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Arquivos do Instituto Biológico

Print version ISSN 0020-3653On-line version ISSN 1808-1657

Arq. Inst. Biol. vol.85  São Paulo  2018  Epub Nov 23, 2018

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1808-1657000842017 

SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION

AGRICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY

New host records for species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

Novos registros de hospedeiros para espécies de Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) no estado do Amazonas, Brasil

Elson Gomes de Souza1 
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1228-6977

Agno Nonato Serrão Acioli1  * 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8482-0932

Neliton Marques da Silva1 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6812-729X

Francisco Clóvis Costa da Silva1 

1Universidade Federal do Amazonas - Manaus (AM), Brazil

ABSTRACT:

This is the first record, for the state of Amazonas, of the occurrence of Anastrepha striata in fruits of abiu (Pouteria caimito, Sapotaceae) and star fruit (Averrhoa carambola, Oxalidaceae). The associations between A. striata vs Inga fagifolia (Fabaceae), A. striata vs Passiflora nitida (Passifloraceae) and Anastrepha distincta vs P. nitida are new for Brazil.

KEYWORDS: Amazon; host plants; fruit flies

RESUMO:

Esse é o primeiro registro, para o estado do Amazonas, da ocorrência de Anastrepha striata em frutos de abiu (Pouteria caimito, Sapotaceae) e de carambola (Averrhoa carambola, Oxalidaceae). As associações entre A. striata e Inga fagifolia (Fabaceae), A. striata e Passiflora nitida (Passifloraceae) e Anastrepha distincta e P. nitida são inéditas para o Brasil.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Amazônia; plantas hospedeiras; mosca-das-frutas

In Brazil, the fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae) are very diverse and widely distributed, representing one of the main pests of fruticulture (MARSARO-JÚNIOR et al., 2013; CAMARGOS et al., 2015). In the Brazilian Amazon there are 78 known species of Anastrepha, with 42 recorded for the state of Amazonas, Brazil (ADAIME et al., 2016a). Intensive surveys done on native and exotic fruits have led to new fruit fly/host associations (DUTRA et al., 2013; ADAIME et al., 2016b), however, there is still a knowledge gap in the Brazilian Amazon region, which this study aims to fill.

In this context, the species Anatrepha striata Schiner 1868 and Anastrepha distincta Greene 1934 are highlighted for their constant occurrence in regional fruits. Anastrepha striata is a polyphagous species, very abundant and broadly distributed in the Amazon region, where it is a key pest species. It has been recorded on 31 plant species (ADAIME et al., 2014) and prefers fruits of the family Myrtaceae, especially guava (Psidium guajava) (ADAIME et al., 2016a). Currently, for the state of Amazonas, A. striata is associated to six hosts from two botanical families (Table 1).

Table 1. Hosts of A. striata and A. distincta in the state of Amazonas. 

Species of fruit fly Common name Botanical family Botanical species
A. striata Guava Myrtaceae Psidium guajva
Araza Psidium stipitata
Pará guava Psidiuma cutangulun
Brazilian guava Psidium guineense
Surinam cherry fruit Eugenia uniflora
Passion fruit Passifloraceae Passiflora edulis
A. distincta Ice-cream-bean Fabaceae Inga edulis
Ingá-mirim Inga fagifolia
Ingá-açu Inga cinnamomea
Bacuri Clusiaceae Platonia insignis
Mapati Moraceae Pouroma cecropiaefolia
Hogplum Anancardiaceae Spondia mombin

Source: ZUCCHI, 2008; ADAIME et al., 2016a.

Anastrepha distincta is recorded for 17 host species and shows a preference towards fruits of the family Fabaceae, especially the ice-cream-bean (Inga edulis). In the state of Amazonas, A. distincta is associated to six hosts from four botanical families (Table 1).

The state of Amazonas, in 2016, was the third largest producer of guava for commercialization in the North region of Brazil (IBGE, 2016). Furthermore, besides the economic importance of the two species of Tephritidae that damage and affect the commercialization of these fruits, guava is commonly consumed in natura in the Amazonian region, often planted in urban and rural backyards (SEMEDO; BARBOSA, 2007; ALMEIDA; GAMA, 2014).

All entomological material studied was collected in the municipality of Benjamin Constant (4º21’S; 70º2’W), mesoregion of the upper Solimões river, southwest in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Abiu fruits (Pouteria caimito) were collected in the month of November/ 2008 and 2009, ingá-mirim (Inga fagifolia) and star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) were collected in 2009, and the bell apple (Passiflora nitida) fruits in May/2009 and August/2017. To obtain the fly adults, the fruits were kept in plastic bags and taken to the laboratory, where they were placed in plastic containers, with a layer of moist sand, and then covered with a screen cloth (ALMEIDA et al., 1998). After adult emergence, the specimens were kept for 24 hours until wing markings settled and then transferred to tubes with 70% EtOH. Sexes were distinguished based on the presence/absence of the ovipositor. Species were identified based on morphological characteristics of the apex of the aculeus on the ovipositor, under stereomicroscope, and using the identification key to species of fruit flies recorded for Brazil (ZUCCHI, 2000). Specimens were deposited in the insect collection of the Laboratório de Entomologia e Acarologia Agrícola of the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias/Universidade Federal do Amazonas - LEA/FCA/UFAM, in Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil.

Table 2 shows the first records, for the state of Amazonas, of A. striata attacking fruits of abiu (P. caimito, Sapotaceae) and star fruit (A. carambola, Oxalidaceae), and the first Brazilian records of A. striata attacking bell apple fruits (Passiflora nitida, Passifloraceae) and ingá-mirim (Inga fagifolia, Fabaceae). With these new records, A. striata now has eight known hosts in the state of Amazonas and 33 in Brazil. Furthermore, Table 2 also shows the first association between A. distincta and bell apple fruits (P. nitida, Passifloraceae) for the state of Amazonas and Brazil; until now the only known association of the fruit was with Anastrepha curitis Stone, 1942. With this new record, A. distincta now has seven known hosts in the state of Amazonas and 18 in Brazil. Most fruit fly studies in the state of Amazonas are concentrated in the metropolitan region of the city of Manaus. In the upper Solimões region, A. striata was reported by RONCHI-TELES (2000), RIBEIRO (2005) and ALMEIDA et al. (2009). A. distincta was reported by RIBEIRO (2005), however, without any host association. These new records highlight the need to increase surveys of Tephritidae fauna in all Amazonian sub-regions.

Table 2. Association between fruit fly species and host plants in Benjamin Constant, upper Solimões river, state of Amazonas, Brazil. 

Fruit fly species Sexing and sexual ratio of individuals Common name Botanical family Scientific name
A. striata 16♂ e 24♀ (0.60) Abiu Sapotaceae Pouteria caimito*
4♂ e 3♀ (0.43) Bell apple fruit Passifloraceae Passiflora nitida**
1♂ e 2♀ (0.67) Star fruit Oxalidaceae Averrhoa carambola*
1♂ e 2♀ (0.67) Ingá-mirim Fabaceae Inga fagifolia**
A. distincta 3♂ e 12♀ (0.80) Bell apple fruit Passifloraceae Passiflora nitida**

* First record for the state of Amazonas; ** First record for Brazil.

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Received: October 19, 2017; Accepted: August 31, 2018

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