SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.33 issue4Sunflower cake in the ration of dairy cows: microbial production, production, composition and fatty acid profile of milkArtificial illumination on performance of piglets at the nursery phase author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand

Journal

Article

Indicators

Related links

Share


Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences

On-line version ISSN 1807-8672

Acta Sci., Anim. Sci. vol.33 no.4 Maringá Oct./Dec. 2011

http://dx.doi.org/10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.10907 

Desempenho e desenvolvimento ruminal em resposta ao fornecimento de substâncias húmicas para bezerros leiteiros em sistema de desaleitamento precoce

 

Performance and rumen development of dairy calves in early weaning system receiving humic substances in starter concentrate

 

 

Jackeline Thaís da Silva; Carla Maris Machado Bittar*; Lucas Silveira Ferreira

Departamento de Zootecnia, Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Av. Pádua Dias, 11, Cx. Postal 9, 13418-900, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil

Correspondencia para

 

 


RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a inclusão de substâncias húmicas na dieta sobre o desempenho e o desenvolvimento ruminal de bezerros leiteiros da raça Holandesa. Foram utilizados 20 animais em delineamento experimental em blocos completos aleatorizados, distribuídos nos seguintes tratamentos: 1) controle; 2) substâncias húmicas, via concentrado inicial. Os animais receberam 4 L d-1 da dieta líquida e concentrado inicial ad libitum. Diariamente foram realizadas análise de escore fecal, e semanalmente foram realizadas pesagens, medidas de crescimento corporal e colheita de sangue para a determinação de glicose, N-ureico e β-hidroxibutirato (BHBA). Os animais foram desaleitados na oitava semana de idade e foram abatidos para análise do desenvolvimento do trato digestório superior. Não houve efeito significativo (p > 0,05) entre os tratamentos ou interação tratamento x idade para os parâmetros consumo de concentrado, ganho de peso, medidas de crescimento corporal e parâmetros sanguíneos. Entretanto, foi observado efeito de idade (p < 0,0001) para todos os parâmetros avaliados. O escore fecal e o desenvolvimento ruminal também não foram afetados pelos tratamentos (p > 0,05). Não houve efeito da inclusão de substâncias húmicas na dieta quanto ao desempenho e desenvolvimento ruminal de bezerros leiteiros.

Palavras-chave: ácido fúlvico, ácido húmico, escore fecal, papilas ruminais.


ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of humic substances in starter concentrate on the performance of dairy calves and rumen development. Twenty Holstein calves were used in a completely randomized block design and distributed in two treatments according to inclusion of humic substances in concentrate: 1) Control; 2) Humic substances. Animals received 4 L d-1 liquid diet and starter concentrate ad libitum. Fecal score analyses were carried out daily, and calves were weighed weekly and growth measurements and blood samples for glucose, urea-N and β-hidroxibutyrate (BHBA) were taken. The calves were weaned at eight weeks of age and slaughtered for evaluation of forestomach development. There were no effects (p > 0.05) between treatments or treatment x age interaction for concentrate intake, weight gain, growth measurements or blood parameters. Fecal scores and rumen development were not affected (p > 0.05) by the inclusion of humic substances. There were no benefits from the inclusion of humic substances in starter concentrate on performance or rumen development of dairy calves.

Keywords: fulvic acid, humic acid, fecal score, ruminal papillae.


 

 

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

Referências

AGAZZI, A.; CIGALINO, G.; MANCIN, G.; SAVOINI, G.; DELL'ORTO, V. Effects ofdietary humates on growth and an aspect of cell-mediated immune response in newborn kids. Small Ruminant Research, v. 72, n. 2-3, p. 242-245, 2007.         [ Links ]

AIKEN, G. R.; McKNIGHT, D. M.; WERSHAW, R. L.; McCARTHY, P. Humic substances in soil, sediment, and water-Geochemistry, isolation, and characterization. New York: Wiley, 1985.         [ Links ]

BOZKURT, S.; LUCISANO, M.; MORENO, L.; NERETNIEKS, I. Peat as a potentialanalogue for the long-term evolution in landfills. Earth-Science Reviews, v. 53, n. 1-2, p. 95-147, 2001.         [ Links ]

BROWN, E. G.; VANDEHAAR, M. J.; DANIELS, K. M.; LIESMAN, J. S.; CHAPIN, L. T.; KEISLER, D. H.; NIELSEN, M. S. W. Effect of increasing energy and protein intake on body growth and carcass composition of heifer calves. Journal of Dairy Science, v. 88, n. 2, p. 585-594, 2005.         [ Links ]

CAMPOS, F. P.; NUSSIO, C. M. B.; NUSSIO, L. G. Métodos de análises de alimentos. Piracicaba: Fealq, 2002.         [ Links ]

CHANEY, A. L.; MARBACH, E. P. Modified reagents for determination of urea and ammonia. Clinical Chemistry, v. 8, n. 2, p. 130-132, 1962.         [ Links ]

COVERDALE, J. A.; TYLER, H. D.; QUIGLEY III, J. D.; BRUMM, J. D. Effect of various levels of forage and form of diet on rumen development and growth in calves. Journal of Dairy Science, v. 87, n. 8, p. 2554-2562, 2004.         [ Links ]

CUSAK, P. M. V. Effects of a dietary complex of humic and fulvic acids (FeedMAX 15 (TM)) on the health and production of feedlot cattle destined for the Australian domestic market. Australian Veterinary Journal, v. 86, n. 1-2, p. 46-49, 2008.         [ Links ]

FERREIRA, L. S.; BITTAR, C. M. M.; SANTOS, V. P.; MATTOS, W. R. S.; PIRES, A. V. Efeito da adição de butirato de sódio, propionato de cálcio ou monensina sódica no concentrado inicial sobre parâmetros ruminais e de desenvolvimento do rúmen de bezerros leiteiros. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, v. 38, n. 11, p. 2238-2246, 2009.         [ Links ]

GREENWOOD, R. H.; MORRILL, J. L.; TITGEMEYER, E. C. Using dry feed intake as a percentage of initial body weight as a weaning criterion. Journal of Dairy Science, v. 80, n. 10, p. 2542-2546, 1997.         [ Links ]

HEINRICHS, A. J.; JONES, C. M.; HEINRICHS B. S. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide or antibiotics in neonatal diets on health and growth of dairy calves. Journal Dairy Science, v. 86, n. 12, p. 4064-4069, 2003.         [ Links ]

HEINRICHS, A. J.; ROGERS, W. O.; COOPER, J. B. Predicting body weight and wither height in Holstein heifers using body measurements. Journal of Dairy Science, v. 75, n. 12, p. 3576-3581, 1992.         [ Links ]

HILL, S. R.; HOPKINS, B. A.; DAVIDSON, S.; BOLT, S. M.; DIAZ, D. E.; BROWNIE, C.; BROWN, T.; HUNTINGTON, G. B.; WHITLOW, L. W. The addition of cottonseed hulls to the starter and supplementation of live yeast or mannanoligosaccharide in the milk for young calves. Journal of Dairy Science, v. 92, n. 2, p. 790-798, 2009.         [ Links ]

HOFFMAN, P. C. Optimum body size of Hosltein replacement heifers. Journal of Animal Science, v. 75, n. 3, p. 836-845, 1997.         [ Links ]

HUBER, J. T. Development of the digestive and metabolic apparatus of the calf. Journal of Dairy Science, v. 52, n. 8, p. 1303-1315, 1969.         [ Links ]

ISLAM, K. M. S.; SCHUHMACHER, A.; GROPP, J. M. Humic acid substances in animal agriculture. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, v. 4, n. 3, p. 126-134, 2005.         [ Links ]

KNUDSEN, K. E. B. Carbohydrate and lignin contents of plant materials used in animal feeding. Animal Feed Science and Technology, v. 67, n. 4, p. 319-338, 1997.         [ Links ]

LARSON, L. L.; OWEN, F. G.; ALBRIGHT, J. L.; APPLEMAN, R. D.; LAMB, R. C.; MULLER, L. D. Guidelines toward more uniformity in measuring and reporting calf experimental data. Journal of Dairy Science, v. 60, n. 6, p. 989-991, 1977.         [ Links ]

LESMEISTER, K. E.; TOZER, P. R.; HEINRICHS, A. J. Development and analysis of a rumen tissue sampling procedure. Journal of Dairy Science, v. 87, n. 5, p. 1336-1344, 2004.         [ Links ]

NRC-National Research Council. Nutrient requirement in dairy cattle. 7th ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Science, 2001.         [ Links ]

OWEN, F. G.; JACOBSON, N. L.; ALLEN, R. S.; HOMEYER, P. G. Nutritional factors in calf diarrhea. Journal of Dairy Science, v. 41, n. 5, p. 662-670, 1958.         [ Links ]

QUIGLEY  III, J. D. Influence of weaning method on growth, intake,and selected blood metabolites in Jersey calves. Journal of Dairy Science, v. 79, n. 12, p. 2255-2260, 1996.         [ Links ]

QUIGLEY III, J. D.; BERNARD, J. K. Effects of nutrient source and time of feeding on changes in blood metabolites in young calves. Journal of Animal Science, v. 70, n. 5, p. 1543-1549, 1992.         [ Links ]

SAS-Statistical Analysis System. Statistcal guide for personal computer. Cary: Statistical Analysis System Institute Inc., 2006.         [ Links ]

TAMATE, H.; McGILLIARD, A. D.; JACOBSON, N. L.; GETTY, R. Effect of various dietaries on the anatomical development of the stomach in the calf. Journal of Dairy Science, v. 45, n. 3, p. 408-420, 1962.         [ Links ]

TERRÉ, M.; CALVO, M. A.; ADELANTADO, C.; KOCHER, A.; BACH, A. Effects of mannan oligosaccharides on performance and microorganism fecal counts of calves following an enhanced-growth feeding program. Animal Feed Science and Technology, v. 137, n. 1-2, p. 115-125, 2007.         [ Links ]

VAN SOEST, P. J.; ROBERTSON, J. B.; LEWIS, B. A. Methods for dietary fiber neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, v. 74, n. 10, p. 3583-3597, 1991.         [ Links ]

 

*Autor para correspondência
E-mail: carlabittar@usp.br

Received on August 16, 2010.
Accepted on March 16, 2011.

License information: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License