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Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano

Print version ISSN 1415-8426On-line version ISSN 1980-0037

Rev. bras. cineantropom. desempenho hum. vol.22  Florianópolis  2020  Epub Apr 03, 2020

https://doi.org/10.1590/1980-0037.2020v22e59831 

original article

Effect of eccentric overload through isoinertial technology in basketball players

Efeito da sobrecarga excêntrica através da tecnologia isoinercial em jogadores profissionais de basquetebol

Ruben Cabanillas1 
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6388-4761

Jorge Serna1 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5454-9790

Veronica Muñoz-Arroyave1 
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7202-8596

José Albeiro Echeverri Ramos2 
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7454-6194

1National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia. University of Lleida Spain.

2University Institute of Physical Education. University of Antioquia. Medellin Colombia.


Abstract

The present study investigated the effect of eccentric overload on professional basketball players. Participants were 8 players aged 18-25 years who play in a Leb Oro League team. There was an 8 week training cycle with 1 weekly session of half squats. The control group performed training following a traditional methodology –using free weights– whereas the experimental group used inertial technology, that is, the ProSquat machine from Proinertial®. Both vertical jump and 30-meter sprint were assessed before and after intervention. The following conclusions were reached: a) strength training with vertical vector improves the 30-meter sprint test and also the vertical jump; b) training program that affects the eccentric overload of the movement results in more improvements than traditional training with the same duration; c) training in the vertical vector also has an impact on the way force is manifested in the horizontal vector, showing improvements in the 30-meter sprint.

Key words Basketball; Countermovement jump; Sprint

Resumo

O presente estudo investigou o efeito da sobrecarga excêntrica em jogadores profissionais de basquetebol. Os participantes foram 8 jogadores de uma equipe da Leb Gold League entre 18 e 25 anos. Um ciclo de treinamento de 8 semanas foi realizado com 1 sessão semanal no exercício de meio agachamento. O grupo controle realizou o treinamento com metodologia tradicional, com pesos livres, e o grupo experimental, por meio de tecnologia inercial, com a máquina ProSquat, Proinertial®. O salto vertical e o sprint de 30 metros foram avaliados antes e após a intervenção. As seguintes conclusões foram obtidas: a) o treinamento de força com um componente no vetor vertical mostra melhorias no teste de 30 metros e no salto vertical; b) um programa que afeta a sobrecarga de movimento excêntrico apresenta resultados com melhores desempenhos do que o treinamento tradicional; c) o treinamento no vetor vertical também afeta uma expressão da força no vetor horizontal, mostrando melhorias no sprint de 30 metros.

Palavras-chave Basquetebol; Salto vertical; Velocidade

INTRODUCTION

The evolution of basketball intensity in recent years is probably due to different variables, such as increase in the game pace and improvement in the physical conditions of players. The reality of basketball players is that they must express actions such as accelerations, decelerations, changes in direction, jumps, landings, contact with rivals, throws, passes, among others; and all of them, or at least many of them at high speed of execution and with large decision component1.

These high-intensity actions are expressions of strength that can be categorized as displacement strength, jumping strength, combat strength and throwing strength2. The jumping strength includes actions such as vertical jumps3,4 and landings; the displacement strength includes actions such as change of direction4,5, accelerations and decelerations4; the throwing strength includes all throws performed6 and, finally, the combat strength would be found in actions such as blocks, contacts in individual duels and rebound7.

Many of the movements in team sports require players to produce strength by influencing the eccentric and multidirectional phase, so it would be interesting to add a unilateral and multivectorial component to this type of sport to influence the eccentric phase of the movement. The vast majority of basketball actions or movements require three-dimensional deceleration and acceleration movements that require changes in direction, either in the horizontal or vertical vector6.

Therefore, strength training has acquired a fundamental role in the performance of basketball players. Traditionally, for strength training, resources such as free weights, machines, loads, obstacles, among others1, are used. In recent years, inertial technology has emerged as an alternative that enables accentuating the eccentric overload in more specific sports actions, such as changing direction, an essential aspect for player optimization, reducing the risk of injuries and in rehabilitation from injuries7. Currently, they have been considered as optimal methods for strength development, both for performance improvement, prevention and rehabilitation from injuries8-9.

Some of the effects of eccentric overload training described in literature are: improved intramuscular coordination, increased strength throughout ROM, less cardiovascular stress, compared to intense concentric contractions and greater muscle power and performance10. In addition, muscle fatigue generated by eccentric training causes, after its adequate rest, a protective effect that can remain several months after training11. This effect is commonly called the Repeated Bout Effect12 and its causes are multifactorial13.

The vast majority of actions in sport occur unilaterally. Traditionally, these skills have been optimized through bilateral actions14. On the other hand, different results have also been found8. Today, the direction in which strength is applied has become more important. In this way, the vertical component would produce actions such as jumps, the horizontal component would produce actions such as sprints and, finally, the lateral component would produce actions such as change of direction.

A technology that helps optimizing the components mentioned above is the conical pulley, one of the inertial devices that allows working mainly on the horizontal component. This type of instrument showed improvements in change of direction and horizontal jump movements unilaterally performed10, in addition to high specificity in sports gestures. Another inertial device is the ProSquat, Proinertial® which, although it simply limits the vertical component, facilitates the achievement of greater peaks of sport-specific strength. It was found that this instrument has improved performance especially in tests such as CMJ15.

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different types of exercises on the jump height (countermovement jump) and on the 30-meter linear sprint: a) half squat in the ProSquat Proinertial® machine, with a focus on providing maximum speed in the acceleration and deceleration phases in the last third of the movement to obtain higher level of eccentric overload in the area; and b) half traditional squat with free weight, ensuring that the execution speed is the maximum possible.

METHOD

Sample

The sample consisted of professional basketball players (n = 8; 21.3 years DT = 3.45, height 193.5 cm, DT = 8.04 and weight 87.43 kg, DT = 11.65). The inclusion criteria were to participate in weekly competitions and with 2 years of experience in strength training. Subjects were randomly assigned to a half squat program with eccentric overload (n = 4) and traditional squat program (n = 4).

Procedure and Instruments

Subjects were randomly assigned to a half squat program with eccentric overload (n = 4) and traditional squat program (n = 4). Training lasted 8 weeks and was carried out with regular group sessions. The first 2 weeks were used for assessments and for individuals to become familiar with exercises and inertial devices. For the next six weeks, subjects trained 1 day a week, 72 hours after the last game.

Tests included linear running and countermovement jumping (CMJ). Subjects were asked not to perform any strenuous exercise before tests and to rest well in the previous night.

The instrument used to evaluate the countermovement jump (CMJ) was the jump platform in software 1.8.0 (CHRONOJUMP®, Software, Barcelona, ​​Spain). The MySprintApp16 application was used to evaluate the 30-meter linear sprint.

30-m test: The subject was placed on the starting line, and when ready, he runs at maximum possible speed until completing the 30 meters of the linear sprint. It is recommended not to brake within a radius of 30 meters, but continue to apply maximum speed and brake afterwards. The test was performed three times, with a three-minute interval between attempts.

CMJ test: In this jump, the athlete enters the platform with both hands on the hips. In a fast and continuous downward movement, he flex the knees at a 90º flexion angle, maintaining the verticality of the torso and then generates the vertical jump that takes him off the ground. During the entire flight phase, the athlete must keep the lower limbs and trunk in full extension until contact with the platform. Landing should be performed in plantar flexion at the level of the ankle, knee and hip extension. The test was performed 5 times with 15” of rest between jumps.

Programs lasted 8 weeks: 2 weeks of familiarization and 6 weeks of training. Players trained once a week and had a passive 3-minute recovery between sets. The load for week 1 and 2 was 4 series of 10 repetitions, weeks 3 and 4, 5 series of 10 repetitions and weeks 5 and 6, 6 series of 10 repetitions. The application of load in the traditional exercise was performed due to the nature of the effort17, using 10 repetitions of 14 possible at maximum speed. Regarding the application of load in exercise with eccentric overload, half of the possible load allowed by the device (IM: 0.0332 kg * m2) was used, with concentric phase as fast as possible and focusing braking on the last third of the movement. The eccentric overload training was performed with the ProSquat, Proinertial® machine (Proinertial®, Barcelona, ​​Spain) by means of a series of half squats, while the group submitted to traditional training performed the same exercise, but with bar and discs.

Before performing the warm-up training exercises, athletes performed five minutes on a cycle ergometer, various mobility exercises, specific CORE exercises and activation of the lower body muscles using elastic bands.

Figure 1 Training procedure 

Data analysis

Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the percentage of individual improvement in CMJ and 30-meter sprint. In addition, ANOVA for repeated samples was applied to determine the significant differences between pre-test and post-test in both tests according to the type of training performed.

RESULTS

Depending on the type of training performed, significant improvements were observed in CMJ F (1, 6) = 8.62 test; p = 0.026, and in the 30-meter sprint F (1, 6) = 11.12; p = 0.016, compared to pre-test. In both tests, the group that obtained the highest performance was the one that used eccentric overload: a) CMJ: (free weight: M = 38.05; ST = 2.89; I: M = 43.27, ST = 1, 65); b) 30-meter sprint (free weight: M = 4.38, ST = 0.22; I: M = 4.17, ST = 0.24) (table 1).

Table 1 Effect of eccentric overload on CMJ and 30-meter sprint of basketball players 

Post-test
M ST F (1, 6) p
CMJ
Free weight 38.05 2.89 8.62 .026
Yo-yo 43.27 1.65    
30-meter sprint
Free weight 4.38, .22 11.12 .016
Yo-yo 4.17 .24

Note. CMJ: countermovement jumps

DISCUSSION

In this study, in which exercises were compared only and exclusively in the vertical vector (half squat with free weight and half squat with eccentric overload), positive effects were obtained using both programs on dependent variables (CMJ and linear Sprint), with better results using eccentric overload. This occurred both in the horizontal and vertical vector, even with greater differences in the horizontal vector, as opposed to other investigations15.

For the CMJ test, significant improvements were found in the inertial squat group. These results were expected, since, when manifesting strength in the vertical component for this type of test, it is more specific. Similar results have already been found in similar investigations using this type of test15,18. The control group also showed improvements, because, when comparing traditional vertical and horizontal training, greater improvements were found in the group that trained vertically19.

In the sprint test, the inertial squat group showed significant improvements. Similar results were found in other investigations15,20,21. The control group did not show significant improvements, but lower limb adaptations had already been observed in other studies using traditional weight19. In literature, it has been shown that greater improvements reported for this test were obtained with the application of inertial technology to ischemic target muscles20. This may be due to the fact that higher power peak generated by the referred musculature reported higher level of performance for this test22.

CONCLUSIONS

Strength training for the development of specific actions related to displacement strength (linear sprint) and jumping strength (CMJ) are essential for the modern basketball player. Specialists have used different training programs (traditional training and use of isoinertial technology) that cause improvements in athletes’ performance. In addition, it should be highlighted that squat training can generate positive cross-sectional effects for different specific actions in basketball.

COMPLIANCE WITH ETHICAL STANDARDS

Funding

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or non-profit sectors. This study was funded by the authors.

Ethical approval

This research is in accordance with standards set by the Declaration ofHelsinki

How to cite this article

Cabanillas R, Serna J, MuñozArroyave V, Echeverri A. Effect of eccentric overload through isoinertial technology in basketball players. Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum 2020, 22:e59831. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1980-0037.2020v22e59831

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Received: October 20, 2018; Accepted: January 23, 2020

Corresponding author Jorge Serna BardavíoPartidada. Caparrella. INEFC 25192 Lleida (Spain) 973272022 E-mail: jserna@inefc.es

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have no conflict of interests to declare.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RC, JS, VM, AE. Performed the experiments: RC, JS, VM, AE. Analyzed data: RC, JS, VM, AE. Contributed with reagents/materials/analysis tools: RC, JS, VM, AE. Wrote the paper: RC, JS, VM, AE.

Creative Commons License This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.