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Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases

On-line version ISSN 1678-9199

J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis vol.16 no.4 Botucatu  2010

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1678-91992010000400005 

REVIEW ARTICLE

 

Checklist of helminths from lizards and amphisbaenians (Reptilia, Squamata) of South America

 

 

Ávila RW; Silva RJ

Department of Parasitology, Botucatu Biosciences Institute, São Paulo State University (UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista), Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil

Correspondence to

 

 


ABSTRACT

A comprehensive and up to date summary of the literature on the helminth parasites of lizards and amphisbaenians from South America is herein presented. One-hundred eighteen lizard species from twelve countries were reported in the literature harboring a total of 155 helminth species, being none acanthocephalans, 15 cestodes, 20 trematodes and 111 nematodes. Of these, one record was from Chile and French Guiana, three from Colombia, three from Uruguay, eight from Bolivia, nine from Surinam, 13 from Paraguay, 12 from Venezuela, 27 from Ecuador, 17 from Argentina, 39 from Peru and 103 from Brazil. The present list provides host, geographical distribution (with the respective biome, when possible), site of infection and references from the parasites. A systematic parasite-host list is also provided.

Key words: Cestoda, Nematoda, Trematoda, Squamata, neotropical.


 

 

INTRODUCTION

Parasitological studies on helminths that infect squamates (particularly lizards) in South America had recent increased in the past few years, with many new records of hosts and/or localities and description of several new species (1-3). Such studies, however, date back to 1920, when Dr. Lauro Travassos and his colleagues presented important contributions to the field of helminth systematics (4-6).

The first comprehensive efforts to summarize the knowledge about helminths of squamates are those from Baker (7), who listed all available published data on the occurrence of nematodes infecting reptiles and amphibians. Other studies have a regional scope and treat each helminth group separately, for example, nematodes collected from reptiles of Brazil, digenetic trematodes of amphibians and reptiles from Argentina and acanthocephalans in amphibians and reptiles from Brazil and Paraguay (8-10).

The present checklist summarizes the diversity of helminths from lizards and amphisbaenians of South America, providing a host-parasite list with localities and biomes.

 

STUDIED REGIONS

This checklist was prepared based on records of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, and trematodes published from 1914 to 2010, excluding material from the so called "grey literature", that is, records of unpublished theses or scientific meetings. The taxonomy of helminths follows: nematodes, cestodes, trematodes and acanthocephalans (6, 8, 11-15). Whenever possible, taxonomy of hosts is reviewed with recent publications.

Each record is constituted by the class, order, superfamily, family and species of the helminth; as well as the name of the authority who described it and year; besides its host(s), geographical record with country and state/province (when available) and information on biome of host. Comments include taxonomy, synonyms and also changes in the host taxonomy.

Abbreviations for all political units cited in this paper are:

• Brazil: Acre (AC), Alagoas (AL), Amapá (AP), Amazonas (AM), Bahia (BA), Ceará (CE), Distrito Federal (DF), Goiás (GO), Espírito Santo (ES), Maranhão (MA), Mato Grosso (MT), Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Minas Gerais (MG), Pará (PA), Paraíba (PB), Paraná (PR), Pernambuco (PE), Piauí (PI), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Rio Grande do Norte (RN), Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Rondônia (RO), Roraima (RR), São Paulo (SP), Santa Catarina (SC), Sergipe (SE), and Tocantins (TO).

• Argentina: Buenos Aires (BA), Catamarca (CA), Córdoba (CR), Corrientes (CO), Chaco (CH), Chubut (CB), Entre Rios (ER), Formosa (FO), Jujuy (JU), La Pampa (LP), La Rioja (LR), Mendoza (ME), Misiones (MI), Neuquén (NE), Rio Negro (RN), Salta (SA), San Juan (SJ), San Luis (SL), Santa Cruz (SC), Santa Fe (SF), Santiago del Estero (SE), Tierra del Fuego (TF), and Tucumán (TU).

• Paraguay: Alto Paraguay (AP), Alto Paraná (AA), Amambay (AM), Distrito Capital (DC), Boquerón (BO), Caaguazú (CA), Caazapá (CZ), Canindeyú (CN), Central (CE), Concepción (CO), Cordillera (CR), Guairá (GU), Itapúa (IT), Misiones (MI), Ñeembucú (NE), Paraguarí (PA), Presidente Hayes (PH), and San Pedro (SP).

• Bolivia: Chuquisaca (CH), Cochabamba (CO), Beni (BE), La Paz (LP), Oruro (OR), Pando (PA), Potosí (PO), Santa Cruz (SC), and Tarija (TA).

• Venezuela: Amazonas (AM), Anzoátegui (AN), Apure (AP), Aragua (AR), Barinas (BA), Bolívar (BO), Carabobo (CA), Cojedes (CO), Delta Amacuro (DA), Falcón (FA), Guárico (GU), Lara (LA), Mérida (ME), Miranda (MI), Monagas (MO), Nueva Esparta (NE), Portuguesa (PO), Sucre (SU), Táchira (TA), Trujillo (TR), Yaracuy (YA), Vargas (VA), and Zulia (ZU).

• Ecuador: Azuay (AZ), Bolívar (BO), Cañar (CA), Carchi (CR), Cotopaxi (CO), Chimborazo (CH), Galápagos (GA), Imbabura (IM), Loja (LO), Pichincha (PI), Tungurahua (TU), El Oro (EO), Esmeraldas (ES), Guayas (GU), Los Ríos (LR), Manabí (MA), Morona-Santiago (MS), Napo (NA), Pastaza (PA), Zamora-Chinchipe (ZC), Sucumbíos (SU), and Orellana (OR).

• Peru: Amazonas (AM), Ancash (AN), Apurímac (AP), Arequipa (AR), Ayacucho (AY), Cajamarca (CA), Callao (CL), Cusco (CU), Huancavelica (HU), Huánuco (HA), Ica (IC), Junin (JU), La Libertad (LL), Lambayeque (LA), Lima (LI), Loreto (LO), Madre de Dios (MD), Moquegua (MO), Pasco (PA), Piura (PI), Puno (PU), San Martín (SM), Tacna (TA), Tumbes (TU), and Ucayali (UC).

• Colombia: Amazonas (AM), Antioquia (AN), Arauca (AR), Atlántico (AT), Bolívar (BO), Boyacá (BY), Caldas (CA), Caquetá (CQ), Casanare (CS), Cauca (CU), Cesar (CE), Chocó (CH), Córdoba (CO), Cundinamarca (CN), Guainía (GU), Guaviare (GA), Huila (HU), La Guajira (LG), Magdalena (MA), Meta (ME), Nariño (NA), Norte de Santander (NS), Putumayo (PU), Quindío (QU), Risaralda (RI), San Andrés (SA), Santander (SN), Sucre (SU), Tolima (TO), Valle del Cauca (VC), Vaupés (VA), and Vichada (VI).

• Chile: Aisén (AI), Antofagasta (AN), Araucanía (AU), Arica (AR), Atacama (AT), Biobío (BI), Coquimbo (CO), Los Rios (LR), Los Lagos (LL), Magallanes (MG), Maule (MA), O´Higgins (OH), Santiago (AS), Tarapacá (TA) and Valparaiso (VA).

• Uruguay: Artigas (AR), Canelones (CA), Cerro Largo (CL), Colônia (CO), Durazno (DU), Flores (FL), Florida (FO), Lavalleja (LA), Maldonado (MA), Montevidéu (MO), Paysandú (PA), Río Negro (RN), Rivera (RI), Rocha (RO), Salto (SA), San José (SJ), Soriano (SO), Tacuarembó (TA), and Treinta y Tres (TT).

• Surinam: Brokopondo (BR), Commewijne (CO), Coronie (CR), Marowijne (MA), Nickerie (NI), Para (PA), Paramaribo (PR), Saramacca (SA), Sipaliwini (SI), and Wanica (WA).

• French Guiana: Awala-Yalimapo (AY), Apatou (AP), Camopi (CA), Cayenne (CY), Grand-Santi (GS), Iracoubo (IR), Kourou (KO), Macouria (MC), Mana (MA), Maripasoula (MR), Matoury (MT), Montsinéry-Tonnegrande (MO), Ouanary (OU), Papaïchton (PA), Régina (RE), Remire-Montjoly (RM), Roura (RO), Saint-Élie (SE), Saint-Georges (SG), Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni (SL), Saül (SA), and Sinnamary (SI).

• Guyana: Barima-Waini (BW), Pomeroon-Supenaam (PS), Essequibo Islands-West Demerara (EI), Demerara-Mahaica (DM), Mahaica-Berbice (MB), East Berbice-Corentyne (EC), Cuyuni-Mazaruni (CM), Potaro-Siparuni (PS), Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo (TE), and Upper Demerara-Berbice (DB).

 

LIST OF HELMINTHS

Acanthocephala

Hosts: Tropidurus torquatus Wied-Neuwied, 1820

Site of infection: Stomach wall

Distribution: Argentina - CO (Chaco).

Comments: No indication of family and/or genus, but probably belong to Centrorhynchidae, since several cystacanths of this family have been found in South American lizards (16).

Archiacanthocephala

Oligacanthorhynchida

Oligacanthorhynchidae

Oligacanthorhynchus Travassos, 1915

Oligacanthorhynchus sp.

Hosts: Ameiva ameiva Linnaeus, 1758

Distribution: Paraguay - Rio Negro (Chaco), PH (10).

Palaeacanthocephala

Echinorhynchida

Echinorhynchidae

Hosts: Mabuya macrorhyncha Hoge, 1946

Site of infection: Stomach wall

Distribution: Brazil - Trancoso (Restinga), BA.

Comments: No indication of genus (17).

Acanthocephalus Koelreuther, 1771

Acanthocephalus saurius Bursey & Goldberg, 2003

Hosts: Cercosaura oshaugnessyi Boulenger, 1885

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Brazil - AC (Amazon) (18).

Acanthocephalus sp.

Hosts: Enyalius perditus Jackson, 1978

Site of infection: Stomach

Distribution: Brazil - São Sebastião (Atlantic Forest), SP (3).

Echinorhynchus Zoega in Müller, 1776

Echinorhynchus sp.

Hosts: Tropidurus torquatus

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Brazil (19).

Polymorphida

Centrorhynchidae

Hosts: Mabuya macrorhyncha; M. agilis Raddi, 1823, Hemidactylus mabouia Moreau de Jonnés, 1818, Enyalius bilineatus Duméril & Bibron, 1837

Site of infection: Peritonium, liver; mesentery

Distribution: Brazil - Queimada Grande island (Atlantic forest) and Valinhos (Cerrado), SP; Grussaí (Restinga) and Nova Iguaçu (Atlantic Forest), RJ; Praia das Neves (Restinga) and Marechal Floriano (Atlantic Forest), ES.

Comments: All citations above consist of cystacanth occurrence and are, thus, difficult to identify to species level, because reproductive structures are required (20-24).

Centrorhynchus Lühe, 1911

Centrorhynchus tumidulus Rudolphi, 1919

Hosts: Ameiva ameiva; Tropidurus torquatus; Tupinambis teguixin Linnaeus, 1758

Site of infection: Body cavity

Comments: Tupinambis teguixin found in Rio de Janeiro and in open habitats in South America may actually correspond to T. merianae.

Distribution: Brazil - Rio de Janeiro (Atlantic Forest), RJ (25, 26).

Centrorhynchus sp.

Hosts: Tupinambis teguixin

Site of infection: Not informed

Distribution: Paraguay - AP (Chaco) (10).

Nematoda

Adenophorea

Enoplida

Capilariidae

Capillaria (Zeder, 1800) Bell & Beverley Burton 1981

Capillaria (= Amphibiocapillaria) freitaslenti Araujo & Gandra, 1941

Hosts: Tropidurus torquatus; Ameiva ameiva

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - GO (Cerrado); Peru - CU (Amazon) (1, 8).

Ichthyocapillaria Moravec, 1982

Ichthyocapillaria (= Pseudocapillaria) maricaensis Rodrigues, 1992

Hosts: Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Maricá (Restinga), RJ (27).

Ascaridida

Anisakidae

Contracaecum Railliet & Henry, 1912

Contracaecum sp.

Hosts: Tupinambis teguixin

Site of infection: Not informed

Distribution: Surinam - PR (Amazon) (28).

Ascarididae

Dujardinascaris Baylis, 1927

Dujardinascaris sp.

Hosts: Kentropyx pelviceps Cope, 1868, Tupinambis teguixin

Site of infection: Stomach

Distribution: Peru - CU (Amazon) (1).

Freitasascaris Sprent, 1983

Freitasascaris alata Baylis, 1947

Hosts: Tupinambis teguixin

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Surinam - PR (Amazon); Brazil - AM (Amazon); Uruguay - MO

Comments: Tupinambis teguixin from Uruguay may actually correspond to T. merianae. (28-30).

Hexametra Travassos, 1919

Hexametra boddaertii Baird, 1860

Hosts: Cnemidophorus littoralis Rocha, Araujo, Vrcibradic & Costa, 2000; C. ocellifer Spix, 1825; Mabuya agilis; M. frenata Cope, 1862; M. macrorhyncha; Tropidurus torquatus

Site of infection: Body cavity

Distribution: Brazil - Jurubatiba, Grussaí and Marica (Restinga), RJ; Salvador and Trancoso (Restinga), BA; Valinhos (Cerrado), SP (17, 23, 31-35).

Atractidae

Atractis Dujardin, 1945

Atractis cruciata Linstow, 1902

Hosts: Tupinambis teguixin, Stenocercus roseiventris

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Belém (Amazon), PA; Ecuador - PA (Amazon).

Comments: Atractis cruciata is considered a junior synonym of A. opeatura (7, 36). However, it is considered a valid species by some authors (8, 37-39).

Cyrtosomum Gedoelst, 1919

Cyrtosomum longicaudatum Brenes and Bravo Hollis, 1960

Hosts: Anolis punctatus Daudin, 1802; Anolis transversalis Duméril, 1851

Site of infection: Large intestine

Distribution: Peru - CU (Amazon); Brazil - AM (Amazon) (1, 40).

Cyrtosomum sp.

Hosts: Ophiodes striatus

Site of infection: Large intestine

Distribution: Brazil - MS (Cerrado) (41).

Maracaya Díaz-Ungría, 1964

Maracaya belemensis Adamson & Baccam, 1988

Hosts: Amphisbaena alba Linnaeus, 1758

Site of infection: Large intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Belém (Amazon), PA (42).

Maracaya graciai Díaz-Ungría, 1969

Hosts: Amphisbaena alba

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Venezuela - Maracay, AR (7, 42).

Maracaya pusilla (Miranda, 1924) Adamson & Baccam, 1988

Hosts: Amphisbaena sp.

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - BA.

Remarks: The former Aplectana pusilla was transferred to Maracaya (42), according to a revision of the genus Maracaya (43), but it is cited in the genus Aplectana by other authors (42-44).

Cosmocercidae

gen. sp.

Hosts: Cercosaura argulus Peters, 1863

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Peru - Rio Nanay (Amazon), LO (45).

Aplectana Railliet & Henry, 1916

Aplectana albae Adamson & Baccam, 1988

Hosts: Amphisbaena alba; Amphisbaena ridleyi Boulenger, 1890

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Belém (Amazon), PA; Fernando de Noronha Island, PE (42, 46).

Aplectana raillieti Travassos, 1925

Hosts: Amphisbaena alba

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Angra dos Reis (Insular Atlantic Forest), RJ.

Comments: The host Amphisbaena fusca was originally cited as Amphisbaena alba (5, 7, 8, 47).

Aplectana tucumanensis Ramallo, Bursey & Goldberg, 2008

Hosts: Amphisbaena bolivica Mertens, 1929

Site of infection: Large intestine

Distribution: Argentina - San Miguel de Tucumán (Chaco), TU (44).

Aplectana unguiculata Rudolphi, 1819

Hosts: Amphisbaena sp.

Site of infection: Not informed

Distribution: Brazil.

Comments: The species is actually considered as species inquirenda (7).

Aplectana vellardi Travassos, 1926

Hosts: Enyalius perditus

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Ibitipoca (Cerrado), MG (48).

Cosmocerca Diesing, 1861

Cosmocerca rara Freitas & Vicente, 1966

Hosts: Leposternon microcephalum Wagler, 1824

Site of infection: Large intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Rio de Janeiro (Atlantic forest), RJ (8, 49).

Cosmocerca vrcibradici Bursey & Goldberg, 2004

Hosts: Alopoglossus angulatus Linnaeus, 1758; Alopoglossus atriventris Duellman, 1973; Anolis fuscoauratus D'Orbignyi, 1837; Cercosaura eigenmanni Griffin, 1917; C. oshaugnessyi Boulenger, 1885; Uranoscodon superciliosus Linnaeus, 1758

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - AC, AM, PA, RO (Amazon); Ecuador - SU (Amazon) (18, 50-52).

Cosmocerca sp.

Hosts: Enyalius perditus

Site of infection: Stomach

Distribution: Brazil - São Sebastião (Insular Atlantic forest), SP (3).

Paradollfusnema Baker, 1982

Paradollfusnema amphisbaenia Baker, 1981

Hosts: Leposternon microcephalum

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Recife, PE (8, 53).

Raillietnema Travassos, 1927

Raillietnema brachyspiculatum Bursey, Goldberg, Salgado-Maldonado, and Mendez-de-la-Cruz, 1998

Hosts: Morunasaurus annularis (O'Shaughnessy, 1881)

Site of infection: Large intestine

Distribution: Ecuador - PA (Amazon) (39).

Heterakidae

Africana Travassos, 1920

Africana chabaudi Baker, 1981

Hosts: Uranoscodon superciliosus

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - PA, RO and RR (Amazon) (50, 54).

Africana dardanelosi Ávila & Silva, 2009

Hosts: Hoplocercus spinosus

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - MT (Amazon) (55).

Moaciria Freitas, 1956

Moaciria alvarengai Freitas, 1956

Hosts: Trachylepis atlantica Schmidt, 1945

Site of infection: Large intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Fernando de Noronha Island, PE (8, 46, 56).

Spinicauda Travassos, 1920

Spinicauda spinicauda Olfers, 1819

Hosts: Ameiva ameiva, Tupinambis teguixin, Tupinambis merianae, Trachylepis atlantica, Enyalioides praestabilis (O'Shaughnessey, 1881)

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - MT (Pantanal), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, São Gonçalo, RN and Fortaleza, CE, Fernando de Noronha Islands, PE; Peru - CU (Amazon); Surinam - PR (Amazon); Venezuela - AR; Ecuador - PA (Amazon) (4, 7, 28, 39, 46, 50, 57-60).

Strongyluris Mueller, 1894

Strongyluris oscari Travassos, 1923

Hosts: Ameiva ameiva; Anolis fuscoauratus; A. punctatus; A. transversalis; Enyalius iheringii Boulenger, 1885; E. perditus; Eurolophosaurus nanuzae Rodrigues, 1981; Mabuya agilis; Plica plica Linnaeus, 1758; Plica umbra Linnaeus, 1758; Stenocercus caducus; S. roseiventris D'Orbigny in Duméril & Bibron 1837; Tropidurus sp.; T. guarani Alvarez, Cei & Scolaro, 1994; T. spinulosus Cope, 1862; T. torquatus; T. melanopleurus

Site of infection: Stomach, intestine

Distribution: Brazil - AC, AM, BA, CE, DF, ES, GO, MG, MS, PA, PB, RJ, RO, SP (Pantanal, Restinga, Amazon, Caatinga, Atlantic Forest); Argentina (Chaco); Paraguay (Chaco); Ecuador - SU and PA (Amazon); Peru - CU (Amazon); Bolivia - Florida province, SC.

Comments: Currently, 31 species are recognized within the genus, and based on morphological characteristics, only four occurrs in neotropical regions (61). Strongyluris oscari seems to be extremely polymorphic, since the species S. freitasi, S. travassosi and S. sai have been synonimized (62). The records of S. oscari infecting T. spinulosus in the region of Salobra, MS, Brazil correspond to T. guarani (1, 3, 32, 35, 39-41, 48, 51, 60, 62-69).

Kathlaniidae

Cruzia Travassos, 1917

Cruzia fulleborni Khalil & Vogelsang, 1930

Hosts: Tupinambis teguixin

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Argentina; Paraguay (7, 70-72).

Cruzia rudolphii Ruiz, 1947

Hosts: Hoplocercus spinosus Fitzinger, 1843

Site of infection: Large intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Dois Irmãos do Buriti (Cerrado), MS (71, 73).

Cruzia tentaculata Rudolphi, 1819

Hosts: Tupinambis teguixin

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Uruguay - MO (29, 71).

Cruzia travassosi Kalil & Vogelsangi, 1932

Hosts: Tupinambis merianae

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Salobra (Pantanal) and Bodoquena (Cerrado) MS; Bolivia; Argentina (7, 41, 71).

Falcaustra Lane, 1915

Falcaustra belemensis Baker & Bain, 1981

Hosts: Neusticurus bicarinatus Linnaeus, 1758; Potamites ecpleopus Cope, 1876; P. strangulatus Cope, 1868

Site of infection: Rectum

Distribution: Ecuador - PA (Amazon) (39).

Falcaustra sp.

Hosts: Anolis punctatus

Site of infection: Large intestine

Distribution: Brazil - AM (Amazon) (40).

Seuratidae

Skrjabinelazia Sypliaxov, 1930

Skrjabinelazia galliardi Chabaud, 1973

Hosts: Gonatodes humeralis Guichenot, 1855

Site of infection: Stomach

Distribution: Brazil - Belém (Amazon), PA (8, 74, 75).

Skrjabinellazia intermedia Freitas, 1940

Hosts: Anolis puncatus; Cnemidophorus nativo Rocha, Bergallo & Peccinini-Seale, 1997; Tropidurus guarani; T. torquatus; Stenocercus caducus (Cope, 1862)

Site of infection: Stomach, intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Salobra (Pantanal) and Bodoquena (Cerrado), MS; Salvador and Guaratiba (Restinga), BA; Jurubatiba (Restinga), RJ; Paraguay - (Chaco); Peru - CU (Amazon).

Comments: Originally described as Salobrella intermedia found in Tropidurus spinulosus from Salobra, MS. See comments on host taxonomy at Strongyluris oscari (1, 35, 41, 62, 65, 76, 77).

Subuluridae

Subulura Molin, 1860

Subulura lacertilia Vicente, Van-Sluys, Fontes & Kiefer, 2000

Hosts: Eurolophosaurus nanuzae, Cnemidophorus nativo

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Serra do Cipó (Cerrado), MG; Guaratiba (Restinga), BA (66, 77, 78).

Subulura sp.

Hosts: Tropidurus torquatus

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Jurubatiba (Restinga), RJ (35).

Oxyurida

Oxyuridae

Gynaecometra Araújo, 1976

Gynaecometra bahiensis Araújo, 1976

Hosts: Polychrus acutirostris Spix, 1825

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Xique-xique (Caatinga), BA; Campo Grande (Cerrado), MS (41, 79).

Typhlonema Kreis, 1938

Typhlonema sp.

Hosts: Tropidurus guarani

Site of infection: Not informed

Distribution: Brazil - Salobra (Pantanal), MS (8).

Pharyngodonidae

Alaeuris Thapar, 1925

Alaeuris caudatus Lent & Freitas, 1948

Hosts: Iguana iguana

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Exu (Caatinga), PE; Venezuela - La Puerta, GU; Peru - TU (8, 29, 80).

Alaeuris conolophi Cuckler, 1938

Hosts: Conolophus subcristatus Gray, 1831

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Ecuador - Galapagos Islands (7).

Alaeuris galapagensis Cuckler, 1938

Hosts: Conolophus subcristatus Gray, 1831

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Ecuador - Galapagos Islands (7).

Alaeuris labicula Cuckler, 1938

Hosts: Conolophus subcristatus

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Ecuador - Galapagos Islands (7).

Alaeuris longispicula Cuckler, 1938

Hosts: Conolophus subcristatus

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Ecuador - Galapagos Islands (7).

Alaeuris vogelsangi Lent & Freitas, 1948

Hosts: Iguana iguana

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Exu (Caatinga), PE, CE; Venezuela - La Puerta, GU (8, 29, 81).

Ozolaimus Dujardin, 1845

Ozolaimus cirratus Linstow, 1906

Hosts: Iguana iguana

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Santa Luzia (Caatinga), PB; Peru; Venezuela - La Puerta, GU, Blanquilla, Los Frailes, Los Testigos and Margarita; Colombia - LG; Surinam - PR and Marienburg, CO (8, 29, 82, 83).

Ozolaimus megatyphlon Rudolphi, 1819

Hosts: Iguana iguana

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Santa Luzia (Caatinga), PB; Peru; Venezuela - La Puerta, GU, Blanquilla, Los Frailes, Los Testigos and Margarita; Colombia - LG; Surinam - PR and Marienburg, CO (8, 29, 82, 83).

Paralaeuris Cuckler, 1938

Paralaeuris dorochila Cuckler, 1938

Hosts: Conolophus subcristatus

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Ecuador - Galapagos Islands (7).

Parapharyngodon Chatterji, 1933

Parapharyngodon alvarengai Freitas, 1957

Hosts: Trachylepis atlantica, Ameiva ameiva, Amphisbaena ridleyi

Site of infection: Large intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Fernando de Noronha Island, PE and Itaguaí (Restinga), RJ.

Comments: after the synonym it was cited as Thelandros alvarengai (46, 84, 85).

Parapharyngodon arequipensis Calisaya & Córdova, 1997

Hosts: Microlophus peruvianus (Lesson, 1826)

Site of infection: Large intestine

Distribution: Peru - Omate, MO.

Comments: This species is apparently ignored by severeal authors (86-90).

Parapharyngodon largitor Alho & Rodrigues, 1963

Hosts: Ameiva ameiva, Mabuya agilis, Hemidactylus mabouia, Dicrodon guttulatum

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Manguinhos and Grumari (Restinga), RJ and Valinhos (Cerrado), SP; PERU - LA (8, 22, 33, 91, 92).

Parapharyngodon moqueguensis Calisaya & Córdova, 1997

Hosts: Microlophus peruvianus, Dicrodon guttulatum

Site of infection: Large intestine

Distribution: Peru - Moquegua, MO, LI, TU, PI, LA, LL, AN.

Comments: check P. arequipensis (89, 90, 92).

Parapharyngodon riojensis Ramallo, Bursey & Goldberg, 2002

Hosts: Phymaturus punae Cei, Etheridge & Videla, 1985; P. palluma Molina, 1782; Liolaemus buergeri Werner, 1907

Site of infection: Large intestine

Distribution: Argentina - LR (2, 86).

Parapharyngodon sceleratus Travassos, 1923

Hosts: Ameiva ameiva; Cnemidophorus littoralis; Eurolophosaurus nanuzae; Hemidactylus mabouia; Kentropyx pelviceps; Liolaemus lutzae; Mabuya agilis; M. bistriata; M. caissara Rebouças-Spieker, 1974; M. frenata; M. macrorhyncha; Microlophus albermalensis Baur, 1890; P. johnwrighti; Phyllopezus pollicaris; T. guarani; T. hispidus; T. itambere; T. semitaeniatus Spix, 1825; T. torquatus; T. melanopleurus and Tropidurus sp.

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Abrolhos, Trancoso (Restinga) and Canudos, BA; CE; Linhares and Praia das Neves, ES; Serra do Cipó (Cerrado), MG; Salobra (Pantanal), MS; Xavantina, GO; Cachimbo, PA; Mogeiro, Lagoa Remígio, Umbuseiro and João Pessoa, PB; Garanhuns, PE; Grumari, Rio de Janeiro, Arraial do Cabo, Grussaí, Manguinhos and Maricá, RJ; Cruzeta, Currais Novos and Ceará Mirim (Caatinga), RN; Queimada Grande, Caraguatatuba and Valinhos, SP; Bolivia: Florida province, SC and El Carmen; Paraguay; Peru - CU; Ecuador - Galapagos Islands (1, 7, 8, 17, 20, 22, 27, 32-34, 62, 65, 66, 69, 81, 91, 93-97).

Comments: This species has been widely reported as P. scleratus (1, 86). However, according to the original description and the latter redescription, the proper spelling of the specific name is sceleratus (59, 93). Cnemidophorus occelifer, cited by Ribas et al. (94), actually corresponds to C. littoralis (31).

Parapharyngodon senisfaciecaudus Freitas, 1957

Hosts: Liolaemus signifer Duméril & Bibron, 1837

Site of infection: Large intestine

Distribution: Bolivia - LP.

Comments: It was originally described infecting Liolaemus lenzi, which actually corresponds to L. signifier (98).

Parapharyngodon verrucosus Freitas & Dobbin, 1959

Hosts: Diploglossus lessonae

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - João Alfredo (Caatinga), PE; CE (Caatinga) (8, 81, 99).

Parapharyngodon yurensis Calisaya & Córdova, 1997

Hosts: Microlophus peruvianus

Site of infection: Large intestine

Distribution: Peru - Yura, AR.

Comments: check P. arequipensis (89, 90).

Parapharyngodon sp

Hosts: Ameiva ameiva, Cnemidophorus nativo, Hemidactylus mabouia, Tropidurus torquatus, T. etheridgei, Dicrodon guttulatum

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Salobra, MS; Cabo Frio, Nova Iguaçu and Maricá, RJ, Salvador and Guaratiba, BA; Argentina - CO, SA; Peru - TU, LA, LI (8, 16, 21, 77, 92, 100-102).

Pharyngodon Diesing, 1861

Pharyngodon cesarpintoi Pereira, 1935

Hosts: Cnemidophorus sp., Ameiva ameiva, Liolaemus lutzae, Tropidurus itambere

Site of infection: Large intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Juazeiro and Mogeiro (Caatinga), PB, BA, RN; Maricá (Restinga), RJ; Bodoquena (Cerrado), MS.

Comments: The type of host is apparently misidentified in the original description (60). However, C. lemniscatus does not occur in the Caatinga biome, but C. occelifer and at least three undescribed species occur (41, 60, 103, 104).

Pharyngodon micrurus Freitas & Ibañez, 1963

Hosts: Dicrodon heterolepis, D. guttulatum

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Peru - Trujillo, LL; TU, PI, LA, AN, LI (7, 92, 105).

Pharyngodon travassosi Pereira, 1935

Hosts: Ameiva ameiva

Site of infection: Large intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Areia (Caatinga), PB (60).

Pharyngodon sp.

Hosts: Tropidurus torquatus, Tropidurus hispidus Spix, 1825

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Salvador, BA; CE (8, 81).

Pseudostrongyluris Guerrero, 1971

Pseudostrongyluris polychrus Guerrero, 1971

Hosts: Polychrus marmoratus

Site of infection: Not informed

Distribution: Venezuela - Federal District (7).

Skrjabinodon Inglis, 1968

Skrjabinodon dixoni Bursey & Goldberg, 2007

Hosts: Uracentron flaviceps (Guichenot, 1855)

Site of infection: Large intestine

Distribution: Peru - LO (Amazon); Ecuador - SU (106).

Skrjabinodon heliocostai Vicente, Vrcibradic, Muniz-Pereira & Pinto, 2000

Hosts: Mabuya frenata

Site of infection: Large intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Valinhos (Cerrado), SP (107).

Skrjabinodon spinulosus Vicente, Vrcibradic, Rocha & Pinto, 2002

Hosts: Mabuya dorsivittata

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Itatiaia (Atlantic Forest), RJ; Itirapina (Cerrado), SP (108,109).

Spauligodon Skrjabin, Schikhobalova & Lagodovsk., 1960

Spauligodon loboi Ramallo, Bursey & Goldberg (2002)

Hosts: Liolaemus capillitas Hulse, 1979; L. huacahuasicus Laurent, 1985; L. quilmes Etheridge, 1993; L. ornatus Koslowsky, 1898; L. ramirezae Lobo, 1999

Site of infection: Large intestine

Distribution: Argentina - Tafídel Valle and Amaicha del Valle, TU; El Cerrillo, Andalgalá, Belén, and Santa María, CA; San Antonio de los Cobres, Cachi, and La Poma, SA; and Tilcara and Humahuaca, JU (110).

Spauligodon maytacapaci Vicente & Ibañez (1968)

Hosts: Leiocephalus sp.; Liolaemus andinus Koslowsky, 1895; L. chilensis Lesson, 1830; L. elongatus Koslowsky, 1896; L. lemniscatus Gravenhorst, 1838; L. pictus Duméril & Bibron, 1837; L. tenuis Duméril & Bibron, 1837

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Peru - Pumarongo, CA; Argentina; Chile (2, 111, 112).

Spauligodon oxkutzcabiensis (Chitwood, 1938)

Hosts: Thecadactylus solimoensis Bergmann & Russell, 2007; Phyllodatylus reissii Peters, 1862; P. inaequalis Cope, 1876; P. johnwrighti; P. microphyllus Cope, 1876; Tropidurus guarani; Bogertia lutzae (Loveridge, 1941).

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Peru - CU, (Amazon); Paraguay - Arroyo Corrientes (Chaco), PA; Brazil - AL (Atlantic Forest).

Comments: Thecadactylus was recently subject to revision, and T. solimoensis was described by Bergmann & Russel in localities that encompasses the Cuzco, Peru (1, 65, 97, 113-115).

Spauligodon viracochai Freitas, Vicente & Ibañez, 1968

Hosts: Phyllodactylus gerrhopygus Wiegmann, 1834; P. angustidigitus Dixon & Huey, 1970

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Peru - Trujilo, LL and IC (116, 117).

Thelandros Wedl, 1862

Thelandros bulbosus Salas & Campos, 1974

Hosts: Microlophus peruvianus

Site of infection: Not informed

Distribution: Peru.

Comments: Despite the citation by Pérez et al. (117), this oxyurid was incorrect described in "Libro de Resumenes del IV Congreso Nacional de Biologia", a meeting abstract. Due to an inaccordance with articles 8.1 and 9.9 of the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature, it was therefore considered a species inquirenda (107, 118).

Thelandros capacyupanquii Freitas, Vicente & Ibañez, 1968

Hosts: Dicrodon holmbergi Schmidt, 1957; Dicrodon guttulatum

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Peru - Trujilo, LL, IC, AN (92, 107, 118).

Thelandros sp.

Hosts: Tropidurus etheridgei

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Argentina - Departamento Anta (Chaco), SA (102).

Rhabditida

Rhabdiasidae

Chabirenia Lhermitte Vallarino, Bain, Deharo, Bertani, Voza, Attout & Gaucher, 2005

Chabirenia cayennensis Lhermitte Vallarino, Bain, Deharo, Bertani, Voza, Attout & Gaucher, 2005

Hosts: Ameiva ameiva

Site of infection: Mouth

Distribution: French Guiana - CY (119).

Rhabdias Stiles & Hassall, 1905

Rhabdias anolis Bursey, Goldberg & Telford, 2003

Hosts: Anolis punctatus

Site of infection: Lungs

Distribution: Peru - CU (Amazon) (1).

Rhabdias elegans Gutierrez, 1945

Hosts: Anolis punctatus

Site of infection: Lungs

Distribution: Ecuador - PA (Amazon) (1).

Rhabdias sp.

Hosts: Anisolepis undulatus Wiegmann, 1834; Anolis fuscoauratus; A. punctatus; Enyalius iheringii; E. bilineatus; E. perditus; Tropidurus hispidus

Site of infection: Lungs, stomach

Distribution: Brazil - Marechal Floriano (Atlantic Forest), ES; PA, AM (Amazon); São Sebastião (Atlantic Forest), SP, Chapada do Araripe (Caatinga), CE; Ecuador - SU.

Comments: Of the neotropical lizards, only Rhabdias anolis has been described, despite several reports in the same region (3, 24, 40, 51, 120, 121).

Strongyloididae

Strongyloides Grassi, 1897

Strongyloides cruzi Rodrigues, 1968

Hosts: Hemidactylus mabouia

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Manguinhos, RJ (8, 122).

Spirurida

Acuariidae

Hosts: Cercosaura argulus; Hemidactylus mabouya; Mabuya agilis; M. macrorhyncha; Tropidurus torquatus; Enyalius bilineatus; Phyllodactylus lepidopygus Tschudi, 1845

Site of infection: Body cavity

Distribution: Brazil - Queimada Grande Island (Atlantic Forest) and Valinhos (Cerrado), SP; Jurubatiba and Grussaí (Restinga), RJ; Marechal Floriano (Atlantic Forest) and Praia das Neves (Restinga), ES; Peru - Rio Nanay, LO.

Comments: all aforementioned citations consist of cysts and thus difficult the identification to species level since reproductive structures are required (20, 22-24, 35, 45).

Diplotriaenidae

Hastospiculum Skrjabin, 1923

Hastospiculum sp.

Hosts: Plica umbra

Site of infection: Peritoneum

Distribution: Peru - CU (Amazon) (1).

Filariidae

Filaria Mueller, 1787

Filaria multipapilla Molin,

Hosts: Dracaena guianensis Daudin, 1802

Site of infection: Body cavity

Distribution: Brazil - Belém (Amazon), PA.

Comments: The species is actually considered species inquirenda, because these first records were lost and no new information about the species has been presented since the description (123-125).

Onchocercidae

Macdonaldius Khanna, 1933

Macdonaldius grassi (Caballero, 1954)

Hosts: Phyllopezus pollicaris (Spix, 1825)

Site of infection: Underneath the epidermis of the throat

Distribution: Paraguay - CO (Chaco) (126).

Oswaldofilaria Travassos, 1933

Oswaldofilaria azevedoi Bain, 1974

Hosts: Polychrus marmoratus Linnaeus, 1758; Stenocercus roseiventris

Site of infection: Body cavity

Distribution: Brazil - Belém (Amazon), PA; Peru - CU (Amazon) (1, 127).

Oswaldofilaria belemensis Bain and Dulahian, 1974

Hosts: Dracaena guianensis

Site of infection: Heart, aorta e vena cava

Distribution: Brazil - Belém (Amazon), PA (8).

Oswaldofilaria brevicaudata Rodhain and Vuylsteke, 1937

Hosts: Iguana iguana, Anolis punctatus

Site of infection: Body cavity

Distribution: Brazil - Marajó (Amazon), PA, AM (Amazon), Exu (Caatinga), PE; Venezuela - ZU (7, 40, 125, 127-129).

Oswaldofilaria petersi Bain and Sulahian, 1974

Hosts: Tupinambis teguixin, Tropidurus hispidus

Site of infection: Body cavity

Distribution: Brazil - Belém (Amazon), PA, Ibiraba (Caatinga), BA (8, 130).

Oswaldofilaria spinosa Bain and Sulahian, 1974

Hosts: Mabuya bistriata

Site of infection: Body cavity

Distribution: Brazil - Belém (Amazon) (8).

Oswaldofilaria sp.

Hosts: Tupinambis teguixin, Mabuya frenata

Site of infection: Body cavity

Distribution: Surinam - PR; Brazil - Valinhos (Cerrado), SP (28, 34).

Piratuba Freitas & Lent, 1947

Piratuba digiticauda Lent & Freitas, 1941

Hosts: Tropidurus torquatus, Tropidurus guarani, Plica umbra, Kentropyx calcarata

Site of infection: Body cavity, intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Salvador, BA; Piratuba (Amazon), PA; Salobra (Pantanal), MS; Juara (Amazon), MT; Peru - CU; Paraguay - Chaco.

Comments: Tropidurus spinulosus found in Salobra actually correspond to T. guarani (1, 62, 63, 65, 125, 131).

Piratuba lainsoni Bain, 1974

Hosts: Anolis punctatus, Polychrus marmoratus

Site of infection: Body cavity, large intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Belém (Amazon), PA; Peru - CU (Amazon) (1, 127).

Piratuba scaffi Bain, 1974

Hosts: Ameiva ameiva

Site of infection: Body cavity

Distribution: Brazil - Belém (Amazon), PA (127).

Piratuba shawi Bain, 1974

Hosts: Kentropyx calcarata Spix, 1825

Site of infection: Body cavity

Distribution: Brazil - Belém (Amazon), PA (127).

Piratuboides Bain & Sulahian, 1974

Piratuboides zeae (Bain, 1974) Bain and Sulahian, 1974

Hosts: Mabuya bistriata Spix, 1825

Site of infection: Body cavity, large intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Belém (Amazon), PA; Peru - CU (Amazon) (1, 127).

Physalopteridae

Abbreviata Travassos, 1920

Abbreviata spiralis (Schneider, 1866) Chabaud, 1956

Hosts: Amphisbaena sp.

Site of infection: Not informed

Distribution: Brazil

Comments: This species is considered a species inquirenda (7).

Physaloptera Rudolphi, 1819

Physaloptera lutzi Cristofaro, Guimarães & Rodrigues, 1976

Hosts: Ameiva ameiva; Cnemidophorus abaetensis Reis, Dias, Rocha & Vrcibradic, 2002; C. littoralis; Enyalius bilineatus; Eurolophosaurus nanuzae; Liolaemus alticolor Barbour 1909; L. ornatus; L. quilmes; Tropidurus guarani; T. itambere; T. torquatus

Site of infection: Stomach

Distribution: Argentina - SA, TU; Bolivia - Roboré (Pantanal); Brazil - Salvador, Serrinha and Canudos (Caatinga), BA; Linhares and Conceição da Barra (Restinga), Marechal Floriano (Atlantic Forest), ES; Serra do Cipó (Cerrado), MG; Porto Esperança and Salobra (Pantanal), MS; Xavantina, MT; Cachimbo (Amazon), PA; Maricá and Jurubatiba (Restinga), RJ; Valinhos (Cerrado), SP; Paraguay - Chaco (8, 24, 31, 32, 35, 62, 65, 66, 94-96, 132, 133).

Comments: Cnemidophorus occelifer, cited by Ribas et al. (94), actually corresponds to C. littoralis (31).

Physaloptera retusa Rudolphi, 1819

Hosts: Ameiva ameiva; Ameiva festiva Lichtenstein, 1856; Amphisbaena alba; Anolis fuscoauratus; Anolis punctatus; Cnemidophorus abaetensis; C. lemniscatus; C. littoralis; C. native; C. ocellifer; Enyalius bilineatus; Iguana iguana; Kentropyx altamazonica; K. calcarata; K. pelviceps; Leiosaurus bellii Duméril & Bibron, 1837; L. catamarcensis Koslowsky, 1898; Liolaemus lutzae; L. neuquensis Cei & Videla, 2003; Mabuya agilis; M. bistriata; M. dorsivittata Cope, 1862; Ophiodes striatus Spix, 1824; Plica plica; P. umbra; Potamites ecpleopus; Stenocercus roseiventris; Thecadacytlus solimoensis; Tropidurus guarani; T. hispidus; T. torquatus; Tupinambis rufescens Günther, 1871; T. longilineus Ávila-Pires, 1995; T. teguixin; Uracentron flaviceps; Tropidurus melanopleurus Boulenger, 1902

Site of infection: Stomach, intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Salvador and Guaratiba (Restinga), BA; Conceição da Barra (Restinga) and Marechal Floraino (Atlantic Forest), ES; Salobra (Pantanal), MS; Juara (Amazon), MT; Altamira, Belém, Cachimbo, Novo Progresso and Santarém (Amazon), PA; Itatiaia (Atlantic Forest), Maricá and Jurubatiba (Restinga), RJ; Ilha Seca (Atlantic Forest) and Itirapina (Cerrado), SP; Paraguay - Chaco; Bolivia - El Carmen and Florida, SC; Argentina; Peru - CU (Amazon); Surinam - PR (Amazon); Uruguay - Montevideo; Venezuela - Colón, ZU; Atures, AM; Salamanca, NE; Cumuná (Arid zone) and La Orchila, Mar Caribe; Colombia - CH.

Comments: Baker (7) cited several species of lizards that does not occur in Brazil, such as Tupinambis rufescens, Cnemidophorus lateristrigus, Euprepis spixii, Podinema graphica and P. scripta. According to the same author, Pygopus gronovii actually corresponds to Ophiodes striatus and Podinema corresponds to Tupinambis, but no species are currently recognized as synonyms of P. scripta and P. graphica (7). Cnemidophorus occelifer, cited by Ribas et al. (94), actually corresponds to C. littoralis (1, 8, 24, 28, 29, 31, 32, 35, 51, 57, 62, 69, 77, 94, 108, 126, 131, 134-142).

Physaloptera sp.

Hosts: Ameiva ameiva; Cercosaura argulus; Cnemidophorus litoralis; C. ocellifer; Hemidactylus mabouia; Hoplocercus spinosus; Mabuya agilis; M. macrorhyncha; Polychrus acutirostris; Tropidurus etheridgei; T. torquatus; Tupinambis merianae Duméril & Bibron, 1839; Tupinambis teguixin; Dicrodon guttulatum.

Site of infection: Stomach

Distribution: Brazil - Abrolhos and Salvador (Restinga), BA; Linhares and Praia das Neves (Restinga) and Sooretama (Cerrado), ES; Salobra (Pantanal) and Bodoquena (Cerrado), MS; Ilha Grande, Cabo Frio, Grussaí, Grumari and Jurubatiba (Restinga), RJ; Valinhos (Cerrado), SP; Alegria (Pampas), RS; Argentina - SA and FO (Chaco); Peru - Rio Nanay, LO, LI.

Comments: Tupinambis teguixin of Salobra, MS corresponds to T. merianae (personal observation) (8, 16, 22, 31, 33, 35, 41, 45, 92, 96, 101, 102, 143).

Physalopteroides Wu & Liu, 1940

Physalopteroides venancioi Lent, Freitas & Proença, 1946

Hosts: Alopoglossus atriventris Duellman, 1973; Ameiva ameiva; Cercosaura ocellata Wagler, 1830; Cnemidophorus native; Kentropyx altamazonica; K. calcarata; K. pelviceps; Mabuya agilis; M. bistriata; M. macrorhyncha; Thecadactylus solimoensis; Tropidurus torquatus; Tupinambis teguixin

Site of infection: Stomach

Distribution: Brazil - AC (Amazon); Trancoso and Guaratiba (Restinga), BA; Juara (Amazon), MT; Magé, Grussaí and Jurubatiba (Restinga), RJ; Praia das Neves (Restinga), ES; Peru - CU (Amazon) (1, 17, 23, 33, 35, 52, 77, 131, 144).

Thubunaea Seurat, 1914

Thubunaea iguanae (Telford, 1965)

Hosts: Microlophus peruvianus; M. thoracicus (Tschudi, 1845)

Site of infection: Stomach

Distribution: Peru - R. N. Paracas, IC (117).

Thubunaea parkeri Baylis, 1926

Hosts: Microlophus occipitalis Peters, 1871; Dicrodon heterolepis

Site of infection: Stomach

Distribution: Peru (7, 145).

Spiruridae

Spirurinae

Hosts: Hemidactylus mabouia

Site of infection: Stomach, lungs, and small intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Rio de Janeiro, RJ (146).

Micropleuridae

Micropleura Linstow, 1906

Hosts: Tupinambis meriana

Site of infection: Body cavity

Distribution: Brazil - Salobra (Pantanal), MS.

Comments: This record must be discharged, because no mention of Micropleura was found in Travassos and Freitas (147) as cited by Vicente et al. (8). Moreover, Micropleura may be found in the body cavity of crocodiles and turtles (148).

Diaphanocephalidae

Diaphanocephalus Diesing, 1851

Diaphanocephalus diesingi Freitas & Lent, 1938

Hosts: Tupinambis teguixin

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Belém (Amazon), PA (149).

Diaphanocephalus galeatus Rudolphi, 1819

Hosts: Tupinambis merianae, T. rufescens, T. teguixin

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Salobra (Pantanal) and Bodoquena (Cerrado), MS; Manguinhos, Angra dos Reis e Rio de Janeiro (Atlantic Forest), RJ; Pedras Altas, RS; Ilha Grande and São Paulo, SP, Fernando de Noronha, PE; Argentina; Bolivia; Surinam - PR (8, 28, 46, 149, 150).

Diaphanocephalus jacuruxi Alho, 1965

Hosts: Dracaena guianensis

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Ilha das Onças (Amazon), PA (8, 151).

Kalicephalus Molin, 1861

Kalicephalus sp.

Hosts: Tupinambis teguixin

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Sooretama, ES; Alegria (Pampas), RS.

Comments: Species of Kalicephalus spp. have been reported in several snake species, and seems to be restricted to these animals, likewise Diaphanocephalus spp. (a sister taxon) in Tupinambinae. Published records could be a misidentification or a case of incidental infection in a Tupinambis teguixin (8, 143, 152).

Molineidae

Kentropyxia Baker, 1982

Kentropyxia sauria Baker, 1982

Hosts: Kentropyx calcarata

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Belém and Novo Progresso (Amazon), PA (136, 153).

Oswaldocruzia Travassos, 1917

Oswaldocruzia bainae Ben-Slimane & Durette-Desset, 1996

Hosts: Anolis chrysolepis Duméril & Bibron, 1837; A. fuscoauratus

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Ecuador - San Pablo (Amazon), LR (154).

Oswaldocruzia benslimanei Durette-Desset, Anjos & Vrcibradic, 2006

Hosts: Enyalius bilineatus Duméril & Bibron, 1837

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Marechal Floriano, ES (24, 155).

Oswaldocruzia brasiliensis Lent & Freitas, 1935

Hosts: Hemidactylus mabouia

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Brasil - Rio de Janeiro, RJ (8, 156).

Oswaldocruzia burseyi Durette-Desset, Anjos & Vrcibradic, 2006

Hosts: Enyalius perditus

Site of infection: Stomach

Distribution: Brazil - São Sebastião (Atlantic Forest), SP (3, 155).

Oswaldocruzia fredi Durette-Desset, Anjos & Vrcibradic, 2006

Hosts: Enyalius iheringii

Site of infection: Stomach

Distribution: Brazil - São Sebastião (Atlantic Forest), SP (3, 155).

Oswaldocruzia peruensis Ben-Slimane, Verhaag & Durette-Desset, 1995

Hosts: Stenocercus roseiventris, Cercosaura argulus, Anolis punctatus

Site of infection: Stomach

Distribution: Peru - HA and CU (Amazon) (1, 45, 157).

Oswaldocruzia vitti Bursey & Goldberg, 2004

Hosts: Alopoglossus angulatus, A. atriventris, Anolis fuscoauratus, A. punctatus, Cercosaura eigenmanni, C. oshaugnessyi

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - AC, AM, PA, RO (Amazon); Ecuador - SU (Amazon); Peru - CU (Amazon) (1, 18, 40, 51, 52).

Oswaldocruzia sp.

Hosts: Tropidurus torquatus, Enyalius catenatus (Wied, 1821), E. perditus, K. calcarata

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Bodoquena (Cerrado) and Salobra (Pantanal), MS; Juara (Amazon), MT; Cachimbo (Amazon), PA; Rio de Janeiro, RJ; Ibitipoca, MG; Argentina - SA, JU and TA (Chaco); Paraguay - Assuncion and Chaco.

Comments: The aforementioned records of T. torquatus are those of O. mazzai and that of Enyalius spp. are from O. subauricularis, both considered species inquirenda (48, 131, 155, 158).

Cestoda

Cyclophyllidea

Linstowiidae

Oochoristica Lühe, 1898

Oochoristica ameivae (Beddard, 1914)

Hosts: Ameiva ameiva, Cnemidophorus nativo, Mabuya agilis, M. macrorhyncha

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Cachimbo (Amazon), PA; Serra do Navio (Amazon), AP; Manaus (Amazon), AM; Guaratiba and Trancoso (Restinga), BA; Praia das Neves (Restinga), ES; Grussaí (Restinga), RJ; Peru - CU (Amazon) (1, 17, 23, 77, 159-161).

Oochoristica bressalui Fürhmann, 1927

Hosts: Tropidurus guarani, T. hispidus, T. torquatus

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Salvador and Serrinha, BA; Cachimbo (Amazon), Arraial do Cabo, Cabo Frio and Rio de Janeiro, RJ; Bolivia - El Carmen; Paraguay (19, 65, 160, 162).

Oochoristica freitasi Rego & Ibañez, 1965

Hosts: Dicrodon heterolepis; D. guttulatum Duméril & Bibron, 1893

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Peru - Trujillo, LL; TU, PI.

Comments: Bursey and Goldberg (163) and Arizmendi-Espinosa et al. (164) apparently ignored the presence of O. freitasi in their findings of Oochoristica spp. infecting lizards in neotropical regions. The species is not included in any synonymy of the revisions made by Bursey et al. (165). Moreover, the species was cited in Guillén-Hernández et al. (166).

Oochoristica iguanae (Baylis, 1919) Bursey & Goldberg, 1996

Hosts: Iguana iguana, Dicrodon guttulatum

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Venezuela - Isla Margarita; Peru - LA, PI (92,163).

Oochoristica travassosi Rego & Ibañez, 1965

Hosts: Leiocephalus sp.; Liolaemus vallecurensis Pereira, 1992; Phyllodactylus johnwrigthi Dixon & Huey, 1970

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Peru - Moche; Argentina - SJ (2, 97, 167).

Oochoristica insulamargaritae López-Neyra and Diaz-Ungría, 1957

Hosts: Ameiva ameiva

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Venezuela - Isla Margarita (163, 168).

Oochoristica vanzolinii Rego & Rodrigues, 1965

Hosts: Hemidactylus mabouia, Eurolophosaurus nanuzae

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Rio de Janeiro, RJ; Serra do Cipó, MG (66, 162).

Oochoristica sp.

Hosts: Alopoglossus atriventris, Amphisbaena ridleyi, Mabuya frenata, Tupinambis merianae, Trachylepis atlantica

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Ecuador - SU; Brazil - Valinhos, SP; Fernando de Noronha Islands, PE (34, 46, 52).

Semenoviella Spasskii, 1951

Semenoviella amphisbaenae Rudolphi, 1819

Hosts: Amphisbaena fuliginosa Linnaeus, 1758; A. alba

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Belém (Amazon), PA; Pirassununga (Cerrado), SP (169).

Mesocestoididae

Mesocestoides Vaillant, 1863

Mesocestoides sp.

Hosts: Anolis transversalis

Site of infection: Not informed

Distribution: Brazil - RO (Amazon) (40).

Proteocephalidea

Proteocephalidae

Cairaella Coquille & De Chambrier, 2008

Cairaella henrii Coquille & De Chambrier, 2008

Hosts: Anolis trachyderma Cope, 1876

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Ecuador - San Pablo de Kantesyia, SU (170).

Ophiotaenia La Rue, 1911

Ophiotaenia flava Rudin, 1917

Hosts: Kentropyx pelviceps

Site of infection: Not informed

Distribution: Peru - CU (Amazon) (1).

Ophiotaenia nicoleae Coquille & De Chambrier, 2008

Hosts: Thecadactylus solimoensis

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Ecuador - San Pablo de Kantesyia, SU.

Comments: Thecadactylus was recently subjected to revision, and a T. solimoensis was found in from localities that encompass San Pablo de Kantesyia, Ecuador (113, 170).

Ophiotaenia sp.

Hosts: Anolis fuscoauratus

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Santarém (Amazon), PA (51).

Tejidotaenia Freze, 1965

Tejidotaenia appendiculata (Baylis, 1947)

Hosts: Tupinambis teguixin

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Surinam - PR (Amazon); Brazil - Serra do Navio (Amazon), AP; Linhares, ES (28, 171).

Trematoda

Digenea

Echinostomata

Echinostomida

Superfamily Echinostomatoidea Looss, 1899

Cathaemasiidae

Pulchrossomoides Freitas & Lent, 1937

Pulchrosomoides elegans Freitas & Lent, 1937

Hosts: Tupinambis teguixin, Iguana iguana, Mabuya macrorhyncha

Site of infection: Stomach

Distribution: Brazil - Porto Esperança (Pantanal), MS; Praia das Neves (Restinga), ES (6, 23, 172, 173).

Plagiorchiida

Dicrocoeliidae

Brachycoelium (Dujardin, 1845)

Brachycoelium salamandrae (Frolich, 1789) Dujardin, 1845

Hosts: Leposoma osvaldoi Ávila-Pires, 1995; Anolis nitens Wagler, 1830

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Novo Progresso (Amazon), PA.

Comments: Cited as B. mesocoeliiformis when found infecting Anolis scypheus (A. nitens) (6, 137).

Platynosomum

Platynosomum sp. Looss, 1906

Hosts: Amphisbaena ridleyi, Trachylepis atlantica

Site of infection: Gallbladder, bile duct

Distribution: Brazil - Fernando de Noronha Island, PE (46).

Harmotrematidae

Helicotrema Odhner, 1912

Helicotrema asymetricum (Travassos, 1922) Viana, 1924

Hosts: Iguana iguana

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Pantanal (174, 175).

Helicotrema magniovatum Odhner, 1912

Hosts: Iguana iguana

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil (6).

Helicotrema spirale (Diesing, 1850) Odhner, 1912

Hosts: Iguana iguana

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil (6).

Pronocephalidae

Iguanacola Gilbert, 1938

Iguanacola navicularis Gilbert, 1938

Hosts: Amblyrhynchus cristatus Bell, 1825

Site of infection: Not informed

Distribution: Ecuador - Galapagos Islands (14).

Myosaccus Gilbert, 1938

Myosaccus amblyrhynchi Gilbert, 1938

Hosts: Amblyrhynchus cristatus

Site of infection: Not informed

Distribution: Ecuador - Galapagos Islands (14).

Cetiosaccus Gilbert, 1938

Cetiosaccus galapagensis Gilbert, 1938

Hosts: Amblyrhynchus cristatus

Site of infection: Not informed

Distribution: Ecuador - Galapagos Islands (14).

Paradistomum Kossack, 1910

Paradistomum parvissimum (Travassos, 1918)

Hosts: Ameiva ameiva, Hemidactylus mabouia, Iguana iguana, Liolaemus lutzae, Mabuya macrorhyncha, M. agilis, Tropidurus torquatus, Tupinambis teguixin

Site of infection: Gallbladder, liver, small intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Arraial do Cabo, Grussaí, Nova Iguaçu, Manguinhos, Maricá, RJ; Praia das Neves (Restinga) and Santa Teresa, ES; Salvador and Trancoso (Restinga), BA (17, 19, 21, 23, 27, 100, 146, 176, 177).

Paradistomum rabusculum Kossack, 1910

Hosts and records: Gymnodactylus geckoides Spix, 1825

Site of infection: Not informed

Distribution: Brazil (6).

Macroderidae

Pneumotrema Bhalerao, 1937

Pneumotrema travassosi Bhalerao, 1937

Hosts and records: Amphisbaena alba

Site of infection: Kidney, ureter, intestine.

Distribution: Brazil (172).

Family Plagiorchiidae

Allopharynx (Strom, 1928)

Allopharynx daileyi Bursey, Goldberg & Vitt, 2005

Hosts: Uranoscodon superciliosus

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Brazil - PA, RO, RR (Amazon) (50).

Dasymetra Nicoll, 1911

Dasymetra tupinambis Nasir & Diaz, 1971

Hosts: Tupinambis teguixin

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Venezuela - Sucre (178).

Styphlodora Looss, 1899

Styphlodora condita Faria, 1911

Hosts: Tupinambis rufescens (Günther, 1871)

Site of infection: Kidney, ureter, intestine

Distribution: Argentina (9).

Plagiorchis Lühe, 1899

Plagiorchis freitasi Vicente, 1978

Hosts: Tropidurus torquatus

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Conceição da Barra, ES (19).

Plagiorchis vicentei Rodrigues, 1994

Hosts: Hemidactylus mabouia

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Teresópolis, RJ (179).

Family Brachycoeliidae

Mesocoelium Odhner, 1910

Mesocoelium monas (Rudolphi, 1819) Freitas, 1958

Hosts: Alopoglossus angulatus, Amphisbaena sp., Amphisbaena ridleyi, Cercosaura eigenmanni, Diploglossus lessonae, Trachylepis atlantica, Leposternon microcephalum, Tropidurus torquatus, Uranoscodon superciliosus

Site of infection: Intestine

Distribution: Brazil - PA, RO, RR (Amazon); João Alfredo (Caatinga) and Fernando de Noronha, PE; Maricá and Rio de Janeiro (Restinga), RJ; Ecuador - SU (Amazon) (6, 18, 46, 50, 52, 100).

Family Urotrematidae

Urotrema Braun, 1900

Urotrema shirleyae Zamparo, Brooks & Tkach, 2005

Hosts: Anolis fuscoauratus

Site of infection: Small intestine

Distribution: Brazil - Santarém (Amazon), PA (51).

 

HOST-PARASITE LIST

Family Amphisbaenidae

Amphisbaena alba

Maracaya belemensis

Maracaya graciai

Aplectana albae

Aplectana raillieti

Physaloptera retusa

Semenoviella amphisbaenae

Pneumotrema travassosi

Amphisbaena bolivica

Aplectana tucumanensis

Amphisbaena fuliginosa

Semenoviella amphisbaenae

Amphisbaena ridleyi

Aplectana albae

Parapharyngodon alvarengai

Mesocoelium monas

Platynosomum sp.

Oochoristica sp.

Amphisbaena sp.

Maracaya pusilla

Mesocoelium monas

Leposternon microcephalum

Cosmocerca rara

Mesocoelium monas

Paradollfusnema amphisbaenia

Family Iguanidae

Amblyrhynchus cristatus

Iguanacola navicularis

Myosaccus amblyrhynchi

Cetiosaccus galapagensis

Iguana iguana

Alaeuris caudatus

Alaeuris vogelsangi

Ozolaimus cirratus

Ozolaimus megatyphlon

Oswaldofilaria brevicaudata

Physaloptera retusa

Oochoristica iguanae

Pulchrosomoides elegans

Paradistomum parvissimun

Helicotrema asymetricum

Helicotrema magniovatum

Helicotrema spirale

Conolophus subcristatus

Alaeuris conolophi

Alaeuris galapagensis

Alaeuris labicula

Alaeuris longispicula

Paralaeuris dorochila

Family Hoplocercidae

Enyalioides praestabilis

Spinicauda spinicauda

Hoplocercus spinosus

Africana dardanelosi

Cruzia rudolphii

Physaloptera sp.

Morunasaurus annularis

Raillietnema brachyspiculatum

Family Polychrotidae

Anisolepis undulatus

Rhabdias sp.

Anolis chrysolepis

Oswaldocruzia bainae

Anolis fuscoauratus

Cosmocerca vrcibradici

Strongyluris oscari

Rhabdias sp.

Physaloptera retusa

Oswaldocruzia bainae

Oswaldocruzia vitti

Ophiotaenia sp.

Urotrema shirleyae

Anolis nitens

Brachycoelium salamandrae

Anolis punctatus

Cyrtosomum longicaudatum

Strongyluris oscari

Falcaustra sp.

Skrjabinellazia intermedia

Rhabdias anolis

Rhabdias elegans

Rhabdias sp.

Oswaldofilaria brevicaudata

Piratuba lainsoni

Physaloptera retusa

Oswaldocruzia peruensis

Oswaldocruzia vitti

Anolis trachyderma

Cairaella henrii

Anolis transversalis

Cyrtosomum longicaudatum

Strongyluris oscari

Mesocestoides sp.

Polychrus acutirostris

Gynaecometra bahiensis

Physaloptera sp.

Polychrus marmoratus

Pseudostrongyluris polychrus

Oswaldofilaria azevedoi

Piratuba lainsoni

Family Leiosauridae

Enyalius bilineatus

Centrorhynchidae

Rhabdias sp.

Acuariidae

Physaloptera lutzi

Physaloptera retusa

Oswaldocruzia benslimanei

Enyalius catenatus

Oswaldocruzia sp.

Enyalius iheringii

Strongyluris oscari

Rhabdias sp.

Oswaldocruzia fredi

Enyalius perditus

Acanthocephalus sp.

Aplectana vellardi

Cosmocerca sp.

Strongyluris oscari

Rhabdias sp.

Oswaldocruzia burseyi

Oswaldocruzia sp.

Leiosaurus belli

Physaloptera retusa

Leiosaurus catamarcensis

Physaloptera retusa

Family Liolaemidae

Liolaemus alticolor

Physaloptera lutzi

Liolaemus andinus

Spauligodon maytacapaci

Liolaemus buergeri

Parapharyngodon riojensis

Liolaemus capillitas

Spauligodon loboi

Liolaemus chilensis

Spauligodon maytacapaci

Liolaemus elongatus

Spauligodon maytacapaci

Liolaemus huacahuasicus

Spauligodon loboi

Liolaemus lemniscatus

Spauligodon maytacapaci

Liolaemus lutzae

Ichthyocapillaria (= Pseudocapillaria) maricaensis

Parapharyngodon sceleratus

Pharyngodon cesarpintoi

Physaloptera retusa

Paradistomum parvissimum

Liolaemus neuquensis

Physaloptera retusa

Liolaemus ornatus

Spauligodon loboi

Physaloptera lutzi

Liolaemus pictus

Spauligodon maytacapaci

Liolaemus quilmes

Spauligodon loboi

Physaloptera lutzi

Liolaemus ramirezae

Spauligodon loboi

Liolaemus signifer

Parapharyngodon senisfaciecaudus

Liolaemus tenuis

Spauligodon maytacapaci

Liolaemus vallecurensis

Oochoristica travassosi

Phymaturus palluma

Parapharyngodon riojensis

Phymaturus punae

Parapharyngodon riojensis

Family Tropiduridae

Eurolophosaurus nanuzae

Strongyluris oscari

Subulura lacertília

Parapharyngodon sceleratus

Physaloptera lutzi

Oochoristica vanzolinii

Leiocephalus sp.

Spauligodon maytacapaci

Oochoristica travassosi

Microlophus albermalensis

Parapharyngodon sceleratus

Microlophus occipitalis

Thubunaea parkeri

Microlophus peruvianus

Parapharyngodon arequipensis

Parapharyngodon moqueguensis

Parapharyngodon yurensis

Thubunaea iguanae

Microlophus thoracicus

Thubunaea iguanae

Plica plica

Strongyluris oscari

Physaloptera retusa

Plica umbra

Strongyluris oscari

Hastospiculum sp.

Piratuba digiticauda

Physaloptera retusa

Stenocercus caducus

Skrjabinellazia intermedia

Strongyluris oscari

Stenocercus roseiventris

Atractis cruciata

Strongyluris oscari

Oswaldofilaria azevedoi

Physaloptera retusa

Oswaldocruzia peruensis

Tropidurus etheridgei

Parapharyngodon sp.

Thelandros sp.

Physaloptera sp.

Tropidurus guarani

Strongyluris oscari

Skrjabinellazia intermedia

Typhlonema sp.

Parapharyngodon sceleratus

Spauligodon oxkutzcabiensis

Piratuba digiticauda

Physaloptera lutzi

Physaloptera retusa

Oochoristica bressalui

Tropidurus hispidus

Parapharyngodon sceleratus

Pharyngodon sp.

Rhabdias sp.

Oswaldofilaria petersi

Physaloptera retusa

Oochoristica bressalui

Tropidurus itambere

Parapharyngodon sceleratus

Pharyngodon cesarpintoi

Physaloptera lutzi

Tropidurus melanopleurus

Strongyluris oscari

Parapharyngodon sceleratus

Physaloptera retusa

Tropidurus semitaeniatus

Parapharyngodon sceleratus

Tropidurus spinulosus

Strongyluris oscari

Tropidurus torquatus

Acanthocephala

Echinorhynchus sp.

Centrorhynchus tumidulus

Capillaria (= Amphibiocapillaria) freitaslenti

Hexametra boddaertii

Strongyluris oscari

Skrjabinellazia intermedia

Subulura sp.

Parapharyngodon sceleratus

Parapharyngodon sp.

Pharyngodon sp.

Acuariidae

Piratuba digiticauda

Physaloptera lutzi

Physaloptera retusa

Physaloptera sp.

Physalopteroides venancioi

Oswaldocruzia sp.

Oochoristica bressalui

Paradistomum parvissimum

Plagiorchis freitasi

Mesocoelium monas

Tropidurus sp.

Strongyluris oscari

Parapharyngodon sceleratus

Uracentron flaviceps

Skrjabinodon dixoni

Physaloptera retusa

Uranoscodon superciliosus

Cosmocerca vrcibradici

Africana chabaudi

Allopharynx daileyi

Mesocoelium monas

Family Gekkonidae

Hemidactylus mabouia

Centrorhynchidae

Parapharyngodon largitor

Parapharyngodon sceleratus

Parapharyngodon sp

Strongyloides cruzi

Acuariidae

Physaloptera sp.

Spirurinae

Oswaldocruzia brasiliensis

Oochoristica vanzolinii

Paradistomum parvissimum

Plagiorchis vicentei

Family Phyllodactylidae

Bogertia lutzae

Spauligodon oxkutzcabiensis

Gymnodactylus geckoides

Paradistomum rabusculum

Phyllodactylus angustidigitus

Spauligodon viracochai

Phyllodactylus inaequalis

Spauligodon oxkutzcabiensis

Phyllodactylus gerrhopygus

Spauligodon viracochai

Phyllodactylus johnwrighti

Oochoristica travassosi

Parapharyngodon sceleratus

Spauligodon oxkutzcabiensis

Phyllodactylus lepidopygus

Acuariidae

Phyllodactylus microphyllus

Spauligodon oxkutzcabiensis

Phyllodactylus reissii

Spauligodon oxkutzcabiensis

Phyllopezus pollicaris

Macdonaldius grassi

Parapharyngodon sceleratus

Thecadactylus solimoensis

Spauligodon oxkutzcabiensis

Physaloptera retusa

Physalopteroides venancioi

Ophiotaenia nicoleae

Family Sphaerodactylidae

Gonatodes humeralis

Skrjabinelazia galliardi

Family Anguidae

Diploglossus lessonae

Parapharyngodon verrucosus

Mesocoelium monas

Ophiodes striatus

Cyrtosomum sp.

Physaloptera retusa

Family Teiidae

Ameiva ameiva

Oligacanthorhynchus sp.

Centrorhynchus tumidulus

Capillaria (= Amphibiocapillaria) freitaslenti

Spinicauda spinicauda

Strongyluris oscari

Parapharyngodon alvarengai

Parapharyngodon largitor

Parapharyngodon sceleratus

Parapharyngodon sp.

Pharyngodon cesarpintoi

Pharyngodon travassosi

Chabirenia cayennensis

Piratuba scaffi

Physaloptera lutzi

Physaloptera retusa

Physaloptera sp.

Physalopteroides venancioi

Oochoristica ameivae

Oochoristica insulamargaritae

Paradistomum parvissimum

Ameiva festiva

Physaloptera retusa

Cnemidophorus abaetensis

Physaloptera lutzi

Physaloptera retusa

Cnemidophorus lemniscatus

Physaloptera retusa

Cnemidophorus littoralis

Hexametra boddaertii

Parapharyngodon sceleratus

Physaloptera lutzPhysaloptera retusa

Physaloptera sp.

Cnemidophorus nativo

Skrjabinellazia intermedia

Subulura lacertilia

Parapharyngodon sp.

Physaloptera retusa

Physalopteroides venancioi

Oochoristica ameivae

Cnemidophorus ocellifer

Hexametra boddaertii

Physaloptera retusa

Physaloptera sp.

Cnemidophorus sp.

Pharyngodon cesarpintoi

Dicrodon heterolepis

Pharyngodon micrurus

Thubunaea parkeri

Oochoristica freitasi

Dicrodon guttulatum

Oochoristica freitasi

Oochoristica iguanae

Pharyngodon micrurus

Parapharyngodon moqueguensis

Parapharyngodon lagitor

Parapharyngodon sp.

Thelandros capacyupanquii

Physaloptera sp.

Dicrodon holmbergi

Thelandros capacyupanquii

Dracaena guianensis

Oswaldofilaria belemensis

Diaphanocephalus jacuruxi

Kentropyx altamazonica

Physaloptera retusa

Physalopteroides venancioi

Kentropyx calcarata

Kentropyxia sauria

Piratuba digiticauda

Piratuba shawi

Physaloptera retusa

Physalopteroides venancioi

Oswaldocruzia sp.

Kentropyx pelviceps

Dujardinascaris sp.

Parapharyngodon sceleratus

Physaloptera retusa

Physalopteroides venancioi

Ophiotaenia flava

Tupinambis longilineus

Physaloptera retusa

Tupinambis merianae

Cruzia travassosi

Physaloptera sp.

Diaphanocephalus galeatus

Spinicauda spinicauda

Oochoristica sp.

Tupinambis rufescens

Physaloptera retusa

Diaphanocephalus galeatus

Styphlodora condita

Tupinambis teguixin

Centrorhynchus tumidulus

Centrorhynchus sp.

Contracaecum sp.

Dujardinascaris sp.

Freitasascaris alata

Atractis cruciata

Spinicauda spinicauda

Cruzia fulleborni

Cruzia tentaculata

Oswaldofilaria petersi

Oswaldofilaria sp.

Physaloptera retusa

Physaloptera sp.

Physalopteroides venancioi

Diaphanocephalus diesingi

Diaphanocephalus galeatus

Tejidotaenia appendiculata

Pulchrosomoides elegans

Paradistomum parvissimum

Dasymetra tupinambis

Family Gymnophthalmidae

Alopoglossus angulatus

Cosmocerca vrcibradici

Oswaldocruzia vitti

Mesocoelium monas

Alopoglossus atriventris

Cosmocerca vrcibradici

Physalopteroides venancioi

Oswaldocruzia vitti

Oochoristica sp.

Cercosaura argulus

Cosmocercidae

Acuariidae

Physaloptera sp.

Oswaldocruzia peruensis

Cercosaura eigenmanni

Cosmocerca vrcibradici

Oswaldocruzia vitti

Mesocoelium monas

Cercosaura ocellata

Physalopteroides venancioi

Cercosaura oshaugnessyi

Acanthocephalus saurius

Cosmocerca vrcibradici

Oswaldocruzia vitti

Leposoma osvaldoi

Brachycoelium salamandrae

Neusticurus bicarinatus

Falcaustra belemensis

Potamites ecpleopus

Falcaustra belemensis

Physaloptera retusa

Potamites strangulatus

Falcaustra belemensis

Family Scincidae

Mabuya agilis

Centrorhynchidae

Hexametra boddaertii

Strongyluris oscari

Parapharyngodon largitor

Parapharyngodon sceleratus

Acuariidae

Physaloptera retusa

Physaloptera sp.

Physalopteroides venancioi

Oochoristica ameivae

Paradistomum parvissimum

Trachylepis atlantica

Moaciria alvarengai

Parapharyngodon alvarengai

Mesocoelium monas

Spinicauda spinicauda

Platynosomum sp.

Oochoristica sp.

Mabuya bistriata

Parapharyngodon sceleratus

Oswaldofilaria spinosa

Piratuboides zeae

Physaloptera retusa

Physalopteroides venancioi

Mabuya caissara

Parapharyngodon sceleratus

Mabuya dorsivittata

Skrjabinodon spinulosus

Physaloptera retusa

Mabuya frenata

Hexametra boddaertii

Parapharyngodon sceleratus

Skrjabinodon heliocostai

Oswaldofilaria sp.

Oochoristica sp.

Mabuya macrorhyncha

Echinorhynchidae

Centrorhynchidae

Hexametra boddaertii

Acuariidae

Physaloptera sp.

Physalopteroides venancioi

Oochoristica ameivae

Pulchrosomoides elegans

Paradistomum parvissimum

 

FINAL REMARKS

The literature on helminth parasites of lizards and amphisbaenians from South America is extensive, dating back to the 1920's with the studies by Lauro Travassos. However, the information is scattered, and reviews of helminth parasites are necessary because they provide a basis for a better understanding on parasitism in these groups for future research (180). The need of updated knowledge becomes clear considering the valuable information that parasites provide because it is synergistic with all the information about the natural history of the hosts (181).

Helminths are high diverse in vertebrates, but the species richness are poorly known (182, 183). For example, less than a half of nematode species are believed to be currently described (148). In this paper, a total of 644 records of helminths collected from lizards are reported. Since many species descriptions were made in the last decade, the diversity of helminth parasites of lizards from South America should be increased with further studies.

Of the 644 records in the present study, at least nine species of acantocephalans, 15 cestodes, 20 trematodes and 111 nematodes were reported, including records in which family or genus were not identified. From the 155 helminth species reported, one was recorded from Chile and French Guiana, three were from Colombia, three were from Uruguay, eight were from Bolivia, nine were from Surinam, 13 were from Paraguay, 12 were from Venezuela, 27 were from Ecuador, 17 were from Argentina, 39 were from Peru and 103 were from Brazil. Five species considered species inquirenda were also reported.

Lizards and amphisbaenians comprises approximately 420 genera and more than 3,300 species, most of which can be found in South America (184, 185). Many South American countries exhibit great lizard diversity, for example Argentina presents 167 species while Brazil has 240 species, but data presented herein includes only 114 lizard species, which indicates that much work has to be done (186, 187).

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Both authors are thankful for the financial support of The State of São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) and Robson W. Ávila is grateful for the grant provided by Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES).

 

REFERENCES

1. Bursey CR, Goldberg SR, Parmelee JR. Gastrointestinal helminths from 13 species of lizards from Reserva Cuzco Amazónico, Peru. Comp Parasitol. 2005;72(1):50-68.         [ Links ]

2. Goldberg SR, Bursey CR, Morando M. Metazoan endoparasites of 12 species of lizards from Argentina. Comp Parasitol. 2004;71(2):208-14.         [ Links ]

3. Vrcibradic D, Anjos LA, Vicente JJ, Bursey CR. Helminth parasites of two sympatric lizards, Enyalius iheringii and E. perditus (Leiosauridae), from an Atlantic Rainforest area of southeastern Brazil. Acta Parasitol. 2008;53(2):222-5.         [ Links ]

4. Travassos LP. Contribuições para o conhecimento da fauna helmintológica brasileira. IX. Sobre as espécies do gênero Spinicauda. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1920;12:41-50.         [ Links ]

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Correspondence to:
Robson Waldemar Ávila
Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Biociências, UNESP
Distrito de Rubião Jr., s/n, CEP 18618-000
Botucatu, SP, Brazil.
Email: robsonavila@gmail.com.

Submission status
Received: June 1, 2010.
Accepted: September 16, 2010.
Abstract published online: September 17, 2010.
Full paper published online: November 30, 2010.

Financial source
FAPESP (processes n. 04/03628-1 and 06/59692-5) and CAPES provided the financial grants.

 

 

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
There is no conflict.