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Dementia & Neuropsychologia

Print version ISSN 1980-5764

Dement. neuropsychol. vol.4 no.2 São Paulo Apr./June 2010

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1980-57642010DN40200007 

Original Articles

Effects of cognitive training based on metamemory and mental images

Efeitos do treino cognitivo baseado em metamemória e imagens mentais

Thaís Bento Lima-Silva1 

Tiago Nascimento Ordonez1 

Glenda Dias dos Santos1 

Aline Teixeira Fabrício2 

Flávia Ogava Aramaki2 

Evany Bettine de Almeida2 

Débora Lee Vianna-Paulo1 

Mayne Patrício Malagutti1 

Ana Carolina Valente-Oliveira1 

Amanda Iwasaki2 

Gisele dos Santos Souza2 

Mônica Sanches Yassuda3 

1Bachelors in Gerontology, School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo SP, Brazil.

2Undergraduate Students in Gerontology, School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo SP, Brazil

3Assistant Professor in Gerontology, School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo SP, Brazil.

Abstract

There is scant research evidence regarding training effects among elderly with limited educational experience. Research indicating an association between metamemory and memory performance is based on samples of older adults with at least 12 years of education.

Objectives:

To test the efficacy of a cognitive training program based on the creation of mental images and changes in specific aspects of metamemory in individuals with 3 to 15 years of education (M=8.38, SD=4.24).

Methods:

37 older adults participated in five training sessions (Training Group (TG)) and 32 control subjects completed only pre and post test assessments (Control Group (CG)) including the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB) (naming and memorization of 10 pictures, animal category verbal fluency test, the Clock Drawing Test (CDT)), the Story subtest from the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT), the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q), and the Picture and Story domains from the Memory Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (MSEQ).

Results:

The TG showed significant improvement between pre and post tests on the delayed recall of the 10 pictures and in self-efficacy for the memorization of stories. These same changes were not found in the CG .

Conclusions:

Five-session cognitive training may lead to significant improvements in episodic memory and memory self-efficacy, an aspect of metamemory, in individuals with an average of 8 years of education.

Key words: cognitive training; cognition; mental images; self-efficacy; metamemory; elderly; aging.

Resumo

Existem na literatura poucas evidências sobre os efeitos do treino cognitivo entre idosos com baixa escolaridade. Pesquisas que evidenciam a associação entre metamemória e o desempenho em tarefas de memória baseiam-se em amostras com idosos com 12 anos de escolaridade ou mais

Objetivos:

Testar a eficácia de um programa de treino cognitivo baseado na criação de imagens mentais e na alteração de aspectos da metamemória entre indivíduos entre 3 e 15 anos de escolaridade (M=8.38, SD=4.24).

Métodos:

37 adultos maduros e idosos participaram de cinco sessões de treino (Grupo Treino (GT)) e 32 somente completaram as avaliações pré e pós-intervenção (Grupo Controle (GC)), com o Mini Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM), a Escala de Depressão Geriátrica (EDG), a Bateria Breve de Rastreio Cognitivo (BBRC) (nomeação e memorização de 10 figuras, fluência verbal animais, Teste do Desenho do Relógio), o subteste Estória do Teste Comportamental de Memória de Rivermead (RBMT), o Questionário de Queixas de Memória (MAC-Q), os domínios Figura e História do Questionário de Auto-Eficácia para Memória (MSEQ).

Resultados:

O GT apresentou ganho significativo entre o pré e o pós-teste no resgate tardio das 10 figuras e na auto-eficácia para a memorização de histórias. Estas alterações não foram encontradas no GC.

Conclusões:

O treino cognitivo de cinco sessões pode gerar melhora significativa em memória episódica e em auto-eficácia, um aspecto da metamemória, em indivíduos com 8 anos de escolaridade em média.

Palavras-chave: treino cognitivo; cognição; imagens mentais; auto-eficácia; metamemória; idosos; envelhecimento.

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text available only in PDF format.

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Received: November 22, 2009; Accepted: April 22, 2010

Mônica Sanches Yassuda - Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades / Universidade de São Paulo - Av. Arlindo Bettio 1000 / sala 345J - 03828-000 São Paulo SP - Brazil. E-mail: yassuda@usp.br

Disclosure: The authors report no conflicts of interest.

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