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Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases

On-line version ISSN 1678-9199

J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis vol.13 no.2 Botucatu  2007 



Snakoid instead of venomoid*



Gawade S. P.

Sveri's college of pharmacy, Gopalpur Ranjani Rd, Pandharpur, MS, India

Correspondence to



Dear Sir, 

The term toxoidation is employed for the alterations caused in toxins by photochemical means or chemical exposure. Such alterations can lead to loss of toxicity; however, an altered protein retains its antigenic reactivity. The term venomoid is used for devenomated snakes whose venom glands are either removed or damaged so that the snake remains alive but loses the power to kill its preys. Such snakes are useful as a research tool to study behavioral biology. To my mind, instead of using the term venomoid, the term snakoid would be more pertinent, as there is not a similar term for altered venom. The term venomoid then could be employed to venom undergoing photochemical/chemical treatment so that it is devoid of toxic properties but retains its antigenic reactivity with significant pharmacological properties.



Correspondence to:
SHIVAJI P. GAWADE, SVERI's College of Pharmacy, Gopalpur Ranjani Rd, P.B. 54, Pandharpur, 413304, Dist. Solapur, MS, India. Phone: 0 21 8622 5893. Fax: 0 21 8622 5082. Email:

Received: March 14, 2007
Accepted: March 22, 2007
Abstract published online: March 26, 2007
Full paper published online: May 31, 2007J.



* This letter was not subjected to peer review and reflects the author's personal opinion.

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