Lourteig *
Oxalis kuhlmannii var. adpressipila Lourteig
Passiflora igrapiunensis T.S.Nunes & L.P.Queiroz
Discocarpus pedicellatus Fiaschi & Cordeiro
Phyllanthus carvalhoi G.L.Webster
Picramnia coccinea W.W.Thomas *
Peperomia epipremnifolia D.Monteiro & Leitman
Peperomia riparia Yunck.
Peperomia serpentarioides Miq.
Peperomia sulbahiensis D.Monteiro & M.Coelho
Piper bahianum Yunck.
Piper robustipedunculum Yunck.
Piper vellosoi Yunck.
Alvimia auriculata Soderstr. & Londoño *
Alvimia gracilis Soderstr. & Londoño *
Anomochloa marantoidea Brongn. *
Arberella bahiensis Soderstr. & Zuloaga *
Atractantha cardinalis Judz. *
Atractantha radiata McClure *
Chusquea clemirae A.C.Mota, R.P.Oliveira & L.G.Clark
Diandrolyra pygmaea Soderstr. & Zuloaga ex R.P.Oliveira & L.G.Clark
Digitaria doellii Mez *
Eremetis robusta Hollowell, F.M.Ferreira & R.P.Oliveira
Eremocaulon aureofimbriatum Soderstr. & Londoño *
Ichnanthus longhi-wagnerae A.C.Mota & R.P.Oliveira
Merostachys annulifera Send.
Merostachys argentea Send.
Merostachys lanata Send.
Merostachys magnispicula Send.
Merostachys medullosa Send.
Merostachys ramosissima Send.
Olyra bahiensis R.P.Oliveira & Longhi-Wagner
Olyra filiformis Trin.
Olyra latispicula Soderstr. & Zuloaga *
Parianella carvalhoi (R.P.Oliveira & Longhi-Wagner) F.M.Ferreira & R.P. Oliveira
Parianella lanceolata (Trin.) F.M.Ferreira & R.P.Oliveira
Paspalum restingense Renvoize *
Paspalum strigosum Döll
Piresia palmula M.L.S.Carvalho & R.P.Oliveira
Raddia distichophylla (Schrad. ex Nees) Chase *
Raddia stolonifera R.P.Oliveira & Longhi-Wagner
Caamembeca martinelli (Marques & E.F.Guim.) J.F.B.Pastore *
Caamembeca martinelli var. carnosa (Marques & E.F.Guim.) J.F.B.Pastore
Securidaca revoluta (A.W.Benn.) Marques
Cybianthus nemoralis (Mez) G.Agostini
Chomelia bahiae J.H.Kirkbr.
Denscantia andrei (E.L.Cabral & Bacigalupo) E.L.Cabral & Bacigalupo *
Denscantia macrobracteata (E.L.Cabral & Bacigalupo) E.L.Cabral & Bacigalupo *
Faramea bicolor J.G.Jardim & Zappi
Faramea nocturna J.G.Jardim & Zappi
Ixora bahiensis Benth.
Ixora cabraliensis Di Maio et Peixoto
Malanea harleyi J.H.Kirkbr. *
Mitracarpus anthospermoides K.Schum.
Posoqueria bahiensis Macias & Kin.-Gouv.
Psychotria martiusii Müll.Arg.
Psychotria megalocalyx Müll.Arg.
Psychotria salzmanniana Müll.Arg.
Psychotria silvicola Müll.Arg.
Psychotria strigosa Müll.Arg.
Psychotria wawrana Müll.Arg.
Rudgea hileiabaiana Zappi & Bruniera
Rudgea ilheotica Müll.Arg.
Rudgea involucrata Müll.Arg.
Rudgea malpighiacea Standl.
Rudgea mouririoides Standl.
Salzmannia arborea J.G. Jardim
Sphinctanthus insignis Steyerm.
Andreadoxa flava Kallunki *
Conchocarpus concinnus Kallunki *
Conchocarpus dasyanthus Kallunki *
Conchocarpus fissicalyx Pirani *
Conchocarpus gaudichaudianus subsp. bahiensis Kallunki *
Conchocarpus hirsutus Pirani *
Conchocarpus inopinatus Pirani *
Conchocarpus longipes Kallunki *
Conchocarpus mastigophorus Kallunki *
Conchocarpus modestus Kallunki *
Conchocarpus punctatus Kallunki *
Conchocarpus racemosus (Nees & Mart.) Kallunki & Pirani
Conchocarpus santosii Pirani & Kallunki *
Ertela bahiensis (Engl.) Kuntze
Galipea revoluta Pirani
Neoraputia calliantha Kallunki
Neoraputia micrantha Kallunki
Zanthoxylum nemorale Mart.
Zanthoxylum retusum (Albuq.) P.G.Waterman
Cardiospermum integerrimum Radlk. *
Paullinia livescens Radlk.
Paullinia unifoliolata Perdiz & Ferrucci
Serjania morii Acev.-Rodr.
Serjania scopulifera Radlk.
Chromolucuma apiculata Alves-Araújo & M.Alves
Pouteria atlantica Alves-Araújo & M.Alves
Pouteria glauca T.D.Penn.
Pouteria synsepala Popovkin & A.D.Faria
Pouteria trifida Alves-Araújo & M.Alves
Pradosia longipedicellata Alves-Araújo & M.Alves
Citharexylum obtusifolium Kuhlm.
Stachytarpheta hirsutissima Link
Vochysia talmonii M.C.Vianna et al.

*Taxon also in Thomas et al. (2003).

Figure 2 Some species found in the checklist of endemic angiosperms of BCF: a) Kuhlmanniodendron macrocarpum (Achariaceae). b) Quesnelia koltesii (Bromeliaceae). c) Dichorisandra leucophtalmos (Commelinaceae). d) Tapura zei-limae (Dichapetalaceae). e) Arapatiella psilophylla (Fabaceae). f) Harleyodendron unifoliolatum (Fabaceae). g) Pavonia goetheoides (Malvaceae). h) Pleiochiton amorimii (Melastomataceae). i) Anomochloa marantoidea (Poaceae). Photos: a, b, d, g, h) A.Amorim; c) L.Aona; e, f) D.Cardoso; i) J.Jardim. 


The families with the highest numbers of endemic taxa in BCF are also among the ten richest angiosperm families in Brazil and in the Atlantic Forest (BFG 2015). Thomas et al. (2003) reported Fabaceae (53 spp.) as the richest family of a total of 65 families in the previous list. Compared with the BFG (2015), it is remarkable that Orchidaceae, one of the three richest families in Brazil and in the Atlantic Forest, was not among the richest families in this study, with only 25 taxa. This may be due to the lack of geographic records for 14 species in this family, which had to be discarded.

Among the 20 richest angiosperm genera in Brazil (BFG 2015), Aechmea and Myrcia are also among the genera with the highest number of endemic species in the BCF. In a preliminary list of the endemic angiosperm species from southern Bahia and northern Espírito Santo, Thomas et al. (2003) cited Conchocarpus J.C.Mikan (Rutaceae) (19 spp.) as the richest genus, followed by Pavonia Cav. (Malvaceae) (13 spp.), Couepia Aubl., and Erythroxylum P.Browne (seven spp. each). The occurrence of only 12 endemic species of Conchocarpus in the present checklist probably indicates that several endemic species of this genus are exclusively found at more inland seasonally dry forests (Kallunki & Pirani 1998).

Among the endemic genera from southern Bahia and northern Espírito Santo reported by Thomas et al. (2003), such as Arapatiella and Brodriguesia (Fabaceae), Atractantha, Alvimia and Sucrea (Poaceae), and Trigoniodendron (Trigoniaceae), several are not endemic to BCF. For example, Brodriguesia, Atractantha and Trigoniodendron have been recorded outside our study area, respectively, in Sergipe, Amazonas, and near the Doce River. Similarly, Physeterostemon R.Goldenb. & Amorim (Melastomataceae), a recently described endemic genus from the Atlantic Forest of Bahia state (Amorim et al. 2014, Goldenberg et al. 2016, Goldenberg & Amorim 2006), was not considered endemic to BCF in this checklist, as among its species P. gomesii Amorim & R.Goldenb. occurs in the municipality of Boa Nova (Amorim et al. 2014), which lies slightly outside our study area.

In comparison with the preliminary list of Thomas et al. (2003), which included 395 endemic angiosperm taxa from an area that covered a larger part of northern Espírito Santo state, as far as the Doce River, and the southern Bahia Atlantic Forest, including more inland areas, and almost reaching the municipality of Salvador (i.e., an area ca. 20% larger than ours) (Figure 1a), the list presented here surprisingly shares only 143 taxa (Table 1). If we had used the Doce River as our area southern limit, it would have included at least 45 additional species restricted to the Linhares region, such as Cryptanthus beuckeri E.Morren (Bromeliaceae), Rourea luizalbertoi Forero, L.A.Vidal & Carbonó (Connaraceae), Simira eliezeriana Peixoto (Rubiaceae) and the endemic genus Riodocea Delprete (Thomas et al. 2003, Rolim et al. 2016). Despite being geographically close and having several species in common (Saiter et al. 2016b), the vegetation of Linhares and the Doce River floodplain are ecologically different from the BCF (Rolim et al. 2005, 2006). In floristic terms, the Linhares region may be more similar to northern Rio de Janeiro, southern Espírito Santo (Silva & Nascimento 2001, Saiter et al. 2016b) and eastern Minas Gerais states (see Krenák-Waitaká Forests sensuSaiter et al. 2016a).

Another difference between the two checklists is due to the time gap of about 15 years between studies. A total of 174 species in our checklist were described after 2003, probably due to increased efforts in collecting and studying plants in the Atlantic Forest in Bahia. For instance, about 41.5% of all new angiosperms in the Brazilian flora described between 1990 and 2006 are endemic to the Atlantic Forest (Sobral & Stehmann 2009). Moreover, 23 species of angiosperms endemic to BCF were described between 2015 and 2017 (e.g., Araújo et al. 2015, Santos et al. 2015, Abreu & Giulietti 2016, Amorim et al. 2016, Côrtes et al. 2016, Ferreira et al. 2016, Marinho & Lucas 2016, Popovkin et al. 2016, Ribeiro et al. 2016, Terra-Araujo et al. 2016, Daly & Melo 2017, Gonçalez et al. 2017).

Compared to the results of a search in the Brazilian Plant List (Flora do Brasil 2020, under construction) using the following filters: "group: angiosperms", "endemism: only endemic to Brazil", "occurrence: only occurs in", "origin: native", "state: Bahia", and "phytogeographic domain: Atlantic Forest", the number of species in our checklist (547 spp.) was much smaller than the 795 species identified by the search engine. Among the reasons for this large difference (248 spp.) it is worth mentioning that a) more than 50 taxa from our list had to be removed due to lack of precise geospatial data, such as the municipality name, which precluded us from citing them as endemic to BCF; b) among the taxa exclusive to the Brazilian Plant List (Flora do Brasil 2020, under construction) that are not restricted to BCF, several occur in more inland seasonally dry forests in the Atlantic Forest, such as Chrysophyllum subspinosum Monach. (Sapotaceae) and Colicodendron bahianum Cornejo & Iltis (Capparaceae); and c) at least 29 species exclusive to the Brazilian Plant List search occur close to, but outside the study area, such as Canistrum camacaense Martinelli & Leme (Bromeliaceae), Inga grazielae (Vinha) T.D.Penn. (Fabaceae), and Bertolonia carmoi Baumgratz (Melastomataceae), all from the municipality of Boa Nova, and Aechmea bicolor L.B.Sm. (Bromeliaceae), Heteropterys jardimii Amorim (Malpighiaceae), and Passiflora timboensis T.S.Nunes & L.P.Queiroz (Passifloraceae), from the municipality of Santa Teresinha.

There are additional reasons to anticipate that the difference in species numbers between the Brazilian Plant List and our list could be even greater, as the list presented here includes 84 taxa that also occur in northern Espírito Santo and in a small area in northeastern Minas Gerais (Figure 1c). Moreover, the Brazilian Plant List (Flora do Brasil 2020, under construction) is an ongoing project on which new taxa can be continuously added and identified as endemic, what could bring the total number of endemic angiosperm species using the same filters even larger. Alternatively, if the native distribution of several taxa is shown to extend beyond the Atlantic Forest domain in Bahia, the difference between the lists could decrease, as fewer species from the Brazilian Plant List would appear as endemic while applying the same search filters.

Developing knowledge on patterns of endemism for plant species is extremely important and must be taken into account in conservation strategies. This information is relevant for the establishment of new protected areas (Kerr 1997), restoration policies (Chazdon 2008) and in directing additional studies (Francisco-Ortega et al. 2010). Considering the key role of endemic species in the design of conservation policies (Myers et al. 2000, Van Der Werff & Consiglio 2004, Moraes et al. 2005, Lamoreux et al. 2006, Martinelli et al. 2008, Essl et al. 2009, Nowak & Nobis 2010), we expect this checklist could guide future studies and conservation strategies, as well as emphasize the importance of the BCF region as a key area for plant conservation.


The authors thank Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for awarding a Master Fellowship to POB, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for the Research Productivity Fellowship to AMA (grant # 310717/2015-9), and PF (grant # 306228/2016-5), and all specialists that provided updated information on endemic species distribution.

Supplementary material

The following online material is available for this article:

Appendix 1 - Taxonomic studies and specialists consulted by family.


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Received: March 29, 2018; Revised: July 11, 2018; Accepted: July 12, 2018

*Corresponding author: Piera Ostroki, e-mail:

Author Contributions

Piera Ostroski: substantial contribution in the concept and design of the study; contribution to data collection; contribution to data analysis and interpretation; contribution to manuscript preparation; contribution to critical revision augmenting intellectual content.

Felipe Saiter: substantial contribution in the concept and design of the study; contribution to data analysis and interpretation; contribution to manuscript preparation; contribution to critical revision augmenting intellectual content.

André Amorim: substantial contribution in the concept and design of the study; contribution to data analysis and interpretation; contribution to manuscript preparation; contribution to critical revision augmenting intellectual content.

Pedro Fiaschi: substantial contribution in the concept and design of the study; contribution to data analysis and interpretation; contribution to manuscript preparation; contribution to critical revision augmenting intellectual content.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest related to the publication of the data in this article.

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