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Ciência Florestal

Print version ISSN 0103-9954On-line version ISSN 1980-5098

Ciênc. Florest. vol.22 no.2 Santa Maria Apr./June 2012

https://doi.org/10.5902/198050985736 

Artigo

CALIDAD DEL CARBONO ORGÁNICO DEL SUELO EN DIFERENTES TÉCNICAS DE MANEJO DE RESIDUOS FORESTALES

SOIL ORGANIC CARBON QUALITY IN DIFFERENT FOREST RESIDUE MANAGEMENT

Ana Maria Lupi1 

Marta E. Conti2 

Roberto A. Fernandez3 

1. Ingeniera Forestal, Msc., Investigador del Instituto de Suelos, Centro de Investigación de Recursos Naturales (CIRN), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Castelar Los Reseros y Las Cabañas s/n CC25, Villa Udaondo, Castelar, Buenos Aires, Argentina. amlupi@cnia.inta.gov.ar

2. Ingeniera Agrónoma, Msc., Profesor e Investigador de la Cátedra de Edafología, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. San Martín 4453 (1417), Buenos Aires, Argentina. conti@agro.uba.ar

3. Ingeniero Agrónomo, Msc., Investigador de la Estación Experimental Agropecuaria Montecarlo, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Av. El Libertador 2472 (3384), Montecarlo, Misiones, Argentina. rfernandez@montecarlo.inta.gov.ar


RESUMEN

Las distintas técnicas de cosecha y manejo de residuos pueden provocar cambios en la cantidad y calidad de la materia orgánica (MO) del suelo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las modificaciones en la concentración y la calidad de la MO en un Ultisol con diferentes manejos de los residuos de la cosecha forestal del Pinus elliottii Engelm, al inicio de la segunda rotación. Los tratamientos analizados fueron: a) extracción manual de los residuos de la cosecha y del piso forestal, suelo descubierto (ER), b) quema de residuos y del mantillo, y laboreo con rastra (PI), c) conservación de residuos y del mantillo sobre el suelo (PC). Se determinó el carbono orgánico (CO) en todo el suelo y en las fracciones de ácidos fúlvicos (AF), ácidos húmicos (AH), huminas (HU) y en la fracción liviana (CL). La conservación de los residuos de la cosecha no aumentó el CO ni el CL. Se observó una pérdida de la fracción de ácidos fúlvicos (AF) particularmente en PI. Los tratamientos sin residuos forestales (ER y PI) muestran un aumento en el grado de estabilización de la MO con un incremento de las HU y de la relación CAH/CAF.

Palabras-chave: sustancias húmicas; residuos de cosecha; preparación del terreno; Pinus

ABSTRACT

Different harvest techniques and residue management can cause changes in the quantity and quality in soil organic matter (OM). This study aims to assess changes in concentration and in the quality of the OM, in an Ultisol with differents forest residue managements at the beginning of the second rotation. The treatment was: a) elimination of harvest residues and forest floor, bare soil (RE), (b) burning of harvest residues and forest floor and subsequent plowing (IP), (c) maintenance of harvest residues and forest floor on the ground (CP). Soil samples were analyzed for determination of soil organic carbon (OC), carbon in the light fraction (LC) and carbon in the fulvic acids (FA), humic acids (HA) and humins (HU) fractions. The harvest residue conservation did not increase the OC or the LC. There was a loss of the more labile fraction (FA) particularly in IP. The treatments without forest residues and forest floor (RE and IP) show an increase in the degree of stabilization of the OM with an increase HU and in the ratio HA/FA.

Keywords :  humid substances; harvest residues; site preparation; Pinus.

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