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Neotropical Ichthyology

Print version ISSN 1679-6225On-line version ISSN 1982-0224

Neotrop. ichthyol. vol.15 no.1 Maringá  2017  Epub Mar 30, 2017

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-20160067 

ARTICLES

Checklist of Gymnotiformes (Osteichthyes: Ostariophysi) and catalogue of primary types

Carl J. Ferraris Jr1  2 

Carlos David de Santana2 

Richard P. Vari2  3 

1545 NE Floral Pl., Portland, OR 97232, USA. carlferraris@comcast.net (corresponding author)

2Division of Fishes, Department of Vertebr Zool, MRC-159, National Museum of Natural History, PO Box 37012, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA. desantanac@si.edu

ABSTRACT

A list of all valid names of species of Neotropical electric fishes (Gymnotiformes) is presented herein. The list is arranged by family and genus and includes all available synonyms. The list is comprehensive through 2016 and includes 240 valid species distributed among 34 genera and five families, including one monotypic genus known only from the fossil record. The presented classification reflects recently published interpretations about the validity of the included names which, in general, are widely accepted. When the validity of a particular name is disputed in recent literature, we followed one of the published interpretations and provide relevant information on the alternate interpretation(s) in the remarks section of that name. Synonymies of some names need to be considered tentative, inasmuch as the types underlying those names are either absent or appear to be based on more than one taxon. First reviser actions (e.g., lectotype and neotype designations, resolution of simultaneous synonyms, etc.) are reported and include erroneous subsequent attempts at problem resolutions. Herein, we include one new first reviser action by selecting Gymnotus aequilabiatus Humboldt, 1805, as type species of Sternopygus because previous attempts to select a type did not follow the provisions of the Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

Keywords: Apteronotidae; Gymnotidae; Hypopomidae; Rhamphichthyidae; Sternopygidae

RESUMO

Uma lista de todas as espécies válidas de peixes elétricos neotropicais (Gymnotiformes) é apresentada. A lista é organizada por família e gênero, e inclui todos os sinônimos válidos. A lista encontra-se atualizada até 2016 e inclui 240 espécies válidas viventes distribuídas entre os 34 gêneros e cinco famílias, e um gênero monotípico conhecido apenas por registros fósseis. A presente classificação reflete as recentes interpretações publicadas sobre a validade dos nomes incluídos, nos quais, em geral, são amplamente aceitos. Quando a validade de um nome em particular é disputada na literatura recente, nós seguimos uma das interpretações publicadas, e fornecemos informações relevantes sobre a(s) interpretação(ões) na seção de comentários do nome em questão. Sinônimos de alguns nomes precisam ser considerados com cautela, tendo em vista que os tipos para estes nomes são ausentes, ou parecem ser baseados em mais de um táxon. As primeira ações de revisão (e.g., designação de lectótipos e neótipos, resolução na designação simultânea de sinônimos, etc.) são registradas e incluem os esforços errôneos subsequentes para a solução do problema. Aqui, nós incluímos uma primeira ação de revisão selecionando Gymnotus aequilabiatus Humboldt, 1805, como a espécie-tipo de Sternopygus, porque os esforços prévios para selecionar o tipo não seguiram as recomendações do Código de Nomenclatura Zoológica.

Palavras-chave: Apteronotidae; Gymnotidae; Hypopomidae; Rhamphichthyidae; Sternopygidae.

Introduction

Neotropical electric fishes (Ostariophysi: Gymnotiformes) are a natural group of strictly freshwater fishes, which also go by the name electric knifefishes. The group is perhaps best known for the genus Electrophorus, a monotypic genus that is widely known as the electric eel. Through 2016, 240 valid species are distributed among 34 genera and five families, including one monotypic genus known only from the fossil record.

Neotropical electric fishes are found throughout much of the South American continent and range from the La Plata basin of Argentina northward into North America as far as Mexico. Although mostly confined to east of the Andes mountain range, species are recorded from Trans Andean portions of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela (Albert, Crampton, 2005).

A comprehensive overview of the diversity, phylogeny, and life history of the Gymnotiformes was published by Albert, Crampton (2005) and the reader is referred to that paper for details not covered herein. Also, synopses of the gymnotiform families were included within the Checklist of Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America - CLOFFSCA (Reis et al., 2003) and those details will likewise not be repeated here.

For the first two centuries of Linnaean nomenclature, the Gymnotiformes appeared to be a relatively depauperate taxon. In a revision of the group published in 1913, Ellis treated 27 species as valid, and even as recently as 1994, in the most recent taxonomic revision of the Order, Mago-Leccia (1994) recognized only 85 previously named valid species in addition to the 12 new species that he described therein (Tab. 1). Mago-Leccia’s study clearly demonstrated the need for closer examination of the diversity within the group, which lead to contributions by a number of researchers that increased the number of recognized species by 20%, to 117, during the next decade (Reis et al., 2003) and to more than double that total (to 240 species) at present (Tab. 1).

Tab. 1 Number of valid gymnotiform genera and species (genera/species) recognized in previous compilations. Günther, Eigenmann and Ellis included all taxa within the Gymnotidae (except a monotypic Electrophoridae); taxa broken down here by current treatment of families. Mago-Leccia recognized the five listed families but separated Electrophorus into a separate family, which is placed here within the Gymnotidae; Mago-Leccia recognized three additional subspecies of Sternopygus aequilabiatus, which are not included in the totals. Albert, Crampton included unnamed species that they considered valid; those species are not included in the totals for each family, but are noted in parentheses. 

Günther, 1870 Eigenmann, Ward, 1905 Eigenmann, 1910 Ellis, 1913 Mago-Leccia, 1994 Reis et al., 2003 Albert, Crampton, 2005 This list
Apteronotidae 1/8 6/14 4/14 7/15 12/41 13/44 13/45 (16) 14/93
Gymnotidae 2/2 1/1 2/3 2/2 2/10 2/19 2/33 (3) 2/41
Hypopomidae 0/0 2/3 2/3 2/3 6/14 7/14 7/16 (13) 6/34
Rhamphichthyidae 1/6 1/3 1/3 2/2 2/9 3/13 3/12 (0) 5/27
Sternopygidae 1/4 2/8 2/9 2/5 5/23 5/27 6/29 (6) 7/45
(Total) 4/20 12/29 11/35 15/27 27/97 30/117 31/135 (38) 34/240

The pace at which new taxa have been reported in recent years reflects in an increased interest in the study of the Gymnotiformes and suggests that many more taxa are likely to be discovered in the foreseeable future. In anticipation of that, we decided to compile the following checklist with two main objectives. First, we thought it beneficial to provide an up-to-date listing of taxa together, when relevant, with information on conflicting views on the status of available generic and species group names, to insure that future researchers were aware of information relating to their ongoing work. Second, we thought it necessary to critically examine information relevant to compliance with the Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, 1999), such as the availability of names, identity of, and location of, primary types of species-group taxa as well as the identity of types of the genus-group and family-group names, and the existence of first-reviser actions at any taxonomic level, again to make that information available to future workers. In our view, this compilation of a list of names, together with all nomenclaturally relevant information for each, should provide future workers with a solid background upon which to base their nomenclatural decisions, once their taxonomic studies have been completed.

Material and Methods

By their nature, checklists force their authors into making choices among competing hypotheses of the validity of some taxa. It is not possible to treat such competing hypotheses as equally valid within a checklist format and, as such, one of the hypotheses must be given precedence over the other(s). A species cannot be treated as valid in two different genera despite evidence presented in different studies that reach differing conclusions about its relationships. Similarly, a species name cannot be treated as valid and a junior synonym of another name just because different studies reach these alternative conclusions. These kinds of problems are especially difficult when the proponents of the competing hypotheses are still active researchers, and each is likely to object if their hypothesis is not adopted. It is our view that such decisions are necessary, but a relatively unimportant part of the checklist, as long as the existence of a controversy is clearly stated. When we are required to choose among competing hypotheses, we make a point of including the reference to any recently published alternate hypotheses in the remarks section to insure that the reader knows of its existence.

Families are listed alphabetically. Family membership generally follows that in Reis et al. (2003), except for the placement of Hypopygus and Steatogenys in the Rhamphichthyidae, following Tagliacollo et al. (2016). Genera proposed subsequent to that Reis et al. (2003) are placed where assigned by the author of the generic name.

Genera are listed alphabetically within families, with no attempt to sort genera into subfamilies or tribes, even when those groups are in current use. Species are listed alphabetically within genera with no attempt to sort the names into subgenera, or list the subgeneric name as part of the valid name.

Type localities are copied directly from the original description, with interpretation (enclosed in brackets) only when the original was deemed unclear. Figures listed for each nominal species name were those that showed an entire type specimen and/or the head region and not all drawings and or photographs that depict parts of a specimen of the species. When a primary type of a nominal species is illustrated in a publication other than the original description, that illustration is also noted.

Page numbers listed for accounts of genera or species refer to the first page in which the name is made available. If names appear in a key earlier than the full account of the name, both page numbers are listed. Page numbers in square brackets indicate that no page number appears on the page and, instead, the page is interpreted from other sources. Similarly, plate and/or figure numbers in brackets indicate the absence of a number on the printed page.

Catalog/registration numbers for type specimens were taken directly from the original descriptions, when present. For original descriptions that do not include catalog numbers, numbers found in CLOFFSCA (Reis et al., 2003) were listed. Institution codes are explained in Tab. 2. Catalog numbers were generally not verified, except in a few instances when a discrepancy was noted. Catalog numbers for specimens from MNHN, ZMUC and ZSM were updated to fit the current coding systems at those institutions, when needed. For species named in part, or whole, from literature sources, details about the specimens, or illustrations of specimens, that were listed in the original descriptions were provided in place of catalog numbers. In some such cases, the information is imprecise, if the source of the underlying specimens was not clear.

Tab. 2 Museum codes of collections that house primary type specimens of nominal species of Gymnotiformes. 

Codes Collections
AMNH American Museum of Natural History, New York
ANSP The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia
AUM Auburn University Natural History Museum, Auburn
BMNH Natural History Museum, London
CAS California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco
CBF Colección Boliviana de Fauna, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Instituto de Ecología, Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Bolivia, La Paz
CSBD University of Guyana, Center for the Study of Biological Diversity, Georgetown
CST Centre des Sciences de la Terre de l’Université Claude Bernard, Lyon
CUMV Cornell University Museum of Vertebrates, Ithaca, New York
DZUFMG Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte
EEBP Estação Experimental de Biologia e Piscicultura de Pirassununga, Centro de Pesquisa e Gestão de Recursos Pesqueiros Continentais, IBAMA, Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Pirassununga, São Paulo
FMNH Field Museum of Natural History, Zoology Department, Chicago
GSC Personal collection of Jacques Géry, now housed at MHNG
ICNMHN Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá
IAvH-P Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, Villa de Leyva, Boyacá
INPA Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus
LGP Laboratorio de Genetica de Peixes, Instituto de Biociencias, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho", Campus de Rio Claro, São Paulo
MACLPI Ministerio de Agricultura y Cría, Sección de Pesca Interior y Piscicultura, Caracas
MACN Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" [formerly Museo Nacional de Argentina], Buenos Aires
MBUCV-V Museo de Biología de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas
MCNG Museo de Ciencias Naturales de UNELLEZ, Guanare
MCP Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre
MCZ Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge
MHNG Muséum d'histoire naturelle, Genève
MLP Museo de La Plata, La Plata, Buenos Aires
MNHN Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris
MNRJ Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro
MPEG Museu Paraense "Emilio Goeldi", Zoologia, Belém
MUSM Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima
MZUSP Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo
NMW Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna
NRM Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet [Swedish Museum of Natural History], Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Stockholm
RMNH Naturalis Biodiversity Center [formerly Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie], Leiden
UF Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville
UFRGS Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Zoologia, Porto Alegre
UFRJ Laboratório de Sistemática e Evolução de Peixes Teleósteos, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro
UMMZ University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbor
UMSS Universidad Mayor de San Simon, Cochabamba
USNM National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Washington
UUZM Zoologiska Museet, Uppsala Universitet [Uppsala University Zoological Museum], Uppsala
ZMA Zoölogisch Museum, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam; now housed at RMNH
ZMB Museum für Naturkunde [formerly Zoologischen Museum], Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions- und Biodiversitätsforschung an der Humboldt-Universität, Berlin
ZMUC Københavns Universitet, Zoologisk Museum [Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen], Vertebrater, Fiskesamlingen, Copenhagen
ZSM Zoologische Staatssammlung München.
ZVC-P Colección de Zoología Vertebrados de la Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República, Montevideo

Size of the type(s) is that reported in the original description, when so listed. The original units of measure were provided, and those not reported in metric or English units were translated when possible. When more than one size was provided by in the description, preference was given to list total length (TL) over standard length (SL) or length to the end of the anal fin (LEA). Measurements were rounded to the nearest mm when reported to fractions of a mm. In cases in which no indication of which measurement was taken, it was assumed to be TL and reported as such. When a later publication reported the size of the type that was not reported in the original description or that was significantly different from the size in the original description, that measurement is listed in parentheses after the length reported in the original description.

Synonymies at the species level are not new here and instead follow the conclusions reported in the publications listed under the account of the genus or, in some cases, in the remarks for the species. Synonymies at the generic level necessarily follow the taxonomic assignment of the type species.

In a few accounts, binomial names that are not italicized are included within the remarks sections. Those names are not available in terms of the Code and therefore not italized to emphasize that point.

Titles and publication information on some older literature were taken from that listed in the Biodiversity Heritage Library.

The distribution of each species was stated, using one of the following sources, in order of descending priority: first, the distribution reported in a revision of the genus (or a subunit), or redescription of the species; second, reports of the species that extend the distribution beyond that of earlier publications (in which case, more than one publication may be cited); third, the distribution provided in the original description; and fourth, the distribution reported in CLOFFSCA (Reis et al., 2003). Country and river names are written with English spellings (especially the word River) rather than the spelling used in each country.

Results

The following is a list of all scientific names for the Gymnotiformes that are covered by the Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, 1999), arranged by valid taxa. The list is believed to be complete through 2016. We found 18 available family-group names, 56 genus-group names, and 281 species-group names, which are assigned into five families, 34 genera and 240 species (Tab. 3), including one monotypic genus that is known only from the fossil record. This list reports double the valid species over the most recently published list (Reis et al., 2003), and a greater than eigth fold increase in the last century (Ellis, 1913).

Tab. 3 Nominal and valid gymnotiform families, genera and species reported herein, through the end of 2016, including fossil taxa. Within each family, number of valid taxa is followed by total number of available names for those taxa. 

Family Genera Species
Apteronotidae 1/8 14/20 93/101
Gymnotidae 1/3 2/4 41/50
Hypopomidae 1/3 6/9 34/37
Rhamphichthyidae 1/2 5/9 27/35
Sternopygidae 1/2 7/13 45/56
Inquirendae -/1 -/2
(Total) 5/18 34/56 240/281

GYMNOTIFORMES

Review: Eigenmann, Fisher (1914), Peru; Eigenmann, Allen (1942), Trans-Andes; Mago-Leccia (1994), Venezuela and vicinity.

Overview: Albert, Crampton (2005).

Revision: Eigenmann, Ward (1905); Ellis (1913); Albert (2001).

Checklist: Eigenmann, Eigenmann (1891); Eigenmann (1910); Reis et al. (2003); Maldonado-Ocampo, Albert (2003), Colombia; Buckup et al. (2007), Brazil.

Key: Eigenmann, Ward (1905); Ellis (1913); Hoedeman (1962b), Guianas; Albert (2001), families and genera.

Phylogeny: Schlesinger (1910); Regan (1911); Triques (1993); Gayet et al. (1994), Alves-Gomes et al. (1995); Campos-da-Paz, Albert (1998); Albert, Campos-da-Paz (1998); Albert (2001); Alves-Gomes (2010); Tagliacollo et al. (2016).

APTERONOTIDAE Jordan, 1923 (1838)

(14 genera; 93 species)

SternarchidaeSwainson, 1838: 216, 222. Type genus: [SternarchusBloch, Schneider, 1801]. (Also in Swainson, 1839: 196, 337).

Apteronotidae Jordan, 1923: 138. Type genus: ApteronotusLa Cepède, 1800

AdontosternarchinaeMago-Leccia, 1978: 14. Type genus: Adontosternarchus Ellis, 1912.

SternarchorhynchinaeMago-Leccia, 1978: 14. Type genus: SternarchorhychusCastelnau, 1855.

OedemognathinaeMago-Leccia, 1978: 14. Type genus: OedemognathusMyers, 1936

Sternarchorhamphini Albert, 2001: 73. Type genus: SternarchorhamphusEigenmann, 1905.

Sternarchellini Albert, 2001: 77. Type genus: SternarchellaEigenmann, 1905.

Porotergini Albert, 2001: 78. Type genus: Porotergus Ellis, 1912.

Key: de Santana, Maldonado-Ocampo (2005), Magdalena-Cauca basins; Triques (2011), Paraná basin.

Phylogeny: Triques (2005); Ivanyisky, Albert (2014), Sternarchellini.

Checklist: Albert (2003a); Triques (2007b), Brazil.

Remarks: Jordan (1923: 138) proposed the new name Apteronotidae for the family previously named the Sternarchidae, in conjunction with his treatment of Sternarchus as a junior synonym of Apteronotus, based on the then-prevailing view that family names needed to be derived from valid generic names. Despite its clear priority, the name Sternarchidae has been used rarely since the introduction of the name Apteronotidae, and the Apteronotidae is in widespread use. Following Art. 40.2 of the Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, 1999), the name Apteronotidae takes priority over Sternarchidae and takes as its date of publication that of Sternarchidae [= 1838] for purposes of priority among other gymnotiform family-group names.

Albert (2001) proposed the name Sinusoidea (p. 69) as a suprafamilial name and Navajini (p. 77) as a subgroup within the Apteronotinae. Those names are not available as family-group names inasmuch as they are not based on available generic names (ICZN, 1999: Art. 11.7.1.1).

Apteronotidae incertae sedis

(2 species)

Sternarchus bonapartiiCastelnau, 1855: 92, pl. 45 (fig. 2). Type locality: un lac se de’versant dans l’Ucalaye [Peru]. Holotype: MNHN 0000-3807; 24 cm TL.

Remarks: Treated as valid in Apteronotus in Mago-Leccia (1994), Albert (2001) and Cox Fernandes et al. (2002); as a senior synonym of Parapteronotus hasemani in Triques (2007a); and as a valid species within the Apteronotidae, but not assigned to any available generic name in Tagliacollo et al. (2016).

Distribution: Amazon River basin, Peru and Brazil (Albert, 2003a).

Porotergus ellisiAlonso de Arámburu, 1957: 154, fig. 1. Type locality: San Pedro, provincia de Buenos Aires, sobra el Río Paraná inferior (en el Delta), Argentina. Holotype: MLP 1-V-37-3; 328 mm TL.

Remarks: Treated as valid in Porotergus in Mago-Leccia (1994); valid in Apteronotus in Albert (2001); and as a valid species within the Apteronotidae, but not assigned to any available generic name in Tagliacollo et al. (2016).

Distribution: Paraná River basin, Argentina (Alonso de Arámburu, 1957).

ADONTOSTERNARCHUS Ellis, 1912

(6 species)

Adontosternarchus Ellis, in Eigenmann, 1912: 424. Type species: [Sternarchus sachsiPeters, 1877]. Type by subsequent monotypy. Gender: masculine.

Revision with key to species: Mago-Leccia et al. (1985).

Remarks: Adontosternarchus appeared first in Ellis (in Eigenmann, 1912) without reference to any species. The name was listed with one included species, Sternarchus sachsiPeters, 1877, in Ellis (1913: 155).

Adontosternarchus balaenops (Cope, 1878)

Sternarchus balaenopsCope, 1878: 682. Type locality: Pebas [Peru]. Holotype: ANSP 21462; ca. 165 mm TL (Mago-Leccia et al., 1985).

Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Brazil, Peru and Bolivia (Mago-Leccia et al., 1985).

Adontosternarchus clarkaeMago-Leccia, Lundberg, Baskin, 1985

Adontosternarchus clarkaeMago-Leccia, Lundberg, Baskin, 1985: 14, figs. 1c, 16. Type locality: Raudal (Rapids) de Mavahate, Río Negro near San Carlos de Río Negro, Amazonas Territory, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V 12703; 172 mm TL.

Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru (Mago-Leccia et al., 1985).

Adontosternarchus devenanziiMago-Leccia, Lundberg, Baskin, 1985

Adontosternarchus devenanziiMago-Leccia, Lundberg, Baskin, 1985: 11, fig. 14. Type locality: Venezuela, Caño Cuajarito, tributary of Río Portuguesa, 3 km above La Unión, Estado Guárico. Holotype: MBUCV-V 7513; 133 mm TL.

Distribution: Orinoco River and its large tributaries and the low Llanos, Venezuela and Colombia (Mago-Leccia et al., 1985).

Adontosternarchus duarteide Santana, Vari, 2012

Adontosternarchus duarteide Santana, Vari, 2012: 536, fig. 1. Type locality: Brazil Amazonas Beruri, beach in front of channel connecting with Lago Ayapuá, 4°28’57”S, 62°03’52”W, Rio Purus basin, 8-16 m depth. Holotype: INPA 34648; 125 mm TL.

Distribution: Purus River system, Amazon basin, Brazil (de Santana, Vari, 2012).

Adontosternarchus nebulosusLundberg, Cox Fernandes, 2007

Adontosternarchus nebulosusLundberg, Cox Fernandes, 2007: 28, figs. 1, 2. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas State, Rio Madeira, 2 kilometers below Vila Urucurituba, about 3°33’05.6”S, 58°54’56.4”W. Holotype: INPA 26410; 110 mm TL.

Distribution: Main channel of Amazon River and its major tributaries (Lundberg, Cox Fernandes, 2007).

Adontosternarchus sachsi (Peters, 1877)

Sternarchus SachsiPeters, 1877: 473 [Unnumbered plate in issue for August, 1877]. Type locality: S. Fernando de Apure [Venezuela]. Holotype: ZMB 10044; 18.7 cm TL.

Distribution: Lower and middle Orinoco River basin and Amazon basin (Mago-Leccia et al., 1985).

APTERONOTUSLa Cepède, 1800

(25 species)

ApteronotusLa Cepède, 1800: 208. Type species: Apteronotus passan La Cepède, 1800. Type by monotypy. Gender: masculine.

SternarchusBloch, Schneider, 1801: 497. Type species: [Gymnotus albifronsLinnaeus, 1766]. Type by subsequent designation by Eigenmann, Ward (1905: 161). Gender: masculine.

MemarchusDuméril, 1856: 201. Type species: Gymnotus albifronsLinnaeus, 1766, by monotypy. Gender: masculine.

UbidiaMiles, 1945: 461. Type species: Ubidia magdalenensis Miles, 1945. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

Revision: Apteronotus leptorhynchus group (de Santana, Vari, 2013).

Phylogeny: Campos-da-Paz (1999); Triques (2005); de Santana, Vari (2013, Apteronotus leptorhynchus group).

Remarks: The gender of Ubidia was not stated by Miles, and it has been listed as feminine in Mago-Leccia (1994), Eschmeyer (1998) and Eschmeyer et al. (2016). The name, however, is the surname of “señor Jorge Ubidia Betancourt” and, as such, we believe the name should be treated as masculine.

Apteronotus acidopsTriques, 2011

Apteronotus acidopsTriques, 2011: 300, figs. 1, 2. Type locality: Brazil, Rio Paraná at Ilha Solteira, 20°30’S, 51°00’W, between states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul. Holotype: MZUSP 45685; 321 mm LEA.

Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil (Triques, 2011).

Apteronotus albifrons (Linnaeus, 1766)

Gymnotus albifronsLinnaeus, 1766: 428. Type locality: Surinami. Holotype: whereabouts unknown.

Apteronotus passanLa Cepède, 1800: 209, pl. 6 (fig. 3). Type locality: Surinami. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3808 (1; 400 cm TL), and several literature sources, including account of Gymnotus albifrons [Linnaeus, 1766] in Gmelin (1789), “Gymnote passan” Bonnaterre (1788: pl. XXIV, fig. 8.), and Pallas (1769: 35, pl. 6, fig. 1).

Sternarchus lacepediiCastelnau, 1855: 93, pl. 45 (fig. 3). Type locality: Surinam. Syntype: on specimen presumably deposited at MNHN (18 cm TL), possibly MNHN 0000-3808, and “Gymnote passan” Bonnaterre (1788: pl. XXIV, fig. 8.).

? Sternarchus maximilianiCastelnau, 1855: 93, pl. 45 (fig. 4). Type locality: l’Urubamba [Peru]. Holotype: presumably deposited at MNHN, but whereabouts unknown; 14 cm TL.

Remarks: Synonymy follows Albert (2003a).

Distribution: Venezuela to Paraguay and Paraná River basins (Albert, 2003a).

Apteronotus anude Santana, Vari, 2013

Apteronotus anude Santana, Vari, 2013: 570, fig. 4. Type locality: Venezuela, Zulia, Rio Negro, 12 km south of Machiques on way to Tokuko at the bridge. Holotype: MCNG 24991; 132 mm TL.

Distribution: Maracaibo Lake basin, Colombia and Venezuela (de Santana, Vari, 2013).

Apteronotus apurensisFernández-Yépez, 1968

Apteronotus apurensisFernández-Yépez, 1968: [7], [pl. 5]. Type locality: Río Bucaral, paso Mirabal [Orinoco basin, Venezuela]. Holotype: MBUCV-V 10840; 124 mm TL.

Distribution: Apure River, Orinoco basin, Venezuela (Fernández-Yépez, 1968).

Apteronotus baniwade Santana, Vari, 2013

Apteronotus baniwade Santana, Vari, 2013: 575, figs. 7, 8. Type locality: Venezuela Amazonas, Río Orinoco, 147 km east-south-east of San Fernando de Atabapo, 3°45’23”N, 66°36’12”W. Holotype: AUM 43275; 155 mm TL.

Distribution: Upper Orinoco River basin, Venezuela (de Santana, Vari, 2013).

Apteronotus brasiliensis (Reinhardt, 1852)

Sternarchus brasiliensisReinhardt, 1852: 148. Type locality: Rio das Velhas, Brasilien. Syntypes: ZMUC P259 [formerly 35], ZMUC P2510 [36], ZMUC 2511 [41]. Possibly also MNHN 0000-9596; NMW 65015; ZMB 9185 and/or 9195.

Distribution: Das Velhas River basin, Brazil (Albert, 2003a).

Apteronotus camposdapazide Santana, Lehmann, 2006

Apteronotus camposdapazide Santana, Lehmann, 2006: 262, figs. 1, 2, Type locality: Niquelandia, Arroio Arara, 500 meters from mouth of Rio Maranhão at Rosariana, 14°01’S, 48°26’W, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 40046; 267 mm TL.

Distribution: Tocantins River basin, Brazil (de Santana, Lehmann, 2006).

Apteronotus caudimaculosusde Santana, 2003

Apteronotus caudimaculosusde Santana, 2003: 2, figs. 1, 2. Type locality: [Brazil] Mato Grosso do Sul, 19°36.64’S, 56°24.87’W, Aquidauna, Rio Novo, Brejo de Santa Sofia. Holotype: MZUSP 79359; 287 mm TL.

Distribution: Paraná River basin, Brazil (de Santana, 2003).

Apteronotus cuchillejo (Schultz, 1949)

Sternarchogiton cuchillejoSchultz, 1949: 72, pl. 3 (fig. b). Type locality: Río Motatán, 8 km below Motatán, Venezuela.Holotype: USNM 121600; 168 mm TL.

Distribution: Motatan River, Lake Maracaibo basin (Schultz, 1949).

Apteronotus cuchilloSchultz, 1949

Apteronotus cuchilloSchultz, 1949: 69, pl. 3 (fig. a). Type locality: Río Socuy, 3 km above mouth, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121591; 363 mm TL.

Distribution: Socuy River and Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela (Schultz, 1949).

Apteronotus eschmeyeri de Santana, Maldonado-Ocampo, Severi, Mendes, 2004

Apteronotus eschmeyeri de Santana, Maldonado-Ocampo, Severi, Mendes, 2004: 3, figs. 1, 2. Type locality: Colombia, Departamento Cundinamarca, Río Magdalena Basin, Las Juntas de Apulo, Río Bogotá along railway between Girardot and Facatativa. Holotype: CAS 72115; 304 mm TL.

Distribution: Magdalena River basin and Cauca River, Colombia (de Santana et al., 2004; Maldonado-Ocampo, de Santana, 2005).

Apteronotus ferrariside Santana, Vari, 2013

Apteronotus ferrariside Santana, Vari, 2013: 577, figs. 9, 10, Type locality: Venezuela, Yaracuy, Río Yaracuy basin (Caribbean Coast), Quebrada Guaquira on Hacienda Guaquira, southeast of El Peñon Reservoir, 10°17’40”N, 68°39’35”W. Holotype: MCNG 55635; 231 mm TL.

Distribution: Yaracuy River and Aroa River, Caribbean coastal drainages, Venezuela (de Santana, Vari, 2013).

Apteronotus galviside Santana, Maldonado-Ocampo, Crampton, 2007

Apteronotus galviside Santana, Maldonado-Ocampo, Crampton, 2007: 118, figs. 1, 2. Type locality: Río Meta drainage, Río Cusiana, bridge El Venado, 5°00’50”N, 72°41’30.9”W, Casanare, Colombia, elevation 305 meters. Holotype: IAvH-P 8133: 184 mm TL; holotype illustrated in de Santana, Vari (2013: fig. 11) and doNascimiento et al. (2016: fig. 4).

Remarks: Redescribed in de Santana, Vari (2013).

Distribution: Upper Meta River basin, Orinoco River system, Colombia (de Santana, Vari, 2013).

Apteronotus jurubidae (Fowler, 1944)

Sternarchus jurubidaeFowler, 1944: 242, fig. 20. Type locality: Río Jurubidá, Nuquí, Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 71435; 253 mm TL.

Distribution: Jurubidá River basin, Colombia (de Santana, Maldonado-Ocampo, 2004).

Apteronotus leptorhynchus (Ellis, 1912)

Sternarchus leptorhynchus Ellis, in Eigenmann, 1912: 439. Type locality: Amatuk [Guyana]. Holotype: FMNH 53294; 260 mm TL. Described in more detail, with illustration of holotype, in Ellis (1913: 147, pl. 23, fig. 4); holotype illustrated in de Santana, Vari (2013: fig. 13).

Remarks: Redescribed in de Santana, Vari (2013).

Distribution: Essequibo River basin, Guyana (de Santana, Vari, 2013).

Apteronotus lindalvaede Santana, Cox Fernandes, 2012

Apteronotus lindalvaede Santana, Cox Fernandes, 2012: 286, fig. 1. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Rio Uatumã, Cochoeira do Mirití. Holotype: INPA 27688; 250 mm TL.

Distribution: Uatumã River, Amazonas, Brazil (de Santana, Cox Fernandes, 2012).

Apteronotus macrolepis (Steindachner, 1881)

Sternarchus macrolepisSteindachner, 1881a: 98. Type locality: Amazonenstromes [Brazil]. Syntypes: (several) NMW 65333 (2). Described in more detail in Steindachner (1881c: 14) with locality as: Ausstände des Amazonenstromes zunächst der Mündung des Rio Negro.

Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil and Peru (Albert, 2003a).

Apteronotus macrostomus (Fowler, 1943)

Sternarchus macrostomusFowler, 1943: 263, fig. 63. Type locality: Villavicencio, Río Meta basin, Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 70528: 260 mm TL; holotype illustrated in de Santana, Vari (2013: fig. 15).

Remarks: Redescribed in de Santana, Vari (2013). Treated by Triques (2005, 2007) as valid in Parapteronotus.

Distribution: Meta River basin, Colombia (de Santana, Vari, 2013).

Apteronotus magdalenensis (Miles, 1945)

Ubidia magdalenensisMiles, 1945: 461, figs. 11, 12. Type locality: Río Magdalena, Honda, Tolima, Colombia. Holotype: at Sec. Caza y Pesca, Min. Nat. Econ. Bogotá; 280 mm TL (lost, Maldonado-Ocampo et al., 2011).

Remarks: Redescribed in Maldonado-Ocampo et al. (2011).

Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia (Miles, 1945; Maldonado-Ocampo et al., 2011).

Apteronotus magoide Santana, Castillo, Taphorn, 2006

Apteronotus magoide Santana, Castillo, Taphorn, 2006: 276, figs. 1, 2. Type locality: Venezuela, Barinas, Río Apure drainage, Caño Bravo, 8°00’S, 67°59’W. Holotype: MCNG 54795; 237 mm TL.

Distribution: Apure River drainage, Orinoco River system, Venezuela (de Santana et al., 2006).

Apteronotus mariae (Eigenmann, Fisher, 1914)

Sternarchus mariaeEigenmann, Fisher, 1914: 236. Type locality: Girardot [Colombia]. Holotype: FMNH 56774; 201 mm TL (195 mm TL, de Santana, Maldonado-Ocampo, 2004). Holotype illustrated in Eigenmann (1923: pl. 34, fig. 6).

Remarks: Redescribed in de Santana, Maldonado-Ocampo (2004).

Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia (de Santana, Maldonado-Ocampo, 2004).

Apteronotus milesi de Santana, Maldonado-Ocampo, 2005

Apteronotus milesi de Santana, Maldonado-Ocampo, 2005: 224, figs. 1, 2. Type locality: Colombia, Departamento del Valle del Cauca, Municipio de Ancermanuevo, Hacienda el Amparo, Río Chanco, elevation 950 meters. Holotype: IAvH-P 3996; 160 mm TL; holotype illustrated in doNascimiento et al. (2016: fig. 5).

Distribution: Cauca River basin, Colombia (de Santana, Maldonado-Ocampo, 2005).

Apteronotus pemonde Santana, Vari, 2013

Apteronotus pemonde Santana, Vari, 2013: 586, figs. 17, 18. Type locality: Venezuela, Bolivar, Techiné-meru waterfall, tributary of upper Río Caroni, about 5°01’N, 62°17’60”W. Holotype: FMNH 70012; 206 mm TL.

Distribution: Upper Caroni River basin, Venezuela (de Santana, Vari, 2013).

Apteronotus rostratus (Meek, Hildebrand, 1913)

Stenarchus rostratusMeek, Hildebrand, 1913: 85. Type locality: Río Grande near Cana, Panama. Holotype: FMNH 7592; 126 mm TL (94 mm TL, de Santana, Vari (2013). Described in more detail, with illustration of holotype, in Meek, Hildebrand (1916: 312, pl. 27).

Remarks: Redescribed in de Santana, Vari (2013).

Distribution: Madgalena and Cauca rivers, Colombia and several Pacific versant rivers of Panama (de Santana, Vari, 2013).

Apteronotus spurrellii (Regan, 1914)

Sternarchus spurrelliiRegan, 1914: 32. Type locality: Río Condoto, Colombia. Syntypes (4): BMNH 1914.5.18.90-93; 142-189 mm TL (de Santana, Vari, 2013); syntype (189 mm TL) illustrated in de Santana, Vari (2013: fig. 20).

Remarks: Redescribed in de Santana, Crampton (2006b) and de Santana, Vari (2013).

Distribution: San Juan River basin, western Colombia (de Santana, Crampton, 2006b); Condoto and Dagua Rivers, Pacific versant of Colombia (de Santana, Vari, 2013).

Species inquirenda Apteronotus

Sternarchus paranaensisSchindler, 1940: 140, figs. 5, 6. Type locality: Kleiner Nebenfluss am rechten Ufer des Rio Paraná, ungefähr 34 km flussauf von Pto. Tibiriçá [Brazil]. Syntypes: ZSM 5902 (ex 20/1938), 1, 238 mm TL; ZSM 5901 (ex 21/1938) 1, 163 mm TL. Types illustrated in Neumann (2011: fig. 1), as holotype and paratype, but no clear indication of a holotype designation found in the original description.

COMPSARAIAAlbert, 2001

(2 species)

CompsaraiaAlbert, 2001: 78. Type species: Compsaraia compsa [= Porotergus compsus] Mago-Leccia, 1994. Type by original designation. Gender: feminine.

Compsaraia compsa (Mago-Leccia, 1994)

Porotergus compsusMago-Leccia, 1994: 82, figs. 90, 91. Type locality: Río Orinoco, between km 152 and 153, in front of Isla Iguana, Delta Amacuro, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V 11010; 338 mm TL.

Distribution: Orinoco, Meta, Apuré and Negro River basins, Venezuela (Mago-Leccia, 1994).

Compsaraia samueliAlbert, Crampton, 2009

Compsaraia samueliAlbert, Crampton, 2009: 83, figs. 1, 2. Type locality: Peru, Loreto, Rio Amazonas near Iquitos, 3.77°S, 73.25°W. Holotype: MUSM 26093; 226 mm TL.

Distribution: Western Amazon River basin of Peru and Brazil (Albert, Crampton, 2009).

MEGADONTOGNATHUSMago-Leccia, 1994

(2 species)

MegadontognathusMago-Leccia, 1994: 38. Type species: Megadontognathus cuyuniense Mago-Leccia, 1994. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

Megadontognathus cuyunienseMago-Leccia, 1994

Megadontognathus cuyunienseMago-Leccia, 1994: 81, figs. 89a, 89b. Type locality: Venezuela, Bolivar, Paruruvaca rapids, Río Cuyuni. Holotype: MBUCV-V 9499; 57 mm TL.

Remarks: It is unclear why Mago-Leccia spelled the name cuyeniense, as the generic name that he proposed for the species is clearly masculine. The name should have been spelled cuyuniensis.

Distribution: Cuyuni and Caroní River basins, Venezuela (Mago-Leccia, 1994).

Megadontognathus kaitukaensisCampos-da-Paz, 1999

Megadontognathus kaitukaensisCampos-da-Paz, 1999: 1043, figs. 1, 2. Type locality: Cachoeiras de Kaituká, 5°15’S, 52°50’W, Rio Xingu, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 14074; 160 mm TL.

Distribution: Kaituká falls, Xingu River basin, Brazil (Campos-da-Paz, 1999).

ORTHOSTERNARCHUS Ellis, 1912

(1 species)

Orthosternarchus Ellis, in Eigenmann, 1912: 424. Type species: [Sternarchus tamanduaBoulenger, 1898]. Type by subsequent monotypy. Gender: masculine.

Remarks: Orthosternarchus appeared first in Ellis, in Eigenmann (1912: 424, key) without reference to any species. The name next appeared, with one included species, Sternarchus tamanduaBoulenger, 1898, in Ellis (1913: 144).

Orthosternarchus tamandua (Boulenger, 1898)

Sternarchus tamanduaBoulenger, 1898: 427, pl. 42. Type locality: Rio Juruá, Brazil. Holotype: BMNH 1897.12.1.208; 400 mm TL [425 mm in Hilton et al. (2007)].

Remarks: Redescribed, with anatomical and phylogenetic information, in Hilton et al. (2007).

Distribution: Widely distributed in Amazon River basin (Hilton et al., 2007).

PARAPTERONOTUSAlbert, 2001

(1 species)

ParapteronotusAlbert, 2001: 73. Type species: Sternarchus hasemaniEllis, 1913. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

Parapteronotus hasemani (Ellis, 1913)

Sternarchus hasemaniEllis, 1913: 147, pl. 23 (fig. 1). Type locality: Santarém [Pará, Brazil]. Holotype: FMNH 54562; 170 mm, to base of tail.

Apteronotus anasEigenmann, Allen, 1942: 321, pl. 15 (fig. 1). Type locality: Iquitos [Peru]. Holotype: CAS 56510; 365 mm TL.

Remarks: Synonymy follows Albert (2001) and Cox Fernandes et al. (2002). Redescribed in Cox Fernandes et al. (2002) as Apteronotus hasemani. Sexually dimorphic traits described in Hilton, Cox Fernandes (2006). Treated as a junior synonym of Parapteronotus bonapartii in Triques (2007a).

Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil and Peru (Albert, 2003a).

PARIOSTERNARCHUSAlbert, Crampton, 2006

(1 species)

PariosternarchusAlbert, Crampton, 2006: 269. Type species: Pariosternarchus amazonensisAlbert, Crampton, 2006. Type by monotypy. Gender: masculine.

Pariosternarchus amazonensisAlbert, Crampton, 2006

Pariosternarchus amazonensisAlbert, Crampton, 2006: 270, fig. 1. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Paraná Maiana, Mamirauá Lake System, municipality of Alvarães, 3°06.74’S, 64°47.53’ W. Holotype: MCP 34916; 121 mm TL.

Distribution: Main channel of Amazon River, Brazil and Peru (Albert, Crampton, 2006).

PLATYUROSTERNARCHUSMago-Leccia, 1994

(2 species)

PlatyurosternarchusMago-Leccia, 1994: 37. Type species: Sternarchus macrostomus [sic, macrostoma] Günther, 1870. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

Revision and key: de Santana, Vari (2009).

Platyurosternarchus crypticusde Santana, Vari, 2009

Platyurosternarchus crypticusde Santana, Vari, 2009: 236, fig. 1. Type locality: Guyana Rupununi (Region 9), Moco-Moco Creek, upper Takutu River, Rio Branco basin, north slope of Kanuku Mountains, approximately 30°18’52.95”N, 59°39’38.69”W, approximately 16 kilometers east of Lethem. Holotype: CUMV 93433; 260 mm TL.

Distribution: Branco River, Amazon basin, Brazil and Rupununi District, Guyana (de Santana, Vari, 2009).

Platyurosternarchus macrostoma (Günther, 1870)

Sternarchus macrostomaGünther, 1870: 4. Type locality: Xeberos [Peru]. Holotype: BMNH 1867.6.13.76; 14 in. TL.

Distribution: Amazon, Orinoco and Essequibo basins (de Santana, Vari, 2009).

POROTERGUS Ellis, 1912

(3 species)

Porotergus Ellis, in Eigenmann, 1912: 423, 440. Type species: Porotergus gymnotus Ellis, 1912. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

Revision with key: de Santana, Crampton (2010).

Porotergus duendede Santana, Crampton, 2010

Porotergus duendede Santana, Crampton, 2010: 166, fig. 1. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Rio Solimões, beach on north bank of Ilha Cuera, near Tefé, Municipality of Alvarães, 3°21.21’S, 64°39.59’W. Holotype: MCP 37357; 104 mm TL.

Distribution: Main channel of Amazon River and in Negro and Ucayali rivers (de Santana, Crampton, 2010).

Porotergus gimbeli Ellis, 1912

Porotergus gimbeli Ellis, in Eigenmann, 1912: 441. Type locality: Pará [Brazil]. Holotype: FMNH 54566; 205 mm TL. Holotype illustrated in Ellis (1913: pl. 23, fig. 3) and de Santana, Crampton (2010: fig. 3).

Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil and Peru; presence in Guyana (Ellis in Eigenmann, 1912; Ellis, 1913) not confirmed by de Santana, Crampton (2010).

Porotergus gymnotus Ellis, 1912

Porotergus gymnotus Ellis, in Eigenmann, 1912: 441. Type locality: Amatuk [Guyana]. Holotype: FMNH 53575; 70 mm TL (65 mm, de Santana, Crampton, 2010). Holotype illustrated in Ellis (1913: pl. 23, fig. 4) and de Santana, Crampton (2010: fig. 6).

Distribution: Essequibo River, Guyana (de Santana, Crampton, 2010).

STERNARCHELLAEigenmann, 1905

(9 species)

SternarchellaEigenmann, in Eigenmann, Ward, 1905: 160, 163. Type species: Sternarchus schotti Steindachner, 1868. Type by original designation. Gender: feminine.

Magosternarchus Lundberg, Cox Fernandes, Albert in Lundberg et al., 1996: 658. Type species: Magosternarchus raptor Lundberg, Cox Fernandes, Albert, 1996. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

Remarks: Synonymy follows Ivanyisky, Albert (2014).

Sternarchella calhamazonLundberg, Cox Fernandes, Campos-da-Paz, 2013

Sternarchella calhamazonLundberg, Cox Fernandes, Campos-da-Paz, in Lundberg et al., 2013: 159, figs. 1-2. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Rio Maderia, 35 km above confluence with rio Amazonas, 3°35’44.2”S, 58°57’45.8”W, depth 14-16 meters. Holotype: INPA 37898; 163 mm TL.

Distribution: Widely distributed in Amazon basin and Tocantins River (Lundberg et al., 2013).

Sternarchella curvioperculataGodoy, 1968

Sternarchella curvioperculataGodoy, 1968: 352, figs. 3, 4, 5. Type locality: riacho, afluente do Rio Mogi Guassu, 12 km a montante de Cachoeira das Emas, margem esquerda (km 243 do mencionado rio) [São Paulo State, Brazil]. Holotype: EEBP 336; 253 mm TL (current whereabouts unknown, Campos-da-Paz, pers. comm., 7/2016).

Remarks: Not treated as a species of Sternarchella by Ivanyisky, Albert (2014) based on reported observations by Triques (2005) and an incorrect statement that Mago-Leccia (1994) placed the species in Porotergus. However, considered a valid species of Sternarchella in Lundberg et al. (2013).

Distribution: Mogi Guassu River, Brazil (Godoy, 1968).

Sternarchella duccis (Lundberg, Cox Fernandes, Albert, 1996)

Magosternarchus duccis Lundberg, Cox Fernandes, Albert, in Lundberg et al., 1996: 664, fig. 2. Type locality: Brazil, Roraima State, Rio Branco, 3-11 km upriver from confluence with Rio Negro, 1°17’S, 61°51’W, 6-7 m. depth. Holotype: MZUSP 48439; 187 mm TL.

Distribution: Amazon River channels at least from Rio Iça to Rio Trombetas, including Rio Negro, Brazil (Lundberg et al., 1996).

Sternarchella orinocoMago-Leccia, 1994

Sternarchella orinocoMago-Leccia, 1994: 97, figs. 94a, 94b, 95. Type locality: Río Orinoco, between km 152 and 153, in front of Isla Iguana Delta Amacuro, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V 10514; 201 mm TL.

Remarks: Treated as synonym of Sternarchella sima in Albert (2001, 2003), but valid in Lundberg et al. (2013).

Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela, in the main channel of large rivers (Mago-Leccia, 1994).

Sternarchella orthosMago-Leccia, 1994

Sternarchella orthosMago-Leccia, 1994: 84, fig. 93. Type locality: Río Apure near mouth of Río Boquerones, E of San Fernando de Apure, Apure, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V 14173; 160 mm TL.

Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela, mostly in the main channel of rivers (Mago-Leccia, 1994).

Sternarchella raptor (Lundberg, Cox Fernandes, Albert, 1996)

Magosternarchus raptor Lundberg, Cox Fernandes, Albert in Lundberg et al., 1996: 661, fig. 1. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas State, Rio Solimões, 17 km downriver from confluence or Rio Purus, 3°36’S, 61°21’W; 4-6 m depth. Holotype: MZUSP 48436; 161 mm TL.

Distribution: Amazon River channels at least from Purus River to Xingu River, including Rio Negro, Brazil (Lundberg et al., 1996).

Sternarchella schotti (Steindachner, 1868)

Stern. [Sternarchus] CapanemaeSteindachner, 1868a: 176. Type locality: [Barra do Rio negro =Manaus, Brazil]. Holotype: NMW 65335. Name listed, but with few details.

Sternarchus SchottiSteindachner, 1868b: 252, pl. 1 (figs. 1, 2). Type locality: Barra do Rio negro [Manaus, Brazil]. Holotype: NMW 65335.

Remarks: Synonymy follows Lundberg et al. (2013: 170), within which it is stated that Sternarchus capanemae has priority over S. schotti, but S. schotti may qualify for validity as a nomen protectum.

Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil (Albert, 2003a).

Sternarchella simaStarks, 1913

Sternarchella simaStarks, 1913: 22, pl. 4. Type locality: Pará [Brazil]. Syntypes (4): SU 22220 (3), AMNH 3864 (1); each approx. 6 inches. Caption to plate indicates illustrated specimen as the type, if recognizable; if not, all 4 original specimens need to be treated as syntypes.

Distribution: Mainstream channels of Amazon and Orinoco rivers, Brazil and Venezuela (Albert, 2003a).

Sternarchella terminalis (Eigenmann, Allen, 1942)

Porotergus terminalisEigenmann, Allen, 1942: 324. Type locality: Iquitos [Peru]. Holotype: CAS 54912; 210 mm TL.

Distribution: Amazon River basin Brazil and Peru (Albert, 2003a).

STERNARCHOGITONEigenmann, 1905

(5 species)

SternarchogitonEigenmann, in Eigenmann, Ward, 1905: 160, 164. Type species: Sternarchus nattereri Steindachner, 1868. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

OedemognathusMyers, 1936: 115. Type species: Oedemognathus exodon Myers, 1936. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

Revision: de Santana, Crampton (2007).

Key to species: de Santana, Crampton (2007); de Santana, Vari (2010a).

Sternarchogiton labiatusde Santana, Crampton, 2007

Sternarchogiton labiatusde Santana, Crampton, 2007: 397, figs. 6, 7, Type locality: Brazil Amazonas Rio Tefé, Toco Preto, Município de Tefé, 3°47.31’S, 64°59.91’W. Holotype: MCP 37544; 104 mm TL.

Distribution: Tefé River and lower Rio Negro, Amazon River basin, Brazil (de Santana, Crampton, 2007).

Sternarchogiton nattereri (Steindachner, 1868)

Sternarchus NattereriSteindachner, 1868a: 176. Type locality: [Manaus, Brazil]. Holotype: NMW 65014; 8”2”’ TL [208 mm (de Santana, Crampton, 2007)]. Described in more detail in Steindachner (1868b: 251, pl. 2, fig. 1) with locality as: Barra do Rio negro.

Oedemognathus exodonMyers, 1936: 115. Type locality: Río Ampiyacu, Eastern Peru. Holotype: USNM 102040; 202 mm TL.

Remarks: Synonymy follows de Santana, Crampton (2007) and Cox Fernandes et al. (2009).

Distribution: Large river channels of Amazon River basin (de Santana, Crampton, 2007).

Sternarchogiton porcinumEigenmann, Allen, 1942

Sternarchogiton porcinumEigenmann, Allen, 1942: 325, pl. 16 (fig. 1). Type locality: Río Huallaga, Yurimaguas [Peru]. Holotype: CAS 28810; 300 mm TL. Photograph of holotype in de Santana, Crampton (2007: fig. 4).

Distribution: Huallaga, Napo and Amazon rivers, Peru and Orinoco River, Venezuela (de Santana, Crampton, 2007).

Sternarchogiton pretode Santana, Crampton, 2007

Sternarchogiton pretode Santana, Crampton, 2007: 393, fig. 5. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Rio Tefé, Toco Preto, Município de Tefé, 3°47.31’S, 64°59.91’W. Holotype: MCP 37553; 198 mm TL.

Distribution: Amazon basin, Brazil and Peru and Orinoco basin, Venezuela (de Santana, Crampton, 2007).

Sternarchogiton zuanonide Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchogiton zuanonide Santana, Vari, 2010a: 160, figs.1, 2, Type locality: Brazil, Pará, Rio Xingú, Município de Altamira, Cachoeira de Kaituká, 3°12’S, 52°12’W. Holotype: INPA 28356; 178 mm TL.

Distribution: Kaituká Falls, lower Xingu River, Brazil (de Santana, Vari, 2010a).

STERNARCHORHAMPHUSEigenmann, 1905

(1 species)

SternarchorhamphusEigenmann, in Eigenmann, Ward, 1905: 160, 165. Type species: Sternarchus mulleri [sic, Sternarchus muelleri] Steindachner, 1881. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

Sternarchorhamphus muelleri (Steindachner, 1881)

Sternarchus (Rhamphosternarchus) MülleriSteindachner, 1881a: 99. Type locality: Pará [Brazil]. Lectotype: NMW 65328:1 (261 mm LEA [larger than paralectotype NMW 65328:2]), apparently designated in Campos-da-Paz (1995: 35, 36), if not earlier. Described in more detail in Steindachner (1881c: 15) with type locality as: Amazonestrom bei Pará.

Remarks: Redescribed in Campos-da-Paz (1995).

Distribution: Amazon River basin, Orinoco River, and some coastal rivers in vicinity of Amazon mouth (Campos-da-Paz, 1995).

STERNARCHORHYNCHUSCastelnau, 1855

(32 species)

SternarchorhynchusCastelnau, 1855: 95. Type species: Sternarchorhynchus Mulleri Castelnau, 1855. Type by monotypy. Gender: masculine.

RhamphosternarchusGünther, 1870: 4. Type species: Sternarchus oxyrhynchusMüller, Troschel, 1849. Type by subsequent designation by Eigenmann, Ward (1905: 166). Gender: masculine. Originally proposed as a subgenus of Sternarchus.

Revision: de Santana, Vari (2010b).

Key: Campos da Paz (2000); de Santana, Vari (2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus axelrodide Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus axelrodide Santana, Vari, 2010b: 275, figs. 26, 27. Type locality: Brazil: Goiás, Município de Minaçu/Cavalcante, Rio Tocantins, at future site of Usina Hidroeléctrica Serra da Mesa (ca., 13°44’S, 48°08’W). Holotype: MNRJ 31279; 444 mm TL.

Distribution: Tocantins River, Brazil (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus britskiiCampos-da-Paz, 2000

Sternarchorhynchus britskiiCampos-da-Paz, 2000a: 528, fig. 9. Type locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio Paraná at Ilha Solteira, approx. 20°30’S, 51°00’W. Holotype: MZUSP 52923; 261 mm TL, 243 mm LEA (272 mm TL; (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus caboclode Santana, Nogueira, 2006

Sternarchorhynchus caboclode Santana, Nogueira, 2006: 89, figs. 1b, 2b, 2c. Type locality: Brazil, Roraima, Rio Mucajaí, below Cachoeira Paredão 2. Holotype: INPA 22894; 225 mm TL.

Distribution: Mucajaí River basin, Roraima, Brazil (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus chaoide Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus chaoide Santana, Vari, 2010b: 286, fig. 31. Type locality: Brazil. Rondônia, Rio Jamari, Porto Velho, diversion canal of Usina Hidroeléctica, Samuel (ca. 8°27’S, 63°30’W). Holotype: INPA 28357; 155 mm TL.

Distribution: Jamari River basin, Rondônia, Brazil (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus cramptonide Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus cramptonide Santana, Vari, 2010b: 288, figs. 32, 33. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Rio Solimões, downstream from mouth of Río Purus, 3°27’27”S, 60°45’26”W. Holotype: FMNH 115489; 290 mm TL.

Distribution: Amazon River between Iquitos and Trombetas River (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus curumimde Santana, Crampton, 2006

Sternarchorhynchus curumimde Santana, Crampton, 2006a: 59, fig. 1. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Rio Tefé, Toco Preto, Municipality of Tefé, 3°47.31’S, 64°59.91’W. Holotype: MCP 38304; 163 mm TL.

Distribution: Tefé River, Amazonas, Brazil (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus curvirostris (Boulenger, 1887)

Sternarchus (Rhamphosternarchus) curvirostrisBoulenger, 1887: 282, pl. 24. Type locality: Canelos [Ecuador]. Syntypes (2): BMNH 1880.12.8.90-91; 125 mm TL (203 mm TL, 188 mm LEA; Campos-da-Paz, 2000).

Remarks: de Santana, Vari (2010b: 295) supported the observation by Campos-da-Paz (2000) that the apparent syntypes of Sternarchus (Rhamphosternarchus) curvirostris are substantially longer than that stated in the original description. They further noted that no other specimen(s) of a length that better matched the one reported by Boulenger were found at BMNH.

Distribution: Bobanaza River, Ecuador and, possibly, northeastern Peru (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus freemanide Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus freemanide Santana, Vari, 2010b: 296, fig. 38. Type locality: Guyana, Essequibo River basin, Lower Potaro River at Amatuk (ca. 5°18’N, 59°18’W). Holotype: CAS 72246; 201 mm TL.

Distribution: Lower portions of Essequibo River basin, Guyana (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus galibide Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus galibide Santana, Vari, 2010b: 298, fig. 39. Type locality: Suriname, Marowijne District, Lawa River at Stroomafwaarts Rapids near Anapaikekondre (= Anapaike country, Anapaika at 3°34’N, 109°39’W), Holotype: ZMA 109366; 168 mm TL.

Distribution: Lawa River, Marowijne/Maroni River basin, Suriname and French Guiana (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus gnomusde Santana, Taphorn, 2006

Sternarchorhynchus gnomusde Santana, Taphorn, 2006: 2, figs. 1, 2. Type locality: Venezuela, Bolivar, Río Caroní, at the confluence with the Río Claro, 7°54’30”N, 63°02’50”W. Holotype: MCNG 53963; 134 mm TL.

Distribution: Lower Caroní River basin, Venezuela (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus goeldiide Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus goeldiide Santana, Vari, 2010b: 301, fig. 41. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Rio Purus, 3°50’06”S, 61°23’59”W. Holotype: INPA 28378; 306 mm TL.

Distribution: Amazon River basin, Peru and Brazil (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus hagedornaede Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus hagedornaede Santana, Vari, 2010b: 305, figs. 43, 44, Type locality: Peru, Madre de Dios, Manu Marine Biosphere Reserve, Quebrada Pachija, tributary emptying into Río Manu, 3 kilometers upstream of Pakitza (= 11°55’48”S, 71°15’18”W). Holotype: MUSM 30534; 249 mm TL.

Distribution: Upper Madeira River basin, southeastern Peru (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus higuchiide Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus higuchiide Santana, Vari, 2010b: 307, figs. 45, 46. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Rio Uatumã, Cachoeira do Miriti, Presidente Figueiredo, ca. 2°01’S, 59°28’W. Holotype: INPA 28358; 246 mm TL.

Distribution: Uatumã River, Amazonas, Brazil (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus inpaide Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus inpaide Santana, Vari, 2010b: 310, figs. 47, 48. Type locality: Brazil, Pará, Rio Mapuera, Cachoeira Porteira, last fall before Rio Trombetas, ca. 1°05’S, 57°02’W. Holotype: INPA 22895; 191 mm TL.

Distribution: Mapuera River, Trombetas River basin, Brazil (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus jaimeide Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus jaimeide Santana, Vari, 2010b: 312, fig. 49. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Rio Uatumã, Cachoeira do Miriti, Presidente Figueiredo (ca. 2°01’S, 59°28’W). Holotype: INPA 28359; 200 mm TL.

Distribution: Uatumã River, Amazonas, Brazil (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus kokraimorode Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus kokraimorode Santana, Vari, 2010b: 314, figs. 51, 52. Type locality: Brazil, Pará, Rio Xingú, Cachoeira de Kaituká, at Altamira, 3°12’S, 52°12’W. Holotype: INPA 28360; 197 mm TL.

Distribution: Xingu River at Kaituká Falls, Brazil (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus mareikeaede Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus mareikeaede Santana, Vari, 2010b: 317, figs. 53, 54. Type locality: Brazil, Pará, Rio Trombetas, Cachoeira Porteira, last fall before Rio Trombetas, ca. 1°05’S, 57°02’W. Holotype: INPA 22896; 192 mm TL.

Distribution: Trombetas River at Porteira Falls, Brazil (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus marreroide Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus marreroide Santana, Vari, 2010b: 318, fig. 55. Type locality: Venezuela, Apure, Río Apure, in front of Isla Apurito, left bank (8°00’N, 67°31’W). Holotype: MBUCV-V 15806; 182 mm TL.

Distribution: Lower and middle Orinoco River, Venezuela (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus mendeside Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus mendeside Santana, Vari, 2010b: 320, fig. 56. Type locality: Venezuela, Monagas, Department of Marurín, Morichal Largo, Río Guanipa, 5 kilometers south of Aguasay (Aguasay is 9°25’N, 63°44’W), Golfo de Paria drainage. Holotype: MCNG 29129; 155 mm TL.

Distribution: San Juan and Guanipa River basins, Gulf of Paria drainage, Venezuela (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus mesensisCampos-da-Paz, 2000

Sternarchorhynchus mesensisCampos-da-Paz, 2000a: 531, fig. 10. Type locality: Brazil, Goiás, Rio Tocantins, Serra da Mesa, municípios Minaçu/Uruaçu, about 13°50’S, 48°19’W, Holotype: MNRJ 17591; 249 mm TL.

Distribution: Upper Tocantins River basin, Brazil (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus montanusde Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus montanusde Santana, Vari, 2010b: 324, fig. 59. Type locality: Peru, Amazonas, Río Marañon, pongo above Borja, 35.5 kilometers northeast of Juan Velasco, Santa Maria de Nieva (4°27’36”S, 77°34’53”W). Holotype: MUSM 31312; 226 mm TL.

Distribution: Marañon River, Peru (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus mormyrus (Steindachner, 1868)

Stern. [Sternarchus] mormyrusSteindachner, 1868a: 176. Type locality: [Marabitanos, Brazil]. Syntypes: NMW 65336, NMW 65345; both with regenerated tails. Described in more detail in Steindachner (1868b: 253, pl. 1, fig. 3) with locality as: Marabitanos.

Distribution: Upper Amazon River, Negro, and Orinoco River basins (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus oxyrhynchus (Müller, Troschel, 1848)

St. [Sternarchus] oxyrhynchusMüller, Troschel, 1848: 640. Type locality: Essequibo [Guyana]. Holotype or Syntype: ZMB 4086; 16-18 Zoll TL [470 mm TL; Ellis, in Eigenmann 1912: 438, footnote 71). Described, as new, in more detail in Müller, Troschel (1849: 16, pl. 2, figs. 1, 2).

Sternarchorhynchus Mulleri [sic] Castelnau, 1855: 95. Type locality: la riviere d’Essequebo [Guyana]. Unneeded replacement name for Sternarchus oxyrhynchus Müller, Troschel, 1848.

Remarks: See discussion in de Santana, Vari (2010b: 333) regarding the uncertainty about whether Müller, Troschel examined more than one specimen. At present, only a single specimen has been found at ZMB.

Distribution: Orinoco River basin; report of the species in Essequibo River probably erroneous (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus retzeride Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus retzeride Santana, Vari, 2010b: 334, figs. 64, 65. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Rio Téfe, Toco Preto, Tefé (3°47’19”S, 64°59’54”W). Holotype: MCP 42636; 372 mm TL (length stated in caption to fig. 64 apparently in error).

Distribution: Broadly distributed in Amazon basin, Brazil (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus roseniMago-Leccia, 1994

Sternarchorhynchus roseniMago-Leccia, 1994: 99, fig. 92. Type locality: Río Apure in front of Jarina, near San Fernando de Apure, Orinoco basin, Apure, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V 20037; 267 mm TL.

Distribution: Middle Orinoco River basin, Venezuela (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus schwassmannide Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus schwassmannide Santana, Vari, 2010b: 341, fig. 69. Type locality: Brazil, Pará, Rio Araguaia, small stream between Rio João do Araguaia (5°23’S, 48°46’W) and São Bento (5°28’S, 48°20’W). Holotype: MHNG 95633; 99 mm TL.

Distribution: Araguaia River, Brazil (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus severiide Santana, Nogueira, 2006

Sternarchorhynchus severiide Santana, Nogueira, 2006: 86, figs. 1a, 2a. Type locality: Brazil, Roraima, Rio Mucajaí, below Cachoeira Paredão 2. Holotype: INPA 22893; 161 mm TL.

Distribution: Mucajaí River, Brazil (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus starkside Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus starkside Santana, Vari, 2010b: 344, fig. 71. Type locality: Brazil, Pará, Rio Pará between Rio Boa Vista and Rio Tocantins, between towns of Boa Vista and Abaetetuba (1°45’30”S, 49°29’17”W). Holotype: INPA 28377; 231 mm TL.

Distribution: Lower Amazon River, Brazil (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus stewartide Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus stewartide Santana, Vari, 2010b: 346, fig. 72, Type locality: Peru, Amazonas, Río Marañon, log riffle, 1.57 kilometers east-north-east of Juan Velasco Santa Maria de Nieva (4°50’S, 77°51’W). Holotype: MUSM 30409; 182 mm TL.

Distribution: Rivers of eastern Ecuador and southeastern Peru (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus taphornide Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus taphornide Santana, Vari, 2010b: 349, fig. 74. Type locality: Peru, Departamento de San Martin, Río Huallaga, Uchiza (8°29’59”S, 76°22’59”W). Holotype: MUSM 6635; 310 mm TL.

Distribution: Ucayali River basin, Peru (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus villasboaside Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus villasboaside Santana, Vari, 2010b: 354, fig. 77. Type locality: Brazil, Pará, Rio Xingú, Cachoeira de Kaituká, at Altamira (3°12’S, 52°12’W). Holotype: INPA 28361; 135 mm TL.

Distribution: Kaituká Falls, Xingu River, Brazil (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

Sternarchorhynchus yepezide Santana, Vari, 2010

Sternarchorhynchus yepezide Santana, Vari, 2010b: 351, figs. 75, 76, Type locality: Venezuela, Portuguesa, Río Portuguesa, fort at Nueva Florida, Santa Rosalía (ca. 8°57’N, 69°01’W).Holotype: MCNG 44286, 280 mm TL.

Distribution: Middle Orinoco River basin, Venezuela (de Santana, Vari, 2010b).

TEMBEASSUTriques, 1998

(1 species)

TembeassuTriques, 1998: 5. Type species Tembeassu marauna Triques, 1998. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

Tembeassu maraunaTriques, 1998

Tembeassu maraunaTriques, 1998: 6, figs. 1, 2, 3. Type locality: Ilha Solteira, Rio Paraná, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, ca. 20°30’S, 51°00’W. Holotype: MZUSP 48510; 194 mm SL.

Remarks: Placed in Apteronotus in Albert (2003), without comment. Treated as valid in Tembeassu in Campos-da-Paz (2005).

Distribution: Paraná River basin, Brazil (Triques, 1998).

GYMNOTIDAE Rafinesque, 1815

(2 genera; 41 species)

Gymnotia by Rafinesque, 1815: 91. Type genus: Gymnotus L [Linnaeus, 1758].

Carapini Bonaparte, 1850: X [Type genus: apparently Carapus Cuvier]. Name invalid - based on a junior homonym.

Electrophoridae Gill, 1872: 18. Type genus: [Electrophorus Gill, 1864].

Remarks: Rafinesque (1810: 37) proposed the name Ginnotini for a group that included “Gymnotus acus Linnaeus [sic, Brunnich, 1768]” among several other species of eels. Ginnotini is not available as the basis for the family-group name for the Gymnotidae, even if the spelling discrepancy is overlooked, inasmuch as he did not treat Gymnotus as a valid name and, instead, treated G. acus as a species in the genus Carapus.

Checklist: Campos-da-Paz (2003); Campos-da-Paz (2007a), Brazil.

ELECTROPHORUSGill, 1864

(1 species)

ElectrophorusGill, 1864: 152. Type species: Gymnotus electricusLinnaeus, 1766. Type by monotypy. Gender: masculine.

Electrophorus electricus (Linnaeus, 1766)

Gymnoti tremuliGronovius, 1760: 27, pl. 3. Type locality: Americam meridionalem. Perhaps not available, but requires further examination.

Gymnotus tremulusHouttuyn, 1764: 111. Type locality: Not stated in the original description. Types: Based on Seba (1758: pl. 34, fig. 6), Gronovius (1760: 27, pl. 3), and Gronovius (1763: 41, pl. 8, fig. 1).

Gymnotus electricusLinnaeus, 1766: 427. Type locality: in Surinamo aliisque Americae meridionalis ostiis fluviorum [= Suriname]. Syntypes (several): Based on several literature sources, including Seba (1758: pl. 34, fig. 6), and Gronovius (1763: 41, pl. 8 fig. 1), from which the description was taken.

Gymnotus RegiusDelle Chiaje, 1847: 273, footnote. Type locality: America meridionale. No types known.

Electrophorus multivalvulusNakashima, 1941: 462, fig. on p. 465. Type locality: la cocha Zapote, del rio Pacaya, departamento de Loreto, Peru. Type (s): Whereabouts unknown. Specific name spelled multitalvulus in table on p. 463.

Remarks: Synonymy follows Campos-da-Paz (2003). The names Gymnoti tremuliGronovius, 1760, and Gymnotus tremulusHouttuyn, 1764, are probably available and both have priority over Gymnotus electricusLinnaeus, 1766. However, it is likely that G. electricus meets the criteria for reversal of precedence (ICZN, 1999, Art. 23.9), and as such the name is retained here as valid.

Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins, and Guianas (Campos-da-Paz, 2003).

GYMNOTUSLinnaeus, 1758

(40 species)

GymnotusLinnaeus, 1758: 246. Type species: Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus, 1758. Type by Linnean tautonomy. Gender: masculine.

CarapusCuvier, 1816: 237. Type species: Not yet found. The only possibilities are Gymnotus carapoLinnaeus, 1758, Gymnotus rostratus Linnaeus, 1766, Gymnotus brachiurusBloch, 1786 and Gymnotus fasciatusGmelin, 1789. Gender: masculine. Preoccupied by CarapusRafinesque, 1810, in fishes. Müller (1846: 194, footnote 2), may have selected the type species in the following statement: “Hierher Carapus fasciatus (Gymnotus brachiurus Bl.)”]

GitonDuméril, 1856: 201. Type species: Giton fasciata [= Gymnotus fasciatus Gmelin]. Type by monotypy. Gender: feminine. It appears that Duméril intended to list two species in his new genus, by the statements: “Giton arhea, fasciata”, as well as an earlier remark that states that he recognized six species in five genera, four of which were clearly monotypic. It is possible that his “Giton arhea” is a printing error for Carapus albus in Kaup (1856), which together with Carapus fasciatus are the only two species Kaup recognized in that genus. Duméril linked Carapus to “Carapus macrourus”, an unavailable name in Bloch, 1786, which appears to justify the proposal of the genus name Giton for C. albus and C. fasciatus. Since it is not certain that Giton arhea is Gymnotus albus, we treat Giton as having been proposed with a single available species and thus consider Gymnotus fasciatus type by monotypy.

Remarks: Inclusion of Carapus in the synonymy is tentative, inasmuch as the identity of the type species is still unresolved. “Gymnotus macrourus Bloch”, has been incorrectly reported to be the type species (e.g., Jordan, 1917: 101) of Carapus Cuvier, inasmuch as it is not an available name.

Phylogeny and biogeography: Albert et al. (2005); Lovejoy et al. (2010).

Key: Albert, Miller (1995).

Gymnotus anguillaris Hoedeman, 1962

Gymnotus anguillarisHoedeman, 1962a: 55, figs. 1b, 2. Type locality: Surinam, Coropina Creek, sta. 18, pool. Holotype: ZMA 100338; 228 mm TL.

Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins, and coastal basins of northern South America (Campos-da-Paz, 2003).

Gymnotus arapaimaAlbert, Crampton, 2001

Gymnotus arapaimaAlbert, Crampton, 2001: 250, fig. 6. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Paraná Apara, 10 km nw of confluence of Juruá and Solimões rivers, Mamirauá Reserve, 3°20’S, 64°51’W. Holotype: INPA 13505; 195 mm TL.

Distribution: Lake Tefé and vicinity, Amazon River near Manaus, and Trombetas River basin, Brazil (Albert, Crampton, 2001).

Gymnotus ardilaiMaldonado-Ocampo, Albert, 2004

Gymnotus ardilaiMaldonado-Ocampo, Albert, 2004: 5, figs. 1-4. Type locality: Colombia, Santander, Girón, Río de Oro. Holotype: IAvH-P 3477; 430 mm TL; holotype illustrated in doNascimiento et al. (2016: fig. 1).

Distribution: Oro River, Magdalena River basin, Colombia (Maldonado-Ocampo, Albert, 2004).

Gymnotus bahianusCampos-da-Paz, Costa, 1996

Gymnotus bahianusCampos-da-Paz, Costa, 1996: 938, figs. 1, 2. Type locality: fazenda Almada, Ilhéus, approximately 14°49’S, 39°02’W, Rio Almada basin, State of Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 12316; 177 mm TL.

Distribution: Almada River basin, Bahia state (Campos-da-Paz, Costa, 1996), Contas River basin, Bahia State, Brazil (Almeida et al., 2015).

Gymnotus capanemaMilhomem, Crampton, Pieczarka, Shetka, Silva, Nagamachi, 2012

Gymnotus capanemaMilhomem, Crampton, Pieczarka, Shetka, Silva, Nagamachi, 2012: 806, fig. 1. Type locality: Brazil, Pará State, municipality of Capanema, Açaiteuazinho River, tributary of Amazon Estuary, 01°07’54”S; 47°3’53”W. Holotype: MPEG 15170; 179 mm TL.

Distribution: Amazon River Estuary, Pará, Brazil (Milhomem et al., 2012).

Gymnotus capitimaculatusRangel-Pereira, 2014

Gymnotus capitimaculatusRangel-Pereira, 2014: 171, figs. 1-4. Type locality: Brazil, Bahia State: Itamaraju municipality, rio do Ouro, crossing road perpendicular to BR-101, about 7 km north of Itamaraju, 16°57’04”S, 39°33’21”W. Holotype: UFRJ 9785; 131 mm TL.

Distribution: Ouro River, Jucuruçu River basin, Bahia, Brazil (Rangel-Pereira, 2014).

Gymnotus carapoLinnaeus, 1758

Gymnotus carapoLinnaeus, 1758: 246. Type locality: America. Reported possible syntypes: NRM 8224, NRM 64, UUZM 56. Notes in NRM collection suggest that NRM 8224 may not be a type, based on collection information. NRM 64 is clearly not a species of Gymnotus, and was identified as a specimen of Rhabdolichops by Correa et al. (2006). UUZM 56 appears to be the specimen illustrated in Linnaeus (1749: pl. 14, fig. 6) (Wheeler, 1991), which is one of the cited sources for this name.

Gymnotus brachiurusBloch, 1786: pl. 157 (fig. 1). Type locality: Gewässern von Brasilien [p. 62]. Holotype: Illustrated specimen, whereabouts unknown. Name made available from caption on plate; in text (p. 61) with name as: Gymnotus brachiurus, maxilla inferior longiore [non binomial]; based on numerous literature sources. Illustrated specimen not reported in, and apparently not located by, Paepke (1999).

Gymnotus albusGmelin, 1789: 1137. Type locality: Surinami. Syntypes: On Gymnotum album Pallas (1769: 36) and Seba (1758: pl. 32, fig. 3).

Gymnotus fasciatusGmelin, 1789: 1137. Type locality: Brasiliae. Syntypes: On Gymnotum fasciatum Pallas (1769: 35), Seba (1758: pl. 32, figs. 1, 2), Carapo Brasiliensibus Marggraf, (1648: 170), and Bloch, (1786: 61, pl. 107, fig. 1),

Gymnotus putaolLa Cepède, 1800: 145, 176. Type locality: Brésil. Syntypes: on Gymnotus fasciatus Gmelin, “Gymnote putaol” Bonnaterre (1788), and accounts in Pallas (1769: 35), Seba (1758: pl. 32, figs. 1, 2), Marggraf (1648: 170) and Gymnotus brachiurusBloch (1786: pl. 107 [sic, 157], fig. 1).

Remarks: Synonymy must be considered tentative as most names are based on multiple literature sources, which may refer to different species, and lectotype designations have not been found for any of the names. Eschmeyer et al. (2016) states that, as formed in Pallas (1769: 36), the names Gymnotum fasciatum and G. album are not available, which makes the accounts in Gmelin as the source of the available names. [If G. fasciatus and G. albus were determined to be available from Pallas and both names deemed to refer to a species distinct from G. carapo and G. brachiurus, G. fasciatus would be the valid name, based on the first reviser action of Günther, 1870: 9)]. Redescribed in Albert, Crampton (2003b).

Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco drainages, coastal drainages of the Guianas and northeastern Brazil, and Trinidad (Albert, Crampton, 2003b).

Gymnotus cataniapoMago-Leccia, 1994

Gymnotus cataniapoMago-Leccia, 1994: 90, fig. 100. Type locality: Lagoon NE of airport of San Carlos de Rio Negro, 1°55’N, 67°02’W, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V 14736; 253 mm TL.

Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins, and Suriname (Mago-Leccia, 1994).

Gymnotus chaviro Maxime, Albert, 2009

Gymnotus chaviro Maxime, Albert, 2009: 580, figs. 1, 2. Type locality: Peru, Dept. Ucayali, Quebrada Dos y medio, a small terra firme stream about 2 kilometers NW of the town of Breu, on the Alto Yuruá River, 9°31.175’S, 72°45.755’W, 271 meters elevation. Holotype: MUSM 33715; 233 mm TL.

Distribution: Upper Juruá [Yuruá] River basin and Madre de Dios River basin, Peru (Maxime, Albert, 2009).

Gymnotus chimarraoCognato, Richer-de-Forges, Albert, Crampton, 2008

Gymnotus chimarraoCognato, Richer-de-Forges, Albert, Crampton, 2008: 377, figs. 2-5. Type locality: Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul state, Arroio do Meio, Arroio Grande, Taquari drainage, 29°21’09”S, 51°57’28”W, elevation 54 meters. Holotype: UFRGS 6774; 118 mm TL.

Distribution: Arroio Grande, Taquari River drainage, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Cognato et al., 2008).

Gymnotus choco Albert, Crampton, Maldonado-Ocampo, 2003

Gymnotus chocoAlbert, Crampton, Maldonado[-Ocampo], in Albert, Crampton, 2003b: 26, fig. 3. Type locality: Boca de Pepé, 5°03’N, 77°03’W, Río Baudó, Chocó Department, Colombia. Holotype: ICNMHN 6621; 237 mm TL.

Distribution: Baudó and Atrato river basins, Colombia (Albert, Crampton, 2003b).

Gymnotus coatesiLa Monte, 1935

Gymnotus coatesiLa Monte, 1935: 1, fig. 1. Type locality: Amazon River, Brazil. Holotype: AMNH 12624; 180 mm TL.

Rhamphichthys cingulatusBrind, 1935: 5, unnumbered fig. Type locality: one of the side streams which connect with the main stream of the Amazon River on its southern bank, about three hundred miles from Para at the mouth of the river. Syntypes (2): private collection of author, possibly not saved; about 8 inches TL. Brind mentions additional specimens at the New York Aquarium and a pet shop, but it is not clear whether he actually viewed them or was just relaying information of their presence from other sources.

Remarks: Redescribed in Crampton, Albert (2004). Synonymy follows Campos-da-Paz (2000b), with a note suggesting that the holotype of Gymnotus coatesi may have been one of the specimens observed by Brind. LaMonte’s paper was published on 18 February, 1935, while the footer in Brind’s paper indicates that it was part of the issue for February, 1935, but no more precise date of issue was found in the copy at AMNH (D. Shih, pers. commun.). Unless a more precise date is established for Brind’s paper that is prior to 18 February, it must be treated as having been published on the last day of February, thereby giving priority to Gymnotus coatesi.

Distribution: Lower Amazon River basin, Pará, Brazil (Campos-da-Paz, 2000b).

Gymnotus coropinae Hoedeman, 1962

Gymnotus coropinaeHoedeman, 1962a: 55, fig. 1c. Type locality: Surinam, Coropina Creek, sta. 17. Holotype: ZMA 100185; 49 mm TL.

Remarks: Redescribed in Crampton, Albert (2003).

Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins, and Guiana Shield (Crampton, Albert, 2003).

Gymnotus curupira Crampton, Thorsen, Albert, 2005

Gymnotus curupira Crampton, Thorsen, Albert, 2005: 84, fig. 4. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Rio Tefé, Lago Tefé, Terra firme swamp, 0.5 west of Estrada Agrovila, Igarapé Curupira, Tefé, 3°26’01”S, 64°43’47”W. Holotype: MZUSP 60607; 235 mm TL.

Distribution: Upper Amazon basin of Brazil and Peru (Crampton et al., 2005).

Gymnotus cylindricusLa Monte, 1935

Gymnotus cylindricusLa Monte, 1935: 2. Type locality: Brook east of Los Amates, Rio Motagua basin, Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 1358; 182 mm TL.

Remarks: Redescribed in Campos-da-Paz (1996).

Distribution: Atlantic slope drainages of Central America, from Costa Rica to Guatemala (Campos-da-Paz, 1996).

Gymnotus diamantinensisCampos-da-Paz, 2002

Gymnotus diamantinensisCampos-da-Paz, 2002: 187, fig. 1. Type locality: Creek (riacho 1) trib. of rio Preto, upper rio Arinos at rio Tapajós system, road to São Francisco, Diamantino municipality, ca. 14°20’S, 56°30’W, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 57505; 125 mm TL.

Distribution: Tapajós River basin (Campos-da-Paz, 2002).

Gymnotus esmeraldas Albert, Crampton, 2003

Gymnotus esmeraldasAlbert, Crampton, 2003b: 30, fig. 5. Type locality: Hoja Blanca near San Miguel, Ríos Cayapas, Río Esmeraldas drainage, Ecuador, 1°05’N, 79°03’W. Holotype: MCZ 58729; 296 mm TL.

Distribution: Esmeraldas and Palenqué river basins, western Ecuador (Albert, Crampton, 2003).

Gymnotus henni Albert, Crampton, Maldonado-Ocampo 2003

Gymnotus henniAlbert, Crampton, Maldonado[-Ocampo], in Albert, Crampton, 2003b: 32, fig. 6. Type locality: Creek near mouth of Río Calima, Río San Juan drainage, north of Buenaventura, Valle de Cauca Department, Colombia, 3°53’N, 77°04’W. Holotype: CAS 47290; 308 mm TL.

Distribution: Pacific drainages of Colombia (Albert, Crampton, 2003) and Panama (Alda et al., 2013).

Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (Valenciennes, 1839)

Carapus inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, in Valenciennes, 1835-42: Poissons pl. 14 (later described in Valenciennes, 1847: 11, as Carapeus inaequilabiatus). Type locality: Argentina, Rio de la Plata, near Buenos Aires. Neotype: MNHN 0000-4615; 920 mm TL, designated by Maxime, Albert (2014: 463, fig. 1).

Remarks: Redescribed in Maxime, Albert (2014); specimen previously reported (Bertin, 1948) as holotype (MNHN 0000-4615) is apparently not the illustrated specimen (reported as 0.60 m TL, Valenciennes, 1847: 11).

Distribution: Widely distributed in the La Plata basin including the upper Paraná and the Uruguay rivers, also in Cuiabá basin (Maxime, Albert, 2014).

Gymnotus interruptusRangel-Pereira, 2012

Gymnotus interruptusRangel-Pereira, 2012: 365, fig. 10. Type locality: Brazil, Bahia, Riacho Cambiriba, Rio Gongogi drainage, Rio de Contas basin, Guaíra balneary, Iguaí, 14°36’16.7”S, 40°06’08.7”W, elevation 347 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 8218; 91 mm TL.

Distribution: Gongogi River drainage, de Contas basin, Bahia, Brazil (Rangel-Pereira, 2012).

Gymnotus javari Albert, Crampton, Hagedorn, 2003

Gymnotus javari Albert, Crampton, Hagedorn, in Albert, Crampton, 2003: 39, fig. 9. Type locality: Quebrada Caraná near Buen Sucesso, Río Yavari (Rio Javarí), Loreto Department, Peru, 4°22’S, 70°31’W. Holotype: UMMZ 224599; 197 mm TL.

Distribution: Western Amazon basin, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru (Albert, Crampton, 2003).

Gymnotus jonasiAlbert, Crampton, 2001

Gymnotus jonasiAlbert, Crampton, 2001: 253, fig. 8. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Cano do Lago Rato, Reserve, 3°02’48”S, 65°51’22”W. Holotype: INPA 13507; 114 mm TL.

Distribution: Mamirauá Lake system, Amazon River basin (Albert, Crampton, 2001).

Gymnotus maculosusAlbert, Miller, 1995

Gymnotus maculosusAlbert, Miller, 1995: 666, fig. 1. Type locality: Diversion of channel from María Linda, 14°04’N, 90°37’W, ca. 20 km East of Escuintla, Departamento Santa Rosa, Guatemala. Holotype: UMMZ 230830; 191 mm TL.

Distribution: Atlantic and Pacific slope drainages of Central America, between Mexico and Costa Rica (Albert, Miller, 1995).

Gymnotus mamirauaAlbert, Crampton, 2001

Gymnotus mamirauaAlbert, Crampton, 2001: 245, fig. 4. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Cano do Lago Rato, Mamirauá Reserve, 3°02’36”S, 64°51’02”W. Holotype: INPA 13503; 178 mm TL.

Distribution: Mamirauá and Janauacá Lake systems, Upper Amazon River basin, Brazil (Albert, Crampton, 2001).

Gymnotus melanopleuraAlbert, Crampton, 2001

Gymnotus melanopleuraAlbert, Crampton, 2001: 258, fig. 14. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Cano do Lago Rato, Mamirauá Reserve, 3°02’36”S, 64°51’02”W. Holotype: INPA 9966; 99 mm TL.

Distribution: Mamirauá Lake system, Amazon River basin, Brazil (Albert, Crampton, 2001).

Gymnotus obscurus Crampton, Thorsen, Albert, 2005

Gymnotus obscurus Crampton, Thorsen, Albert, 2005: 91, fig. 7. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Mamirauá Reserve, Cano do Lago Mamirauá at Comunidade Boca do Mamirauá, 3°06’37”S, 64°47’49”W. Holotype: MZUSP 60604; 215 mm TL.

Distribution: Mouth of Japurá River near Tefé, Amazonas, Brazil (Crampton et al., 2005).

Gymnotus omarorum Richer-de-Forges, Crampton, Albert, 2009

Gymnotus omarorum Richer-de-Forges, Crampton, Albert, 2009: 539, fig. 1. Type locality: Uruguay, Maldonado Department, Río Cisne basin, Laguna del Sauce, 34°50.328’S, 55°06.869’W. Holotype: ZVC-P 6480; 254 mm TL.

Distribution: Uruguay River and coastal drainages of Uruguay (Richer-de-Forges et al., 2009).

Gymnotus oncaAlbert, Crampton, 2001

Gymnotus oncaAlbert, Crampton, 2001: 256, fig. 12. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Cano do Lago Rato, Mamirauá Reserve, 3°02’36”S, 64°51’02”W. Holotype: INPA 11512; 116 mm TL.

Distribution: Mamirauá Lake system, Amazon River basin (Albert, Crampton, 2001).

Gymnotus panamensis Albert, Crampton, 2003

Gymnotus panamensisAlbert, Crampton, 2003b: 43, fig. 11. Type locality: Small creek into the Río Cricamola, near Konkitu, Bocas del Toro Province, Panama, 8°59’N, 81°55’W. Holotype: CAS 72209; 236 mm TL.

Distribution: Cricamola River, Atlantic slope of Panama (Albert, Crampton, 2003b).

Gymnotus pantanal Fernandes, Albert, Daniel-Silva, Lopes, Crampton, Almeida-Toledo, 2005

Gymnotus pantanal Fernandes, Albert, Daniel-Silva, Lopes, Crampton, Almeida-Toledo, 2005: 4, fig. 1. Type locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Rio Miranda near Miranda, 20°11’78”S, 56°30’13”W. Holotype: MZUSP 67874; 196 mm TL.

Remarks: This species was first reported as Gymnotus pantanensis in Albert et al. (2005: fig. 1, tabs 1, 2, 4) with a holotype and elements of a diagnosis. Lacking is an explicit indication that the species is new, as required in ICZN (1999) Art. 16, which thereby renders the name as nomen nudum.

Distribution: Paraná-Paraguay River system, Brazil and Paraguay; Chapare-Mamoré River, Bolivia (Fernandes et al., 2005).

Gymnotus pantherinus (Steindachner, 1908)

Giton fasciatus var. pantherinusSteindachner, 1908: 129. Type locality: Gewässern von Santos, Staat Sao Paulo [Brazil]. Syntypes: NMW 11275, NMW 76443-76444; to 25 cm TL; NMW 76443 illustrated in Giora, Malabarba (2016: fig. 5).

Distribution: Coastal drainages in southeastern Brazil (Campos-da-Paz, 2003).

Gymnotus paraguensis Albert, Crampton, 2003

Gymnotus paraguensisAlbert, Crampton, 2003b: 34. Type locality: Itapua, Arroyo Tembey, 7.4 kilometers SW of San Rafael, Río Paraná drainage, Paraguay, 26°35’S, 55°34’W. Holotype: UMMZ 206155; 222 mm TL.

Distribution: Paraguay River basin, Brazil and Paraguay (Albert, Crampton, 2003b).

Gymnotus pedanopterusMago-Leccia, 1994

Gymnotus pedanopterusMago-Leccia, 1994: 92, fig. 98. Type locality: Caño Tremblador, where crossed by road from San Carlos de Rio Negro to Solano, upstream portion 01°58’N, 67°00’W, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V 14738; 215 mm TL.

Distribution: Upper Orinoco and Negro rivers, southern Venezuela (Mago-Leccia, 1994).

Gymnotus refugioGiora, Malabarba, 2016

Gymnotus refugioGiora, Malabarba, 2016: 583, fig. 1. Type locality: Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul State, Amaral Ferrador, creek in the former Ferraria farm, laguna dos Patos drainage (30°50’54”S 52°23’19”W). Holotype. UFRGS 8752; 172 mm TL.

Distribution: coastal rivers of laguna dos Patos, Tramandaí, Maquiné, and Mampituba river drainages, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states, Brazil (Giora, Malabarba, 2016).

Gymnotus stenoleucusMago-Leccia, 1994

Gymnotus stenoleucusMago-Leccia, 1994: 94, figs. 99, 101. Type locality: caño Caripo, tributary of Río Casiquiare, near the bifurcation with Rio Orinoco, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V 6218; 141 mm TL.

Distribution: Upper Orinoco and Negro rivers, southern Venezuela (Mago-Leccia, 1994).

Gymnotus sylviusAlbert, Fernandes-Matioli, 1999

Gymnotus sylviusAlbert, Fernandes-Matioli in Albert et al., 1999: 41, fig. 1. Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo State, Rio Ribeira de Iguape, near Miracatu, 24°32’50”S, 47°26’13”W. Holotype: LGP 0925.1 (D48/P1990); 259 mm TL.

Distribution: Ribeira de Iguape and Paraíba do Sul, Atlantic Coast drainages, and Pardo River, Paraná River drainage, Brazil (Albert et al., 1999).

Gymnotus tigre Albert, Crampton, 2003

Gymnotus tigreAlbert, Crampton, 2003b: 36, fig. 8. Type locality: Along north shore of Río Amazonas near Leticia, Colombia, 4°09’S, 69°57’W. Holotype: UF 25552; 411 mm TL.

Distribution: Amazon River basin between Pastaza River, Ecuador and Tapajós River, Brazil (Albert, Crampton, 2003b).

Gymnotus tiquieMaxime, Lima, Albert, 2011

Gymnotus tiquieMaxime, Lima, Albert, 2011: 78, figs. 1, 2. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Rio Tiquié, Comunidade de São José, Igarapé Espuma, 00°13’00”N, 69°36’00”W. Holotype: MZUSP 104507; 177 mm TL.

Distribution: Tiquié River, upper Negro basin, Brazil (Maxime et al., 2011).

Gymnotus ucamaraCrampton, Lovejoy, Albert, 2003

Gymnotus ucamaraCrampton, Lovejoy, Albert, 2003: 5, fig. 3. Type locality: Peru, Loreto, Rio Ucayali, Rio Pacaya, Cocha Zapote, in Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve, 5°20.03’S, 74°29.08’W. Holotype: UF 126182; 156 mm TL.

Distribution: Ucayali River basin, Peru (Crampton et al., 2003).

Gymnotus varzea Crampton, Thorsen, Albert, 2005

Gymnotus varzea Crampton, Thorsen, Albert, 2005: 94, fig. 8. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, munic. Alvarães, Mamirauá Reserve, Ressaca da Vila Alencar, 3°07’42”S, 64°48’02”W. Holotype: MZUSP 60601; 173 mm TL.

Distribution: Mouth of Japurá River near Tefé, Amazonas, Brazil (Crampton et al., 2005).

HYPOPOMIDAE Mago-Leccia, 1978

(6 genera; 34 species)

HypopomidaeMago-Leccia, 1978: 14. Type genus: HypopomusGill, 1864.

Brachyhypopominae Albert, 2001: 68. Type genus: BrachyhypopomusMago-Leccia, 1994.

Microsternarchini Albert, 2001: 69. Type genus: MicrosternarchusFernández-Yépez, 1968.

Checklist: Albert, Crampton (2003a); Campos-da-Paz (2007c), Brazil

Remarks: The genera Hypopygus and Steatogenys, their synonyms, and the available species-group names that are associated with those genera are moved to the Rhamphichthyidae, following Tagliacollo et al. (2016).

(1 species)

AkawaioMaldonado-Ocampo, López-Fernández, Taphorn, Bernard, Crampton, Lovejoy, 2014: 27. Type species Akawaio penakMaldonado-Ocampo, López-Fernández, Taphorn, Bernard, Crampton, Lovejoy, 2014, Type by monotypy. Gender: masculine.

Remarks: Name first appeared on-line in 2013, but name not made available until January, 2014.

Akawaio penakMaldonado-Ocampo, López-Fernández, Taphorn, Bernard, Crampton, Lovejoy, 2014

Akawaio penakMaldonado-Ocampo, López-Fernández, Taphorn, Bernard, Crampton, Lovejoy 2014: 27, fig. 4. Type locality: Guyana, Zone 7, Kamarang, Mazaruni River, 5°56’10.1”N, 60°36’53.8”W. Holotype: CSBD 1654; 208 mm TL.

Remarks: Name first appeared on-line in 2013, but name not made available until January, 2014.

Distribution: Main channel of upper Mazaruni River and its tributaries, Guyana (Maldonado-Ocampo et al., 2014).

BRACHYHYPOPOMUSMago-Leccia, 1994

(28 species)

BrachyhypopomusMago-Leccia, 1994: 47. Type species: Rhamphichthys brevirostris Steindachner, 1868. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

OdontohypopomusSullivan, Zuanon, Cox Fernandes, 2013: 6. Type species: Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus) walteriSullivan, Zuanon, Cox Fernandes, 2013. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine. Proposed as a subgenus of Brachyhypopomus.

Remarks: See Remarks in account of Hypopomus for explanation of gender of these two names.

Revision and key: Crampton et al. (2016b).

Phylogeny: Crampton et al. (2016a).

Brachyhypopomus albertiCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016

Brachyhypopomus albertiCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016b: 653, fig. 4. Type locality: Bolivia, Beni, mun. Riberalta - stream nr. village San José, nr. Riberalta, aff. río Beni, aff. rio Madeira, rio Amazonas drainage, 10°55’32”S, 66°00’36”W. Holotype: CBF 10284; 97 mm TL.

Distribution: Upper Madeira River and Guaporé River, Brazil, and lower Beni River, Bolivia (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus arrayaeCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016

Brachyhypopomus arrayaeCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016b: 664, fig. 6. Type locality: Bolivia, Beni, Mun. Riberalta - small stream nr. village Puerto Hamburgo, aff. río Beni, aff. rio Madeira, rio Amazonas drainage, 11°01’52”S, 66°05’39”W. Holotype: UMSS 7048; 77 mm TL.

Distribution: Upper Madeira River basin, especially Beni River, Bolivia, and Madre de Dios River, Peru (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus batesiCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016

Brachyhypopomus batesiCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016b: 667, fig. 8. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Mun. Tefé, igarapé Xidarini, aff. lago Tefé (mouthbay of rio Tefé), rio Amazonas drainage, 3°23’52”S, 64°41’17”W. Holotype: MCP 47020; 104 mm TL.

Distribution: Middle reaches of Amazon, Brazil, and upper Negro River, Colombia (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus beebei (Schultz, 1944)

Hypopomus beebeiSchultz, 1944: 40, fig. 1, pl. 1 (fig. 4). Type locality: Caripito, Venezuela [USNM ledger reports specimen collected at Río Caripe (Ferraris, Vari, 1992: 5)]. Holotype: USNM 120753; 136 mm TL (tail missing, Ferraris, Vari, 1992: 5); holotype illustrated in Crampton et al. (2016b: fig. 9b).

Distribution: Widespread through cis-Andean northern South America (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus belindaeCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016

Brachyhypopomus belindaeCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016b: 677, fig. 11. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Mun. Alvarães, Mamirauá Reserve, lago Araçazinho, rio Solimões - Japurá floodplain, rio Amazonas dr., 2º59’35”S, 64º51’33”W. Holotype: MCP 45360; 110 mm TL.

Distribution: Amazon basin near Tefé and Manaus, Brazil (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus benjamini Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016

Brachyhypopomus benjaminiCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016b: 679, fig. 12. Type locality: Peru, Loreto, Mun. Requena, nr. Jenaro Herrera, quebrada Caño Fierro, aff. río Ucayali, rio Amazonas dr., 4°51’59”S, 73°38’48”W. Holotype: MUSM 39915; 126 mm TL.

Distribution: lower Ucayali River and tributaries of Nanay River, near Iquitos, Peru (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus bennettiSullivan, Zuanon, Cox Fernandes, 2013

Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus) bennettiSullivan, Zuanon, Cox Fernandes, 2013: 14, figs. 6, 7, 8. Type locality: Amazonas, Brazil, floating meadow along side of lake in the Paraná do Paracuúba, near mouth of Rio Negro and entrance to Lago Janauari, approx. 15 km due south of Manaus, 03°12.6’S, 059°59.40’W. Holotype: INPA 39560; 215 mm TL.

Distribution: Widely distributed in Amazon River Basin, in whitewater floodplains (Sullivan et al., 2013; Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus bombillaLoureiro, Silva, 2006

Brachyhypopomus bombillaLoureiro, Silva, 2006: 666, fig. 1. Type locality: Uruguay, Rocha, Departamento Cuarto Palmas stream, Los Patos-Merín system, Ruta 15 kilometer 268, 33°23’43”S, 53°51’53”W. Holotype: ZVC-P 6287; 154 mm TL.

Distribution: Middle Uruguay River basin and Los Patos-Merin basin, Uruguay (Loureiro, Silva, 2006); Paraná River basin, Argentina (Almirón et al., 2010), and Upper Madeira basin (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus brevirostris (Steindachner, 1868)

Rhamphichthys brevirostrisSteindachner, 1868a: 177. Type locality: [Rio Guaporé, Brazil]. Lectotype: NMW 65040; 165 mm TL. Lectotype designated in Schindler (1937: 23); illustrated in Crampton et al. (2016b: fig. 17b). Described in more detail in Steindachner (1868b: 254, pl. 2, fig. 2), with type locality as: Guaporé.

Distribution: Widespread through cis-Andean South America from Orinoco to La Plata River (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus bullockiSullivan, Hopkins, 2009

Brachyhypopomus bullockiSullivan, Hopkins, 2009: 186, fig. 1. Type locality: Colombia, Meta State, “Flor Amarillo” (río Metica-Meta drainage), Rancho Llano Grande, north of Mozambique Ranch, 4.033°N, 73.050°W. Holotype: ANSP 187477; 221 mm TL.

Distribution: Orinoco and Negro-Branco basins (Sullivan, Hopkins, 2009) and Essequibo River (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus cuniaCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016

Brachyhypopomus cuniaCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016b: 706, fig. 20. Type locality: Brazil, Rondônia, Reserva Extrativista do lago do Cuniã, igarapé do Campo, affl. lago Cuniã, rio Madeira floodplain, rio Amazonas dr., 8°19’14”S, 63°28’05”W. Holotype: INPA 37690; 142 mm TL.

Distribution: Madeira River basin, above Machado River, including Guaporé River, Brazil (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus diazae (Fernández-Yépez, 1972)

Hypopomus diaziFernández-Yépez, 1972: 20, pl. 21. Type locality: Estación 138 de el Análise Ictiológico del Complejo Hidrográfico (04), “Río Yaracuy” [Río Alpargatón, Río Yaracuy drainage, Estado Carabobo, Venezuela]. Holotype: whereabouts unknown; 140 mm TL.

Remarks: Name corrected to diazae, as it was named for “señorita María sabel (BETTY) Díaz.”

Distribution: Northern Venezuela, from Tocuyo River to Patanemo River, and northern Llanos of Orinoco basin (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus dracoGiora, Malabarba, Crampton, 2008

Brachyhypopomus dracoGiora, Malabarba, Crampton, 2008: 161, figs. 1, 2. Type locality: Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, Parque Estadual de Itapuã Verde, lagoa Verde (30°22’52.4”S, 51°01’25”W). Holotype: MCP 41540; 137 mm LEA.

Distribution: Widely distributed in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, Uruguay River, Tramandaí River, and Laguna dos Patos (Giora et al., 2008); La Plata basin, Argentina (Almirón et al., 2010; Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus flavipomusCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016

Brachyhypopomus flavipomusCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016b: 717, fig. 24. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Mun. Alvarães, Jarauá Lake System, Ressaca do Caetono, rio Solimões - rio Japurá floodplain, rio Amazonas drainage, 2º50’15”S, 64º55’50”W. Holotype: MCP 45366; 92 mm TL.

Distribution: Main stem of upper and middle Amazon River between Ucayali River and Japurá River, in floodplain habitats (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus gauderioGiora, Malabarba, 2009

Brachyhypopomus gauderioGiora, Malabarba, 2009: 62, figs. 1, 2, 3. Type locality: [Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul] Palmares do Sul, Channel connecting Lagoa do Casamento and Lagoa dos Gateados (30°28’S, 50°40’W). Holotype: MCP 43280; 149 mm LEA.

Distribution: Laguna dos Patos and Tramandaí River drainage, Brazil; Rio Uruguay; Paraguay River (Giora, Malabarba, 2009); Paraná River basin, Argentina (Almirón et al., 2010; Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus hamiltoniCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016

Brachyhypopomus hamiltoniCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016b: 728, fig. 28. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Mun. Alvarães, Mamirauá Reserve, Ressaca da Vila Alencar, rio Solimões - rio Japurá floodplain, rio Amazonas dr., 3º07’41”S, 64°48’04”W. Holotype: MCP 45482; 97 mm TL.

Distribution: Upper, middle, and lower Amazon, and middle Negro River (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus hendersoniCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016

Brachyhypopomus hendersoniCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016b: 731, fig. 30b. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Mun. Maraã, lago Amanã, Igarape Juá Grande, rio Japurá, Amazonas dr., 2°28’50”S, 64°48’50”W. Holotype: MCP 45305; 146 mm TL.

Distribution: Central Amazon near Tefé, from blackwater lakes, and lower rio Negro, Brazil, and from Essequibo drainage, Guyana (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus janeiroensis (Costa, Campos-da-Paz, 1992)

Hypopomus janeiroensis Costa, Campos-da-Paz, 1992: 118, figs. 2, 3. Type locality: Brésil, Rio de Janeiro, Corrego Salto-d’agua, affluent du Rio Sao Joao [sic, São João], 6 km N. de Silva Jardim, 22°39”S, 42°23”W [sic, probably 22°39’S, 42°23’W]. Holotype: MZUSP 43130; 92 mm TL.

Distribution: São João and Paraíba do Sul River basins, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus jureiaeTriques, Khamis, 2003

Brachyhypopomus jureiaeTriques, Khamis, 2003: 62, fig. 1. Type locality: Rio do Descalvado, tributary of Rio Una do Prelado, Juréia Ecological Station, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: DZUFMG 010; 195 mm LEA.

Distribution: Una do Prelado and Ribeira de Iguape drainages, coastal basin, São Paulo state, Brazil (Triques, Khamis, 2003).

Brachyhypopomus menezesiCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016

Brachyhypopomus menezesiCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016b: 740, fig. 34. Type locality: Brazil, Bahia, 1 km from community São Marcelo, rio Sapão, aff. rio Preto, rio São Francisco drainage, 11°01’02”S, 45°31’50”W. Holotype: MZUSP 87147; 100 mm TL.

Distribution: Middle and upper São Francisco River basin, Brazil (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus occidentalis (Regan, 1914)

Hypopomus occidentalisRegan, 1914: 32. Type locality: Río Condoto [San Juan basin] Colombia. Syntypes: BMNH 1914.5.18.94-98, BMNH 2012.6.13.1; 41-147 mm TL. Syntype (147 mm TL) illustrated in Crampton et al. (2016b: fig. 35b).

Distribution: Magdalena, Atrato, and Catatumbo Rivers, Colombia, Maracaibo Basin, Pacific slope rivers of Colombia and Panama and Sixaola River, Costa Rica (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus palenqueCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016

Brachyhypopomus palenqueCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016b: 749, fig. 37. Type locality: Ecuador, Los Ríos, Mun. Buena Fé, Parroquia Patricia Pilar, Centro Científico río Palenque, 45 km S. Santo Domingo, small rain forest stream, aff. río Palenque, río Guayas dr., 00°35’01”S, 79°22’13”W. Holotype: UF 180270; 149 mm TL.

Distribution: Esmeraldas, Guayas and Siete rivers, Pacific drainages, Ecuador (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus (Hopkins, Comfort, Bastian, Bass, 1990)

Hypopomus pinnicaudatusHopkins, Comfort, Bastian, Bass, 1990: 350, fig. 1. Type locality: Coastal swamp of French Guiana called “Grand Pripris,” 3.5 km northwest of center of old Kourou, 52°40’00”W and 5°10’45”N, approx. 0.1 km N of old Route Nationale # 1. Lectotype: ANSP 163463, 125 mm TL. Lectotype designated by Crampton et al. (2016b: 757).

Remarks: Traditional taxonomically formatted description in Hopkins (1991), but necessary elements of a new species description all appeared first in Hopkins et al. (1990), thereby making the name available from that publication. Lectotype is specimen intended by Hopkins (1991) to be holotype.

Distribution: Eastern South America from Catatumbo River basin, Orinoco and Guianas to La Plata River basin; Amazon River basin in Peru (Hopkins, 1991; Albert, Crampton, 2003a).

Brachyhypopomus provenzanoiCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016

Brachyhypopomus provenzanoiCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016b: 760, fig. 40. Type locality: Venezuela, Amazonas, Mun. San Fernando de Atabapo, caño “CVG” (Corporacion Venezuelana Guyana), 10.5 km, on San Fernando - Santa Barbara rd., affl. río Orinoco, río Orinoco dr., 3º58’59”N, 67º38’29”W. Holotype: MBUCV-V 35650; 87 mm TL.

Distribution: Upper Orinoco and upper Negro rivers, Venezuela (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus reganiCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016

Brachyhypopomus reganiCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016b: 762, fig. 41. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Mamirauá Reserve, cano do lago Rato, rio Solimões - Japurá floodplain, rio Amazonas dr., 3º02’41”S, 64º51’26”W. Holotype: MCP 47022; 128 mm TL.

Distribution: Widely distributed in Amazon basin, and in Orinoco, Essequibo and other coastal drainages of Guyana (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus sullivaniCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016

Brachyhypopomus sullivaniCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016b: 767, fig. 43. Type locality: Peru, Loreto, Mun. Requena, stream nr. Jenaro Herrera, affl. río Ucayali, Amazonas drainage, 4°54’39”S, 73°39’29”W. Holotype: MUSM 39624; 108 mm TL.

Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Amazon basin, and Orinoco and Essequibo rivers and coastal basins of Pará, Brazil (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus verdiiCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016

Brachyhypopomus verdiiCrampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, 2016b: 772, fig. 45. Type locality: Peru, Loreto, Mun. Maynas, Jenaro Herrera, stream, nr. Jenaro Herrera - Colonia Angamos rd., affl. río Ucayali, Amazonas dr., 4º53’54”S, 73º38’22”W. Holotype: MUSM 35307; 79 mm TL.

Distribution: Tributaries of Marañon and Ucayali rivers, upper Amazon basin, Peru (Crampton et al., 2016b).

Brachyhypopomus walteriSullivan, Zuanon, Cox Fernandes, 2013

Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus) walteriSullivan, Zuanon, Cox Fernandes, 2013: 8, figs. 3, 4. Type locality: Amazonas, Brazil, floating meadow alongside of lake in the Paraná do Paracuúba, near mouth of Rio Negro and entrance to Lago Janauari, approx. 15 km due south of Manaus, 03°12.6’S, 059°59.4’W. Holotype: INPA 8941; 163 mm TL.

Distribution: Widely distributed in Amazon River Basin (Sullivan et al., 2013); also in Essequibo basin and Paraguay-Paraná drainage (Crampton et al., 2016b).

HYPOPOMUSGill, 1864

(1 species)

HypopomusGill, 1864: 152. Type species: Rhamphichthys mulleriKaup, 1856. Type by monotypy. Gender: masculine.

BrachyrhamphichthysGünther, 1870: 6. Type species: Rhamphichthys artediKaup, 1856. Type by subsequent designation by Eigenmann, Ward (1905: 169). Gender: masculine. Proposed as a subgenus of Rhamphichthys.

ParupygusHoedeman, 1962a: 58. Type species: Parupygus savannensis Hoedeman, 1962. Type by monotypy. Gender: masculine.

Remarks: The gender of Hypopomus was not stated in Gill (1864); and has been treated as feminine in Mago-Leccia (1994), Eschmeyer (1998), and Eschmeyer et al. (2016). However, the name appears to be derived from the transliterated Greek word poma (operculum), that was assigned a latinized suffix (pomus), thereby falling under the provisions of Art. 30.1.3 of ICZN (1999), which requires that the genus be treated as masculine.

Hypopomus artedi (Kaup, 1856)

Rhamphichthys ArtediKaup, 1856: 128, fig. 3. Type locality: The Mona, a river in French Guiana, and locality of specimen illustrated in Seba (1758: pl. 32 fig. 2). Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3157; 11 in. TL, and Seba specimen; 17 in. TL.

Rhamphichthys MulleriKaup, 1856: 129, fig. 4. Type locality: Cayenne [French Guiana]. Syntypes: (2, larger one 20.6 in. TL) MNHN 0000-3983.

Parupygus savannensisHoedeman, 1962a: 58, fig. 5. Type locality: Surinam, Sipaliwini, Paru savannah, sta. 44a. Holotype: ZMA 102375; 220 mm TL.

Parupygus litaniensisHoedeman, 1962b: 98, fig. 2, 3b. Type locality: French Guiana, Litany, village Aloiké, sta. 29. Holotype: ZMA 100428; 195 mm SL.

Remarks: Synonymy follows Albert, Crampton (2003a). Eigenmann, Ward (1905: 170) serves as first reviser in treating R. mulleri as junior synonym of R. artedi¸ while also providing a key to distinguish between the two “nominal” species. This suggests the current synonymy may need to be reexamined.

Distribution: Widely distributed in Guianas (Albert, Crampton, 2003a).

MICROSTERNARCHUSFernández-Yépez, 1968

(2 species)

MicrosternarchusFernández-Yépez, 1968: [4]. Type species: Microsternarchus bilineatus Fernández-Yépez, 1968. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

Microsternarchus bilineatusFernández-Yépez, 1968

Microsternarchus bilineatusFernández-Yépez, 1968: [4], unnumbered pl. 2. Type locality: Río San José, afluente del Río Guariquito al SW de Calabozo [Venezuela]. Holotype: MACLPI 65562-B; 83 mm TL. Whereabouts of holotype unknown (Cox Fernandes et al., 2015).

Distribution: Upper Orinoco and Negro River basins (Fernández-Yépez, 1968).

Microsternarchus brevisCox Fernandes, Nogueira, Williston, Alves-Gomes, 2015

Microsternarchus brevisCox Fernandes, Nogueira, Williston, Alves-Gomes, 2015: 215, fig. 1. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas State, Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, Rio Negro, Igarapé Jaradi, 00°19′05”S, 65°18′31”W. Holotype: INPA 48028; 53 mm TL.

Distribution: Negro River, below São Gabriel da Cachoeira and above the mouth of the Branco River, Brazil (Cox Fernandes et al., 2015).

(1 species)

ProcerusternarchusCox Fernandes, Nogueira, Alves-Gomes, 2014: 95. Type species Procerusternarchus pixuna Cox Fernandes, Nogueira, Alves-Gomes, 2014. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

Procerusternarchus pixunaCox Fernandes, Nogueira, Alves-Gomes, 2014

Procerusternarchus pixunaCox Fernandes, Nogueira, Alves-Gomes, 2014: 103, fig. 2. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Rio Negro, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Igarapé Ducubixi, 0°00’39.2”S, 67°15’34.7”W. Holotype: INPA 33743; 127 mm TL.

Distribution: Negro River basin, Brazil (Cox Fernandes et al., 2014).

(1 species)

RacenisiaMago-Leccia, 1994: 51. Type species: Racenisia fimbriipinna Mago-Leccia, 1994. Type by original designation. Gender: feminine.

Remarks: Treated as a junior synonym of Microsternarchus in Albert, Campos-da-Paz (1998), but as valid in Albert (2001) and Albert, Crampton (2003a).

Racenisia fimbriipinnaMago-Leccia, 1994

Racenisia fimbriipinnaMago-Leccia, 1994: 88, figs. 97a, 97b. Type locality: El Pozo de Lucas, San Fernando de Atabapo, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V 7540; 117 mm TL.

Distribution: Upper Negro and Orinoco rivers, Venezuela (Mago-Leccia, 1994).

RHAMPHICHTHYIDAE Regan, 1911

(5 genera; 27 species)

Rhamphichthyidae Regan 1911: 23, 25. Type genus: RhamphichthysMüller, Troschel, 1848.

Steatogini [sic, = Steatogenyini] Albert, 2001: 69. Type genus: SteatogenysBoulenger, 1898.

Checklist: Ferraris (2003); Campos-da-Paz (2007b), Brazil.

Remarks: The genera Hypopygus and Steatogenys, their synonyms, and the available species-group names that are associated with those genera are moved here from the Hypopomidae, following Tagliacollo et al. (2016).

GYMNORHAMPHICHTHYSEllis, 1912

(5 species)

Gymnorhamphichthys Ellis, in Eigenmann, 1912: 423, 436. Type species: Gymnorhamphichthys hypostomus Ellis, 1912. Type by monotypy. Gender: masculine. Also appeared as new in Ellis (1913: 139).

UrumarãMiranda Ribeiro, 1920: 6. Type species: U[rumarã] rondoni Miranda Ribeiro, 1920. Type by monotypy. Gender: feminine (?).

Review: Nijssen et al. (1976).

Gymnorhamphichthys bogardusaeLundberg, 2005

Gymnorhamphichthys bogardusiLundberg, 2005: 2, figs. 1, 2b. Type locality: Venezuela, Delta Amacuro State, Río Orinoco, 114 n mi from sea buoy in Boca Grande navigation channel, 8°36’N, 61°45’W. Holotype: MBUCV-V 32800; 178 mm TL.

Distribution: Mainstream of Orinoco River and its tributaries draining the llanos, Venezuela (Lundberg, 2005).

Remarks: Gender of the species name changed to reflect the stated etymology in the original description.

Gymnorhamphichthys britskiiCarvalho, Ramos, Albert, 2011

Gymnorhamphichthys britskiiCarvalho, Ramos, Albert, 2011: 401, figs. 1, 3a. Type locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso, Rosário Oeste, Córrego Embaúba, tributary to Río Cuiabá, 14°55’S, 56°27’W. Holotype: MZUSP 106814; 180 mm SL.

Distribution: Paraguay and Paraná basins (Carvalho et al., 2011).

Gymnorhamphichthys hypostomusEllis, 1912

Gymnorhamphichthys hypostomus Ellis, in Eigenmann, 1912: 436. Type locality: San Joaquin, Bolivia. Holotype: FMNH 54554; 215 mm TL. Described in more detail, as new, and illustrated in Ellis (1913: 139, pl. 23, fig. 2).

Distribution: Upper Mamoré River basin, western tributaries of Amazon and Orinoco rivers (Nijssen et al., 1976).

Gymnorhamphichthys rondoni (Miranda Ribeiro, 1920)

U. [Urumarã] rondoniMiranda Ribeiro, 1920: 6. Type locality: Rio Dezesete de Fevereiro, affluente da margem esquerda do Alto Cautário, valle do Amazonas [Brazil]. Holotype: MNRJ 3631.

Gymnorhamphichthys hypostomus petitiGéry, Vu, 1964: 486, pl. 1. Type locality: Ilha do Bananal, haut Rio Araguaia, Brésil. Holotype: GSC 340, 122 mm TL (now MHNG 21670.015, 85 mm LEA; Carvalho, 2013).

Remarks: Synonymy follows Nijssen et al. (1976), but Gymnorhamphichthys petiti included in the materials examined as a valid species in Carvalho et al. (2011).

Distribution: Widely distributed in Amazon, upper Paraná, and Orinoco River basins and coastal rivers of the Guianas (Nijssen et al., 1976).

Gymnorhamphichthys rosamariaeSchwassmann, 1989

Gymnorhamphichthys rosamariaeSchwassmann, 1989: 159, fig. 2. Type locality: Upper Rio Negro at Rosa Maria, State of Amazonas, Brazil 0.5°S, 64°W. Holotype: MZUSP 30202; 305 mm TL.

Distribution: Upper Negro River basin, Brazil (Schwassmann, 1989).

HYPOPYGUSHoedeman, 1962

(9 species)

HypopygusHoedeman, 1962b: 99. Type species: Hypopygus lepturusHoedeman, 1962. Type by monotypy. Gender: masculine.

StegostenoposTriques, 1997: 32. Type species: Stegostenopos cryptogenesTriques, 1997. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

Phylogeny and revision: de Santana, Crampton (2011).

Key to species: de Santana, Crampton (2011); Peixoto et al. (2013).

Remarks: Synonymy follows de Santana, Crampton (2011).

Hypopygus benoneaePeixoto, Dutra, de Santana, Wosiacki, 2013

Hypopygus benoneaePeixoto, Dutra, de Santana, Wosiacki, 2013: 232, fig. 1. Type locality: Brazil, Pará, Melgaço, tributary of Igarapé Açú, lower Rio Anapu dainage, 1°48’15.4”S, 51°28’32.2”W. Holotype: MPEG 23603; 73 mm TL.

Distribution: Anapu River, Amazon drainage, Pará, Brazil (Peixoto et al., 2013).

Hypopygus cryptogenes (Triques, 1997)

Stegostenopos cryptogenesTriques, 1997: 33, fig. 5. Type locality: Igarapé (creek) Sirinau, right margin of Rio Cuieiras, ca. 25 km from its mouth on Rio Negro, ca. 2°70’S, 60°40’W, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 47985; 93 mm SL.

Distribution: Lower and middle Negro River basin and Preto da Eva River, Amazon basin, Brazil (de Santana, Crampton, 2011).

Hypopygus hoedemanide Santana, Crampton, 2011

Hypopygus hoedemanide Santana, Crampton, 2011: 1125, fig. 19. Type locality: Brazil Amazonas, Igarapé Toari, Rio Preto de Eva drainage, 2°47’35”S, 59°38’21”W. Holotype: INPA 30375; 53 mm TL.

Distribution: Negro and Preto da Eva drainages, Amazon basin, Brazil (de Santana, Crampton, 2011).

Hypopygus isbruckeride Santana, Crampton, 2011

Hypopygus isbruckeride Santana, Crampton, 2011: 1127, fig. 21. Type locality: Venezuela. Amazonas, Caño Magua, forest stream, approximately 1 km from Magua, 13 km and 126° from San Fernando de Atabapo, Río Orinoco drainage, 3°58’50.2”N, 67°36’28.1”W. Holotype: UF 175390; 90 mm TL.

Distribution: San Fernando de Atabapo, Orinoco River drainage, Amazonas, Venezuela (de Santana, Crampton, 2011).

Hypopygus lepturusHoedeman, 1962

Hypopygus lepturusHoedeman, 1962b: 99, fig. 4. Type locality: Surinam: Maroni basin. Holotype: RMNH 19466; 73 mm TL.

Distribution: Major drainages of Amazon River basin, Orinoco River, coastal drainages of the Guianas and northern tributaries of Paraguay River (de Santana, Crampton, 2011).

Hypopygus minissimusde Santana, Crampton, 2011

Hypopygus minissimusde Santana, Crampton, 2011: 1141, fig. 25. Type locality: Venezuela Amazonas Caño Viejita, moriche palm swamp in savannah, road from San Fernando de Atabapo to Santa Bárbara, 16.5 km and 142° from San Fernando de Atabapo, Río Orinoco drainage, 3°55’59.0”N, 67°36’34.2”W. Holotype: UF 175389; 54 mm TL.

Distribution: Upper Orinoco River basin and tributary of Casiquiare canal, Venezuela (de Santana, Crampton, 2011).

Hypopygus neblinaeMago-Leccia, 1994

Hypopygus neblinaeMago-Leccia, 1994: 86, fig. 96. Type locality: Río Baria, 3 km downriver of Neblina base camp, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V 14694; 122 mm TL.

Distribution: Upper Orinoco, Meta, and Casiquiare basins, Venezuela, Negro and Preto da Eva river basins, Brazil (de Santana, Crampton, 2011).

Hypopygus nijssenide Santana, Crampton, 2011

Hypopygus nijssenide Santana, Crampton, 2011: 1146, figs. 23b, 29. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Igarapé Repartimento, 1.5 km downstream from Estrada Agrovila, ca. 7 km and 230° from Tefé, municipality of Tefé, tributary of Lago Tefé, Rio Tefé drainage, 3°24’30”S, 64°44’12”W. Holotype: MCP 44650; 96 mm TL.

Distribution: Small streams in vicinity of Tefé, Amazon Basin, Brazil (de Santana, Crampton, 2011).

Hypopygus ortegaide Santana, Crampton, 2011

Hypopygus ortegaide Santana, Crampton, 2011: 1148, figs. 23c, 30. Type locality: Peru, Loreto, unnamed stream, 2 km north of km 3.9 on road from Jenaro Herrera to Colonia Angamos, 4°53’01”S, 73°38’10”W. Holotype: MUSM 35305; 107 mm TL.

Distribution: Vicinity of Iquitos and Jenaro Herrera, Peru, in small tributaries of Amazon River (de Santana, Crampton, 2011).

IRACEMATriques, 1996

(1 species)

IracemaTriques, 1996b: 91. Type species: Iracema caiana Triques, 1996. Type by original designation. Gender: feminine.

Iracema caianaTriques, 1996

Iracema caianaTriques, 1996b: 91, fig. 1. Type locality: Jauaperi River, beach ca. 40 to 50 km above its mouth on the Rio Negro, ca. 1°05’S, 61°35’W, on the border of Amazonas and Roraima States, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 8952; 356 mm SL.

Remarks: Redescribed with comments on phylogenetic position in Carvalho, Albert (2011).

Distribution: Jauaperi River, Negro River drainage, Brazil (Triques, 1996b; Carvalho, Albert, 2011).

(9 species)

RhamphichthysMüller, Troschel, in Müller, 1846: 194 (footnote 2). Type species: Gymnonotus rostratusBloch, Schneider, 1801 [= Gymnotus rostratusLinnaeus, 1766]. Type by monotypy. Gender: masculine.

AltonaDuméril, 1856: 201. Type species: Altona rostrata [Gymnotus rostratusLinnaeus, 1766]. Type by monotypy. Gender: feminine. Single included species written as Altona rostrata, apparently referring to Gymnotus rostratus Linnaeus.

Key: Carvalho, Albert, 2015 (Amazon basin species).

Rhamphichthys apurensis (Fernández-Yépez, 1968)

Gymnorhamphichthys apurensisFernández-Yépez, 1968: [6], [pl. 4]. Type locality: Río Bucaral (Paso Don Pancho), afluente del Río Apure [Orinoco basin, Venezuela]. Holotype: MBUCV-V 10838; 354 mm TL.

Remarks: Inclusion in Rhamphichthys follows Schwassmann (1989).

Distribution: Orinoco River basin (Fernández-Yépez, 1968).

Rhamphichthys atlanticusTriques 1999

Rhamphichthys atlanticusTriques, 1999a: 3, fig. 4. Type locality: Viana Lake, Pindaré-Mearim river system, MA, Brazil, approximately 3°14’S, 45°01’W. Holotype: MZUSP 43612; 673 mm SL.

Remarks: Validity questioned by Carvalho, Albert (2015).

Distribution: Pindaré-Mearim River basin, Brazil (Triques, 1999a).

Rhamphichthys drepaniumTriques, 1999

Rhamphichthys drepaniumTriques, 1999a: 1, figs. 2, 3. Janauari Lake, at confluence of Rio Negro and Rio Solimões, Manaus County, Amazonas, Brazil, approximately 3°20’S, 60°12’W. Holotype: MZUSP 6893; 384 mm SL.

Distribution: Negro River, middle Amazon River and Orinoco River (Triques, 1999a).

Rhamphichthys hahni (Meinken, 1937)

Sternarchorhamphus hahniMeinken, 1937: 79, fig. 3. Type locality: mittleren Paraná [Corrientes, Argentina]. Holotype: ZMB 31367; 267 mm TL.

Remarks: Inclusion in Rhamphichthys follows Campos-da-Paz, Paepke (1994).

Distribution: Paraná River basin, Argentina (Meinken, 1937).

Rhamphichthys heleiosCarvalho, Albert, 2015

Rhamphichthys heleiosCarvalho, Albert, 2015: 35, figs. 1, 2, 3. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Iranduba, confluence of Rio Negro and Solimões at Costa do Catalão, 3°09’S, 59°54’W. Holotype: INPA 42309; 372 mm LEA.

Distribution: Amazon River above the Madeira River, and in Guaporé River, Brazil (Carvalho, Albert, 2015).

Rhamphichthys lineatusCastelnau, 1855

Rhamphichthys lineatusCastelnau, 1855: 87, pl. 47 (fig. 1). Type locality: un lac de la rivière d’Ucayale. Holotype: MNHN 0000-3982; 54 cm TL.

Distribution: Amazon basin (Carvalho, Albert, 2015).

Rhamphichthys longiorTriques, 1999

Rhamphichthys longiorTriques, 1999a: 4. Paru Lake (formed in the confluence of the Rios Trombetas and Paru-do-Oeste) at Oriximiná, PA, Brazil, approximately 1°45’S, 55°52’W. Holotype: MZUSP 48507; 800 mm SL.

Remarks: Validity questioned by Carvalho, Albert (2015), but name not assigned to any other species.

Distribution: Paru Lake, lower Amazon River basin (Triques, 1999a).

Rhamphichthys pantherinusCastelnau, 1855

Rhamphichthys pantherinusCastelnau, 1855: 86, pl. 46 (fig. 3). Type locality: un lac près de l’Ucayale. Holotype: MNHN 0000-3993; 76 cm TL.

Rhamphichthys marmoratusCastelnau, 1855: 86, pl. 46 (fig. 2). Type locality: l’Araguay [Brazil]. Holotype: MNHN 0000-3959; 65 cm TL.

Remarks: Günther (1870: 5) serves as first reviser treating Rhamphichthys pantherinus as senior synonym of R. marmoratus (as well as R. lineatus). Later, apparently starting with Eigenmann, Eigenmann (1891: 62), R. marmoratus was treated as valid over R. pantherinus, in error.

Distribution: Amazon, upper Orinoco and Essequibo River basins (Carvalho, Albert, 2015, as R. marmoratus).

Rhamphichthys rostratus (Linnaeus, 1766)

Gymnotus rostratusLinnaeus, 1766: 428. Type locality: America. Syntypes: On Seba (1758: pl. 32, fig. 5) and Gronovius (1763: 41).

Gymnotus longirostratusLa Cepède, 1800: 145, 178. Type locality: l’Amérique méridionale. Syntypes: On several literature sources, including account of Gymnotus rostratus in Gmelin (1789), Seba (1758: pl. 32, fig. 5), Gronovius (1763: 41) and others.

Rhamphichthys BlochiiKaup, 1856: 133, fig. 9. Type locality: America. Syntypes: On specimen described and illustrated in Bloch, Schneider (1801: 522, pl. 106) as Gymnonotus rostratus, then preserved in Berlin Museum; 27.8 in. TL, and Seba (1758: pl. 32, fig. 5).

Rhamphichthys ReinhardtiKaup, 1856: 132, fig. 8. Type locality: unknown. Holotype: MNHN 0000-3956, 28.8 in. TL.

Rhamphichthys SchneideriKaup, 1856: 136, fig. 11. Type locality: Cayenne. Syntypes: (2, one 2.57 in TL) at MNHN, possibly MNHN 0000-3957.

Rhamphichthys SchomburgkiKaup, 1856: 135, fig. 10. Type locality: Rivers of Demerara, British Guiana. Syntypes: (at least 3, all from Schomburgk collections), Berlin Museum, Darmstadt, and MNHN 0000-3958.

Remarks: Synonymy tentative. Günther (1870: 5) would serve as first reviser if R. blochii was found to be a valid species distinct from R. rostratus and R. longirostratus, and R. reinhardti its (junior) synonym. Eigenmann, Eigenmann (1891: 62) later took the opposite approach and treated R. reinhardti as valid over R. blochii. Steindachner (1868: 258) would serve as first reviser if R. schomburgki was found to be a valid species distinct from R. rostratus and R. longirostratus, and R. schneideri its (junior) synonym (status of R. reinhardti and R. blochii is unresolved).

Distribution: Amazon, Essequibo and coastal rivers of Guianas (Carvalho, Albert, 2015).

STEATOGENYSBoulenger, 1898

(3 species)

SteatogenysBoulenger, 1898: 428. Type species: Rhamphichthys elegansSteindachner, 1880. Type by monotypy. Gender: feminine.

TateichthysLa Monte, 1929: 1. Type species: Tateichthys duidae La Monte, 1929. Type by monotypy. Gender: masculine.

Revision: Schwassmann (1984).

Steatogenys duidae (La Monte, 1929)

Tateichthys duidaeLa Monte, 1929: 1, fig. 1. Type locality: Burned Mountain Creek, ca. 5 mi. northeast of Caño Pescado, 350 feet elevation, Mt. Duida neighborhood, Venezuela. Holotype: AMNH 9599; 149 mm TL.

Distribution: Orinoco basin and parts of Amazon basin (Crampton et al., 2004a).

Steatogenys elegans (Steindachner, 1880)

Rhamphichthys (Brachyrhamphichthys) elegansSteindachner, 1880: 89 (footnote). Type locality: Mündung des Rio negro. Syntypes: (2) NMW 76413; 17 1/3 and 19 cm TL.

Rhamphichthys (Brachyrhampichthys) mirabilisSteindachner, 1880: 104 (figure caption), pl. 9 (figs. 1, 1a). Name on caption to plate; likely an unintentional alternate (although still available) name for Rhamphichthys (Brachyrhamphichthys) elegans.

Remarks: Eigenmann, Ward (1905: 171) treated Rhamphichthys (Brachyrhamphichthys) elegans [as Steatogenes elegans] as valid over Rhamphichthys (Brachyrhamphichthys) mirabilis, thereby serving as first reviser.

Distribution: Negro and Amazon River basin, Brazil and Peru; Demarara River, Guyana, and possibly Orinoco River (Schwassmann, 1984; Crampton et al., 2004a).

Steatogenys ocellatusCrampton, Thorsen, Albert, 2004

Steatogenys ocellatusCrampton, Thorsen, Albert, 2004: 81, fig. 2. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Mouth of Rio Baré, Municipality of Maraã, 2°09’54”S, 64°42’48”W. Holotype: MCP 31908; 238 mm TL.

Distribution: Amanã and Tefé lakes, Amazon River basin, Brazil and Itaya River, Peru (Crampton, Thorsen, Albert, 2004).

STERNOPYGIDAE Cope, 1871

(7 genera; 45 species)

Sternopygidae Cope, 1871: 454, 455. Type genus: [SternopygusMüller, Troschel, 1848]

Eigenmanninae Mago-Leccia, 1978: 14. Type genus: EigenmanniaJordan, Evermann, 1896

Review: Mago-Leccia (1978), Venezuela.

Phylogeny: Lundberg, Mago-Leccia (1986); Albert, Fink (1996); Huelen et al. (2005); Correa et al. (2006).

Checklist: Albert (2003b); Campos-da-Paz (2007a), Brazil.

Remarks: The names Archaeogymnotoidea and Archaeogymnotinae, which appear in Mago-Leccia (1978: 14), are not available inasmuch as they are not based on available generic names (ICZN 1999: Art. 11.7.1.1). Archolaemus, Eigenmannia, Rhabdolichops, and Distocyclus were removed from the Sternopygidae and placed into the Eigenmannidae in Alves-Gomes et al. (1995) and Alves-Gomes (1998).

Sternopygidae incertae sedis

(1 species)

Eigenmannia goajiraSchultz, 1949: 63, pl. 1 (fig. b). Type locality: Río Socuy, 3 km above its mouth [Maracaibo Lake basin, Venezuela]. Holotype: USNM 121596, 500 mm TL (377 mm LEA, Dutra et al., 2014).

Remarks: Position of this species within the family is unresolved (Dutra et al., 2014).

Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin (Schultz, 1949).

ARCHOLAEMUSKorringa, 1970

(6 species)

ArcholaemusKorringa, 1970: 267. Type species: Archolaemus blax Korringa, 1970. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

Revision: phylogeny and key to species: Vari et al. (2012).

Archolaemus blaxKorringa, 1970

Archolaemus blaxKorringa, 1970: 268, figs. 1, 2. Type locality: Porto Nacional, Rio Tocantins, Estado de Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: CAS 24743; 435 mm TL.

Remarks: Redescribed in Schwassmann, Carvalho (1985).

Distribution: Tocantins River basin, Brazil (Korringa, 1970; Vari et al., 2012).

Archolaemus ferreirai Vari, de Santana, Wosiacki, 2012

Archolaemus ferreirai Vari, de Santana, Wosiacki, 2012: 683, fig. 3. Type locality: Brazil, Roraima, Rio Mucajaí, Cochoeira Paredão 2 (2°57’N, 61°27’W). Holotype: INPA 3757; 183 mm TL.

Distribution: Mucajaí and Uraricoera rivers, Roraima, Brazil (Vari et al., 2012).

Archolaemus janeae Vari, de Santana, Wosiacki, 2012

Archolaemus janeae Vari, de Santana, Wosiacki, 2012: 686, fig. 5. Type locality: Brazil, Pará, Rio Iriri, just upriver of its mouth into Rio Xingú, Muncípio de Altamira, 3°48’54”S, 52°37’09”W. Holotype: INPA 30832; 160 mm TL.

Distribution: Xingu and upper Tapajos river basins, Brazil (Vari et al., 2012).

Archolaemus luciae Vari, de Santana, Wosiacki, 2012

Archolaemus luciae Vari, de Santana, Wosiacki, 2012: 689, figs. 6, 7. Type locality: Brazil, Pará, Rio Trombetas, Cachoeira Porteira, below Furo nas Pedras, 1°05’S, 57°02’W. Holotype: INPA 20960; 267 mm TL.

Distribution: Several tributaries of lower Amazon River basin and Araguari River (Amapá), Brazil (Vari et al., 2012).

Archolaemus orientalis Stewart, Vari, de Santana, Wosiacki, 2012

Archolaemus orientalis Stewart, Vari, de Santana, Wosiacki, in Vari et al., 2012: 692, fig. 8. Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Rio São Francisco system, Rio Piracutu basin, Município Buritizerio, Rio do Sono (17°18’S, 45°20’59”W). Holotype: MPEG 21508; 156 mm TL.

Distribution: São Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil (Vari et al., 2012).

Archolaemus santosi Vari, de Santana, Wosiacki, 2012

Archolaemus santosi Vari, de Santana, Wosiacki, 2012: 695, fig. 10. Type locality: Brazil, Rondônia, Rio Jamari, above site of Usina Hidroeléctrica Samuel (8°27’S, 63°30’W). Holotype: INPA 20966; 197 mm TL.

Distribution: Jamari River, Rondônia, Brazil (Vari et al., 2012).

DISTOCYCLUSMago-Leccia, 1978

(2 species)

DistocyclusMago-Leccia, 1978: 17, 25. Type species: Eigenmannia conirostris Eigenmann, Allen, 1942. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

Remarks: Revised in Dutra et al. (2014) prior to publication of Distocyclus guchereauae.

Distocyclus conirostris (Eigenmann, Allen, 1942)

Eigenmannia conirostris Eigenmann, Allen, 1942: 316, pl. 16 (figs. 2, 5). Type locality: Iquitos [Peru]. Holotype and Paratypes (5): CAS 41753 (3), USNM 323935 (1). A holotype was distinguished from paratypes in the original description only by length (300 mm) and numerous body measurements. Of the five original specimens (270-346 mm), none of the four examined by Dutra et al. (2014) fit the stated size of the holotype. The fifth specimen, which thus appears to be the holotype, is unaccounted for.

Distribution: Broadly distributed in the Amazon, Orinoco and Essequibo basins (Dutra et al., 2014).

Distocyclus guchereauaeMeunier, Jégu, Keith, 2014

Distocyclus guchereauaeMeunier, Jégu, Keith, 2014: 223, fig. 1. Type locality: French Guiana, Maroni drainage, Tampoc River, Saut Pierkuru (2°49’N; 53°32’W). Holotype: MNHN 2000-5927; 271 mm TL.

Distribution: Litany and Tampoc rivers, Maroni River basin, French Guiana (Meunier et al., 2014).

(16 species)

Cryptops Eigenmann, 1894: 626. Type species: Sternopygus humboldtiiSteindachner [1878]. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine. Preoccupied by Cryptops Leach, 1814, replaced by EigenmanniaJordan, Evermann, 1896.

EigenmanniaJordan, Evermann, 1896: 340 (key), 341. Type species: Sternopygus humboldtiiSteindachner, 1878. Type by being a replacement name. Gender: feminine. Replacement for Cryptops Eigenmann, 1894, preoccupied by Cryptops Leach, 1814.

Revision and key: Peixoto et al. (2015), E. trilineatus group.

Eigenmannia antonioiPeixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, 2015

Eigenmannia antonioiPeixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, 2015: 387, figs. 2, 3. Type locality: Brazil, Pará, Rio Anapu at Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, Município de Portel, Rio Amazonas basin, 2°05′0.7″S, 51°29′43.8″W. Holotype: MPEG 10181; 205 mm TL.

Distribution: Anapu River at Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, lower Amazon River, Pará, Brazil (Peixoto et al., 2015).

Eigenmannia besouroPeixoto, Wosiacki, 2016

Eigenmannia besouroPeixoto, Wosiacki, 2016: 263, fig. 1. Type locality: Brazil, Bahia, São Desidério, Sítio Grande, rio São Francisco basin, rio Grande, 12°25’40.09”S 45°05’10”W. Holotype: MZUSP 57890; 92 mm LEA.

Distribution: São Francisco River, Bahia, Brazil (Peixoto, Wosiacki, 2016).

Eigenmannia desantanaiPeixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, 2015

Eigenmannia desantanaiPeixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, 2015: 392, figs. 7, 8. Type locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso, Rio Cuiabá, Baía de Chacororé, Rio Paraguai basin, Município de Barão de Malgaço, 16°14′58.9″S, 55°52′44.4″W. Holotype: MPEG 31306; 167 mm TL.

Distribution: Cuiabá River, Paraguay River basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil (Peixoto et al., 2015).

Eigenmannia guairacaPeixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, 2015

Eigenmannia guairacaPeixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, 2015: 394, figs. 9, 10. Type locality: Brazil, Paraná, Riacho Água do Ó, tributary of Paranapanema River, upper Rio Paraná basin, Município de Santa Fé, 23°01′08″S, 51°51′ 37.8″W. Holotype: MPEG 31307; 173 mm TL.

Distribution: Riacho Água do Ó, tributary of Paranapanema River, upper Paraná River basin, Paraná, Brazil (Peixoto et al., 2015).

Eigenmannia humboldtii (Steindachner, 1878)

Sternopygus HumboldtiiSteindachner, 1878: 91. Type locality: Magdalenen-Stromes [Colombia]. Syntypes (2): NMW 64988 (1), NMW 64989 (1); 41 ½ and 45 cm TL. Described in more detail and illustrated in Steindachner (1879: 71, pl. 14, fig. 3).

Distribution: Northern portions of South America (Albert, 2003b).

Eigenmannia limbata (Schreiner, Miranda Ribeiro, 1903)

Sternopygus limbatusSchreiner, Miranda Ribeiro, 1903: 71. Type locality: Amazonas [Brazil]. Holotype: MNRJ 1186; 370 mm TL.

Remarks: Treated as synonym of Eigenmannia virescens in Fowler (1951), but as valid in Albert (2003b).

Distribution: Guianas and Amazon River basin (Albert, 2003b).

Eigenmannia macrops (Boulenger, 1897)

Sternopygus macropsBoulenger, 1897: 305. Type locality: Higher Potaro River district, British Guiana. Holotype: BMNH 1897.8.6.1; 230 mm TL.

Remarks: Name written as Eigenmannia microps in Eigenmann (1910: 449), apparently a lapsus calami and not treated here as an available name.

Distribution: Guianas and Amazon River basin (Albert, 2003b).

Eigenmannia matintapereiraPeixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, 2015

Eigenmannia matintapereiraPeixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, 2015: 396, figs. 11, 12. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Rio Uneiuxi, Rio Negro basin, Município de Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, 0°21′45.0″S, 65°04′13.0″W. Holotype: MZUSP 109618; 231 mm TL, 153 mm LEA.

Distribution: Uneiuxi and Urubaxi Rivers, Negro River basin, Amazonas, Brazil (Peixoto et al., 2015).

Eigenmannia microstoma (Reinhardt, 1852)

Sternopygus microstomusReinhardt, 1852: 147. Type locality: Lagoa Santa, Brazil. Syntypes: BMNH 1868.7.8.2-3 (2); ZMUC P2516-P2520 [formerly ZMUC 21-26] (5); 120-246 mm TL, 101-177 mm LEA (Peixoto et al., 2015). ? ZMB 9183 (1).

Remarks: Redescribed in Peixoto et al. (2015).

Distribution: São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil (Peixoto et al., 2015).

Eigenmannia muirapinimaPeixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, 2015

Eigenmannia muirapinimaPeixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, 2015: 401, figs. 15, 16. Type locality: Brazil, Pará, Rio Amazonas, Igarapé Santo Antônio, tributary of Rio Amazonas, [Município de Juruti], Brazil, 2°09′15.9″S, 56°05′17.9″W. Holotype: MPEG 21778, 139 mm TL.

Distribution: Igarapé Santo Antônio and Lago Jará, tributaries of Amazon River, Pará, Brazil (Peixoto et al., 2015).

Eigenmannia nigraMago-Leccia, 1994

Eigenmannia nigraMago-Leccia, 1994: 77, figs. 86a, 86b. Type locality: Caño Urama, above Santa Lucía, Río Negro system, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V 14184; 476 mm TL.

Distribution: Negro River basin and Casiquiare, Venezuela, Colombian Amazon, and Rupununi River basins (Mago-Leccia, 1994).

Eigenmannia pavulagemPeixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, 2015

Eigenmannia pavulagemPeixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, 2015: 403, figs. 17, 18. Type locality: Brazil, Pará, Igarapé Paraquequara, tributary of Rio Capim, Rio Guamá basin, Município de Paragominas, 3°14′50″ S, 47°45′50″ W. Holotype: MPEG 6887; 263 mm TL.

Distribution: Capim River, Guamá River basin, Pará, Brazil (Peixoto et al., 2015).

Eigenmannia trilineataLópez, Castello, 1966

Eigenmannia trilineataLópez, Castello, 1966a: 8, fig. on p. 9. Type locality: [Argentina] Río de la Plata, Núñez. Holotype: MACN 5470 (illustrated in Peixoto et al., 2015: figs. 19, 20); 178 mm TL (165 mm TL; Peixoto et al., 2015).

Remarks: Redescribed in Peixoto et al. (2015).

Distribution: La Plata basin and lower Río Paraná basin, Argentina (Peixoto et al., 2015).

Eigenmannia vicentespelaeaTriques, 1996

Eigenmannia vicentespelaeaTriques, 1996a: 3, figs. 4, 5. Type locality: Gruta São Vicente II, 13°35’00”S, 46°22’30”W, Rio São Vicente system, Rio Tocantins basin, at São Domingos, State of Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 42605; 120 mm SL (148 mm TL, Peixoto et al., 2015).

Remarks: Redescribed in Bichuette, Trajano (2006) and Peixoto et al. (2015).

Distribution: Caves in São Vicente River basin, Tocantins River system (Triques, 1996a, Peixoto et al., 2015).

Eigenmannia virescens (Valenciennes, 1836)

Sternachus virescens Valenciennes, 1836, in Valenciennes, 1835-42: Poissons pl. 13 (fig. 2). Type locality: Amérique méridionale. Type or types: whereabouts unknown. Name made available by caption to figure; mentioned in Valenciennes (1847: 11), without locality or descriptive characters. The illustrated specimen was probably deposited at MNHN, but not reported as such in Bertin (1948).

St. [Sternopygus] lineatusMüller, Troschel, 1848: 640. Type locality: Guiana, im See Amucu. Syntypes: ZMB 4083, 6-10 Zoll TL. Described, as new, in more detail in Müller, Troschel, (1849: 14).

Sternopygus tumifronsMüller, Troschel, 1849: 14. Type locality: Südamerika. Holotype: ZMB 4084, 8 Zoll TL.

Remarks: Synonymy follows Albert (2003b).

Distribution: lower Paraná River basin and La Plata River (Peixoto et al., 2015).

Eigenmannia waiwaiPeixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, 2015

Eigenmannia waiwaiPeixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, 2015: 410, figs. 23, 24. Type locality: Brazil, Pará, Rio Mapuera [near Cachoeira Porteira], Rio Trombetas basin, Município de Oriximiná, 1°05′S, 57°02′W. Holotype: INPA 37594; 224 mm TL, 146 mm LEA.

Distribution: Mapuera River, Trombetas basin, Pará, Brazil (Peixoto et al., 2015).

HUMBOLDTICHTHYSGayet, Meunier, 2000

(1 species)

EllisellaGayet, Meunier, 1991: 473. Type species: † Ellisella kirschbaumi Gayet, Meunier, 1991. Type by original designation. Gender: feminine. Preoccupied by Ellisella Gray, 1858 (Coelenterata); replaced by † Humboldtichthys Gayet, Meunier, 2000.

HumboldtichthysGayet, Meunier, 2000: 104. Type species: † Ellisella kirschbaumi Gayet, Meunier, 1991. Type by by being a replacement name. Gender: masculine. Replacement for † Ellisella Gayet, Meunier (1991), preoccupied by Ellisella Gray, 1858.

Humboldtichthys kirschbaumi (Gayet, Meunier, 1991)

Ellisella kirschbaumiGayet, Meunier, 1991: 473, figs. 1, 2, 3. Type locality: Río Moile, Bolivie (Miocène supérieur). Holotype: CST RL1596-4. Described in more detail in Gayet et al. (1994) and Albert, Fink (2007).

Remarks: Treated as the sister to a group encompassing all gymnotiforms except the Apteronotidae in Gayet et al. (1994) but as incertae sedis within the Sternopygidae in Albert, Fink (2007).

(1 species)

JapignyMeunier, Jégu, Keith, 2011: 48. Type species: Japigny kirschbaum Meunier, Jégu, Keith, 2011. Type by original designation. Gender: feminine. [Gender declared in account of genus].

Japigny kirschbaumMeunier, Jégu, Keith, 2011

Japigny kirschbaumMeunier, Jégu, Keith, 2011: 48, figs. 1, 2. Type locality: French Guiana, Mana River, Saut Fracas. Holotype: MNHN 2008-1201; 156 mm TL.

Distribution: Approuague, Mana, and Maroni Rivers, French Guiana (Meunier et al., 2011).

RHABDOLICHOPSEigenmann, Allen, 1942

(10 species)

RhabdolichopsEigenmann, Allen, 1942: 316. Type species: Rhabdolichops longicaudatus Eigenmann, Allen, 1942. Type by monotypy. Gender: masculine.

GuichthysFernández-Yépez, 1968: [5]. Type species: Guichthys caviceps Fernández-Yépez, 1968. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

Revision with key to species: Lundberg, Mago-Leccia (1986).

Phylogeny: Correa et al. (2006).

Rhabdolichops caviceps (Fernández-Yépez, 1968)

Guichthys cavicepsFernández-Yépez, 1968: [5], [pl. 3]. Type locality: Río Apure Seco, al SW. de San Fernando de Apure, Estado Apure [Venezuela]. Holotype: MACLPI 51101; 98 mm TL.

Remarks: Holotype not located by Lundberg, Mago-Leccia (1986).

Distribution: Orinoco and Amazon River basins, in deepwater channels (Lundberg, Mago-Leccia, 1986).

Rhabdolichops eastwardiLundberg, Mago-Leccia, 1986

Rhabdolichops eastwardiLundberg, Mago-Leccia, 1986: 76, figs. 17, 18, 19. Type locality: Venezuela, Río Orinoco, old shipping channel south of Isla Portuguesa, Delta Amacuro, 8°37’N, 61°48’W. Holotype: MBUCV-V 10443; 193 mm TL.

Distribution: Orinoco and Amazon River basins, in deep channels (Lundberg, Mago-Leccia, 1986).

Rhabdolichops electrogrammusLundberg, Mago-Leccia, 1986

Rhabdolichops electrogrammusLundberg, Mago-Leccia, 1986: 70, figs. 13, 14. Type locality: Venezuela, Río Orinoco, near s. shore of Caño Araguaito, Delta Amacuro, 8°40’N, 61°59’W. Holotype: MBUCV-V 10489; 226 mm TL.

Distribution: Orinoco, Negro and Branco River basins, Brazil, Venezuela (Lundberg, Mago-Leccia, 1986).

Rhabdolichops jeguiKeith, Meunier, 2000

Rhabdolichops jeguiKeith, Meunier, 2000: 402, figs. 1, 2. Type locality: Guyane française, rivière Litany (Maroni), Atecume Pata, 3°17’45”N, 54°04’13”W. Holotype: MNHN 1999-1024; 215 mm TL.

Distribution: Maroni and Mana River basins (Keith, Meunier, 2000).

Rhabdolichops lundbergi Correa, Crampton, Albert, 2006

Rhabdolichops lundbergi Correa, Crampton, Albert, 2006: 34, figs. 1b, 2b. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Rio Japurá, near Boca do Lago Mamirauá, Municipality Alvarães, 3°07.67’S, 64°46.43’W. Holotype: MCP 36037; 151 mm TL.

Distribution: Japurá River near mouth, Amazon River basin, Brazil (Correa et al., 2006).

Rhabdolichops navalha Correa, Crampton, Albert, 2006

Rhabdolichops navalha Correa, Crampton, Albert, 2006: 35, figs. 1c, 2c. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Rio Tefé, Toco Preto, Municipality Tefé, 3°47.31’S, 64°59.91’W. Holotype: MCP 36046; 161 mm TL.

Distribution: main channel of Tefé River, Amazonas, Brazil (Correa et al., 2006).

Rhabdolichops nigrimans Correa, Crampton, Albert, 2006

Rhabdolichops nigrimans Correa, Crampton, Albert, 2006: 30, figs. 1a, 2a. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Río Tefé, Municipality of Tefé, 3°43.41’S, 64°59.93’W. Holotype: MCP 36048; 273 mm TL.

Distribution: Tefé River and vicinity, Amazonas, Brazil (Correa et al., 2006).

Rhabdolichops stewartiLundberg, Mago-Leccia, 1986

Rhabdolichops stewartiLundberg, Mago-Leccia, 1986: 79, fig. 19. Type locality: Brazil, Rio Tapajós, 26 km east of Jacaréacanga, Pará State, 6°43’S, 57°40’W. Holotype: ANSP 158687; 165 mm TL.

Distribution: Orinoco and Tapajós River basins (Lundberg, Mago-Leccia, 1986).

Rhabdolichops troscheli (Kaup, 1856)

Sternopygus TroscheliKaup, 1856: 139. Type locality: British Guiana. Lectotype: ZMB 4085; 428 mm TL. Lectotype designated in Lundberg, Mago-Leccia (1986: 83).

Sternopygus axillarisGünther, 1868: 481. Type locality: Para [Brazil]. Holotype: BMNH 1848.11.8.31; size not reported.

Rhabdolichops longicaudatusEigenmann, Allen, 1942: 317, pl. 16 (figs. 3, 4). Type locality: Iquitos [Peru]. Holotype: CAS 41752; 497 mm TL.

Remarks: Synonymy follows Lundberg, Mago-Leccia (1986).

Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil and Peru; possibly also in Guyana (Lundberg, Mago-Leccia, 1986).

Rhabdolichops zaretiLundberg, Mago-Leccia, 1986

Rhabdolichops zaretiLundberg, Mago-Leccia, 1986: 74, figs. 15, 16. Type locality: Venezuela, North bank of Río Orinoco at Isla Tres Caños, Delta Amacuro, 8°40’N, 62°0’W. Holotype: MBUCV-V 14242; 201 mm TL.

Distribution: In river channels and lagoons of Orinoco mainstream and Apuré River, Venezuela (Lundberg, Mago-Leccia, 1986).

(8 species)

SternopygusMüller, Troschel, in Müller, 1846: 194 (footnote 2). Type species: Gymnotus aequilabiatusHumboldt, 1805. Type by subsequent designation, herein. Gender: masculine.

GymnotesGill, 1864: 152. Type species: Gymnotus aequilabiatus Humb[oldt, 1805]. Type by monotypy. Gender: masculine.

HildatiaFernández-Yépez, 1968: [3]. Type species: Hildatia brasiliensis Fernández-Yépez, 1968. Type by original designation. Gender: feminine.

Remarks: Sternopygus appeared first with reference to “Gymnotus macrurus Bl. [=Bloch (1786, 59, pl. 157, fig. 2)] und 4 andere Arten.” That reference to Gymnotus macrurus Bl. appears to be the basis for a type species designation, except that the name was not binomial and, instead, was the beginning of “Gymnotus macrourus maxilla superior longiore,” a diagnosis for the species listed as Gymnotus carapo in both the text and figure caption. Subsequent authors reported that the type species is Gymnotus macrurus Bloch, Schneider, 1801, but Müller referenced that publication as Bl. Schn., as was done for Gymnotus rostratus in the paragraph on Rhamphichthys in the same footnote. As no available species names were listed in the account of Sternopygus, it is necessary to select a type species from among the first listed nominal species in a subsequent account of the genus, following Code Art. 67.2.2 (ICZN, 1999). Müller, Troschel (1848) was the next publication that treated Sternopygus as a valid name. Therein, four nominal species were listed as being included in the genus: S. virescens (Valenciennes, 1836), S. lineatus Müller, Troschel, 1848, Sternopygus macrurus Müller, Troschel, 1848, and Gymnotus aequilabiatusHumboldt, 1805. No designations from among those names has been found. Instead, Gymnonotus macrurus Bloch, Schneider, 1801, which was listed first in the account of Sternopygus in Müller, Troschel (1849), has been widely reported as the type species, first by Eigenmann (1910). However, as Gymnonotus macrurus Bloch, Schneider was not included in the account of Sternopygus in Müller, Troschel (1848), it cannot be validly selected as the type species. Inasmuch as two of the names available for selection as type species are currently assigned to the genus Eigenmannia, it is necessary to select a type that will stabilize Sternopygus as well as not disrupt the validity of Eigenmannia. To accomplish those goals, we select herein Gymnotus aequilabiatus Humboldt, 1805, as type of Sternopygus.

Phylogeny: Hulen et al. (2005).

Checklist: Crampton, Hulen, Albert (2004b).

Key: Albert, Fink (1996); Hulen et al. (2005).

Sternopygus aequilabiatus (Humboldt, 1805)

Gymnotus æquilabiatusHumboldt, 1805: 47, pl. 10 (figs. 1, 2). Type locality: la Rivière de la Madeleine [Colombia]. Holotype: whereabouts unknown; 750 mm TL.

Sternopygus dariensisMeek, Hildebrand, 1916: 309, pl. 26. Type locality: Marrigante, Río Tuyra, Panama. Holotype: FMNH 8949; 300 mm TL.

Remarks: Synonymy follows Crampton, Hulen, Albert (2004b).

Distribution: Magdalena River basin (Humboldt, 1805); Tuyra River, Atlantic slope, Panama (Meek, Hildebrand, 1916).

Sternopygus arenatus (Eydoux, Souleyet, 1842)

Carapus arenatusEydoux, Souleyet, 1842: 210, pl. 8 (fig. 2). Type locality: la rivière de Guayaquil (Amérique meridionale). Syntypes (2): MNHN 0000-3809; 60 cm TL.

Distribution: Guayaquil River basin, Ecuador (Eydoux, Souleyet, 1842).

Sternopygus astrabesMago-Leccia, 1994

Sternopygus astrabesMago-Leccia, 1994: 79, fig. 87. Type locality: Caño Pozo Azul, Aqua Linda, approx. 23 km NE of Puerto Ayacucho, Amazonas, Venezuela, 5°51’N, 67°31’W. Holotype: MBUCV-V 14182; 196 mm TL.

Sternopygus castroiTriques, 1999b: 21, fig. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Igarape Jaradá, Rio Cuieiras, 40 km from mouth of Rio Negro. Holotype: MZUSP 48912; 178 mm SL.

Remarks: Synonymy follows Hulen et al. (2005).

Distribution: Orinoco, Casiquiare, and Negro River basins (Mago-Leccia, 1994).

Sternopygus brancoCrampton, Hulen, Albert, 2004

Sternopygus brancoCrampton, Hulen, Albert, 2004a: 250, fig. 3. Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Confluence of Rio Solimões and Rio Japurá, Comunidade Caborini, Municipality of Alvarães, 3°09’08”S, 64°47’04”E. Holotype: MCP 32451; 405 mm TL.

Distribution: Main channel of Amazon River between Negro and Japurá rivers and lower Negro River, Brazil (Crampton, Hulen, Albert, 2004a).

Sternopygus macrurus (Bloch, Schneider, 1801)

Gymnonotus macrurusBloch, Schneider, 1801: 522. Type locality: Brasilia. Syntype: ZMB 8701 (stuffed). Described and illustrated earlier as: Gymnotus carapo, and Gymnotus macrourus maxilla superior longiore, in Bloch (1786: 59, pl. 157, fig. 2), but also based on Gymnotus carapoLinnaeus (1758: 427) and G. carapo in Gmelin (1789: 1136). As such, the specimen at ZMB must be considered a syntype and not a holotype as widely reported.

Carapus macrourus Cuvier, 1829: 357 (footnote 2). Type locality: [Brazil]. Holotype: Illustrated specimen in Bloch (1786: pl. 157, fig. 2). Name made available by reference to “Gymnotus macrourus, Bl., 157, 2.”

Sternopygus macrurusMüller, Troschel, 1848: 640 (second footnote). Type locality: [Brazil]. Holotype: Illustrated specimen in Bloch (1786: pl. 157, fig. 2). Name made available by reference to “Gymnotus macrurus [sic, macrourus], Bl., Carapus macrurus [sic, macrourus] Cuv.”

Sternopygus MarcgraviiReinhardt, 1852: 146. Type locality: Rio das Velhas [Rio São Francisco, Brazil]. Syntypes: BMNH 1868.7.8.1 (1); ZMUC P2512 [formerly ZMUC 7] (1), ZMUC P2515 [formerly ZMUC 16] (1) (Nielsen, 1974: 48).

Carapus sanguinolentusCastelnau, 1855: 85, pl. 46 (fig. 1). Type locality: rivière d’Urubamba [Peru]. Holotype: MNHN 0000-3971, 22 cm TL.

Hildatia brasiliensisFernández-Yépez, 1968: [3], [pl. 1]. Type locality: Sarapo Piauhy, Brazil. Holotype: MCZ 9461; 282 mm TL.

Remarks: Synonymy follows Albert (2003b). Redescribed from specimens from the Paraguay River, Argentina, by López, Castello (1966b).

Distribution: Widely distributed across continent east of Andes, as well as Magdalena River basin (Albert, 2003b); Uruguay River, Brazil (Bertaco, Cardoso, 2004).

Sternopygus obtusirostrisSteindachner, 1881

Sternopygus obtusirostrisSteindachner, 1881b: 143, pl. 2 (fig. 3). Type locality: Amazonen-Strom bei Teffé [Brazil]. Lectotype: MCZ 9413, 235 mm TL, designated in Crampton, Hulen, Albert (2004b: 122). Initial syntypes: MCZ 9413 (1), MCZ 9453 (1), MCZ 9425 (1), and NMW 64977 (1), from Amazonen-Strom bei Teffé, See Alexo und Manacapouru, Rio Puty, Rio Madeira [Brazil]; 17-50 cm TL.

Remarks: Redescribed in Crampton, Hulen, Albert (2004b). Treated as a junior synonym of Sternopygus macrurus Bloch, Schneider in Albert, Fink (1996) and Crampton, Hulen, Albert (2004a); treated as valid in Mago-Leccia (1994), Albert (2003b) and Campos-da-Paz (2007a).

Distribution: Main stem of Amazon River and lower Negro River basin (Albert, 2003b).

Sternopygus pejeratonSchultz, 1949

Sternopygus pejeratonSchultz, 1949: 60, pl. 1 (fig. a). Type locality: Río Apón, about 35 km south of Rosario, in the Maracaibo basin [Venezuela]. Holotype: USNM 121752; 505 mm TL.

Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin (Schultz, 1949; Albert, 2003b).

Sternopygus xinguAlbert, Fink, 1996

Sternopygus xinguAlbert, Fink, 1996: 90, figs. 7, 8, 9. Type locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso do Sul, tributary of Batovi River, Waura Indian Village, sta. X, Rio Xingú. Holotype: MZUSP 48374; 182 mm TL.

Distribution: Xingu and Tocantins River basins (Albert 2003b).

Inquirendae

GymnonotusBloch, Schneider, 1801: 521. Type species: Not yet found. Gender: masculine. Included species: G. electricus, G. carapo, G. macrurus, G. rostratus, G. acus, G. albus. Widely reported as an unjustified emendation for Gymnotus, but not so indicated in the account.

Gymnotus aequilabiatus nigricepsIhering, 1907: 285. Type locality: [Brazil] Boa Vista, Est. Maranhão. Syntypes (2): MZUSP [no catalog number stated]; 25, 28 cm TL. Types not found by Britski (1969) in MZUSP collection.

Sternopygus carapusGünther, 1870: 7. Type locality: Tropical America. Types: On numerous specimens and literature accounts. Name perhaps intended as a correction for Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus, which is listed in the account, but its status as an unjustified emendation is confounded by the range of specimens and other literature citations included in the account.

Acknowledgments

We thank the following people for providing copies of publications: John Lundberg and Mark Sabaj-Pérez (ANSP), James Albert (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Diana Shih (AMNH Library); and Marcus Anders Krag, who provided information on types at ZMUC. We also thank Ricardo Campos-da-Paz for his thorough review of an earlier version of this paper. We gratefully acknowledge the efforts of the people who built and maintain the Biodiversity Heritage Library (http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org) and Google Scholar, without which we might not have even attempted this project.

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Received: May 13, 2016; Accepted: August 21, 2016

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