SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.6 número4Relação entre as alterações estruturais do cerebelo e demência, transtorno do estresse pós-traumático e transtorno bipolarRevisão sistemática da literatura sobre vitamina A e memória índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados

Journal

Artigo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

Compartilhar


Dementia & Neuropsychologia

versão impressa ISSN 1980-5764

Dement. neuropsychol. vol.6 no.4 São Paulo out./dez. 2012

https://doi.org/10.1590/S1980-57642012DN06040004 

Artigos Originais

Memory complaint scale (MCS): Proposed tool for active systematic search

Escala de queixa de memória (EQM). Proposta de um instrumento para busca ativa e sistematizada

Francisco A.C. Vale1 

Ari P. Balieiro-Jr2 

José Humberto Silva-Filho3 

1Behavioral Neurology Outpatient Unit of the Clínicas Hospital of the Hospital of the Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine of the University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto SP, Brazil. 1PhD, Adjunct Professor of Medicine of the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), Neurologist, São Carlos SP, Brazil.

2Masters, Assistant Researcher of the Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology Group of the UFSCar and the Laboratory of Psychological Assessment of the UFAM, psychologist.

3PhD, Adjunct Professor of the School of Psychology of the Federal University of Amazonas (UFAM), psychologist, Manaus AM, Brazil.


ABSTRACT

Subjective Memory Complaints (SMC) are frequent among adults and elderly and are associated with poor quality of life. The etiology and clinical significance of SMCs are unclear, but these complaints are associated with objective cognitive decline or with depression, anxiety and psychosocial stressors. Biological and physiological brain alterations resembling those in Alzheimer's Disease have been found in SMC. SMC can evolve with different outcomes and represent the initial symptom or a risk factor of dementia. Active systematic search can be useful for early screening of candidates for preventive or therapeutic interventions.

Objective:

To propose a Memory Complaints Scale (MCS) as an instrument for actively searching for memory complaints and to investigate its utility for discriminating demented from cognitively normal elderly.

Methods:

A total of 161 patients from a teaching behavioral neurology outpatient unit of a tertiary hospital were studied. The MCS was used in two ways, by direct application to the patient and by application to the patient's companion. Cognitive tests assessing depression and daily living activities were also applied.

Results:

High Cronbach's alpha coefficients were found for the two application methods. Correlations between the two versions and the other instruments administered for patients grouped by type and severity of dementia were also found.

Conclusion:

The MCS is a useful scale for identifying memory complaints and discriminating demented from cognitively normal elderly. Further studies confirming these findings are warranted.

Key words: subjective memory complaints; memory; psychometric tests; dementia

RESUMO

Queixa Subjetiva de Memória (QSM) é frequente entre adultos e idosos e está associada a pior qualidade de vida. Etiologia e significado clínico são incertos, sendo associada a perdas cognitivas objetivas ou a depressão, ansiedade e estressores psicossociais. Foram demonstradas alterações biológicas e fisiológicas encefálicas semelhantes às da doença de Alzheimer. Pode ter diferentes desfechos e representar sintoma inicial ou fator de risco para demência. A busca ativa e sistematizada pode ser útil na identificação precoce de pessoas que poderão receber intervenções preventivas ou terapêuticas.

Objetivo:

Propor a Escala de Queixa de Memória (EQM) como um instrumento para a busca de queixa de memória e investigar se é útil para discriminar idosos demenciados de normais.

Métodos:

Foram estudados 161 pacientes de um ambulatório didático de neurologia comportamental de um hospital terciário. A EQM foi utilizada nas duas formas, uma diretamente aplicada ao paciente e a outra aplicada ao acompanhante sobre o paciente. Também foram aplicados testes cognitivos, para depressão e para atividades diárias.

Resultados:

Foram encontrados altos coeficientes alfa de Cronbach para as duas formas. Também foram encontradas correlações entre as duas formas e os outros instrumentos, para os pacientes agrupados conforme tipo e gravidade da demência.

Conclusão:

A EQM é uma escala útil para identificar queixa de memória e pode ser útil para discriminar idosos demenciados de normais. Estudos subsequentes deverão ser realizados para verificar essas informações.

Palavras-chave: queixas subjetivas de memória; memória; testes psicométricos; demência

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text available only in PDF format.

REFERENCES

Abdulrab K, Heun R. Subjective Memory Impairment. A review of its definitions indicates the need for a comprehensive set of standardised and validated criteria. Euro Psychiatry 2008;23:321-330. [ Links ]

Westoby CJ, Mallen CD, Thomas E. Cognitive complaints in a general population of older adults: prevalence, association with pain and the influence of concurrent affective disorders. Eur J Pain 2009;13:970-976. [ Links ]

Park MH, Min JY, Min HY, Lee HJ, Lee DH, Song MS. Subjective memory complaints and clinical characteristics in elderly Koreans: a questionnaire survey. Int J Nurs Stud 2007;44:1400-1405. [ Links ]

Jonker C, Geerlings MI, Schmand B. Are memory complaints predictive for dementia? A review of clinical and population-based studies. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2000;15:983-991. [ Links ]

Brucki SM, Nitrini R. Subjective memory impairment in a rural population with low education in the Amazon rainforest: an exploratory study. Int Psychogeriatr 2009;21:164-171. [ Links ]

Xavier F, Ferraz MPT, Argimon I, Moriguchi EH. The prevalence of a subjective perception of loss of memory in the elderly. Rev Bras Neurol 2001;37:24-28. [ Links ]

Snitz BE, Morrow LA, Rodriguez EG, Huber KA, Saxton JA. Subjective memory complaints and concurrent memory performance in older patients of primary care providers. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2008;14:1004. [ Links ]

Schmand B, Jonker C, Geerlings MI, Lindeboom J. Subjective memory complaints in the elderly: depressive symptoms and future dementia. Br J Psychiatry 1997;171:373-376. [ Links ]

Elfgren C, Gustafson L, Vestberg S, Passant U. Subjective memory complaints, neuropsychological performance and psychiatric variables in memory clinic attendees: a 3-year follow-up study. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2010;51:e110-114. [ Links ]

Fischer CE, Jiang D, Schweizer TA. Determining the association of medical co-morbidity with subjective and objective cognitive performance in an inner city memory disorders clinic: a retrospective chart review. BMC Geriatr 2010;10:89. [ Links ]

Petersen RC, Stevens JC, Ganguli M, Tangalos EG, Cummings JL, DeKosky ST. Practice parameter: early detection of dementia: mild cognitive impairment (an evidence-based review). Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2001;56:1133-1142. [ Links ]

Luck T, Riedel-Heller SG, Luppa M, et al. Risk factors for incident mild cognitive impairment--results from the German Study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe). Acta Psychiatr Scand 2010;121:260-272. [ Links ]

Schmand B, Jonker C, Hooijer C, Lindeboom J. Subjective memory complaints may announce dementia. Neurology 1996;46:121-125. [ Links ]

Wang L, Belle Gv, Crane PK, et al. Subjective Memory Deterioration and Future Dementia in People Aged 65 and Older. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004;52:2045-2051. [ Links ]

Stewart R, Dufouil C, Godin O, et al. Neuroimaging correlates of subjective memory deficits in a community population. Neurology . 2008;70:1601-1607. [ Links ]

Jessen F, Feyen L, Freymann K, et al. Volume reduction of the entorhinal cortex in subjective memory impairment. Neurobiol Aging 2006;27:1751-1756. [ Links ]

Rodda J, Okello A, Edison P, Dannhauser T, Brooks DJ, Walker Z. (11)C-PIB PET in subjective cognitive impairment. Eur Psychiatry 2010;25:123-125. [ Links ]

Hohman TJ, Beason-Held LL, Lamar M, Resnick SM. Subjective cognitive complaints and longitudinal changes in memory and brain function. Neuropsychology 2011;25:125-130. [ Links ]

Babiloni C, Visser PJ, Frisoni G, et al. Cortical sources of resting EEG rhythms in mild cognitive impairment and subjective memory complaint. Neurobiol Aging 2010;31:1787-1798. [ Links ]

Maestu F, Baykova E, Ruiz JM, et al. Increased biomagnetic activity in healthy elderly with subjective memory complaints. Clin Neurophysiol 2011;122:499-505. [ Links ]

Dik MG, Jonker C, Comijs HC, et al. Memory complaints and APOE-4 accelerate cognitive decline in cognitively normal elderly. Neurology 2001;57:2217-2222. [ Links ]

Barnes LL, Schneider JA, Boyle PA, Bienias JL, Bennett DA. Memory complaints are related to Alzheimer disease pathology in older persons. Neurology 2006;67:1581-1585. [ Links ]

Engvig A, Fjell AM, Westlye LT, Skaane NV, Sundseth Ø, Walhovd KB. Hippocampal subfield volumes correlate with memory training benefit in subjective memory impairment. NeuroImage 2012;61:188-194. [ Links ]

Singh-Manoux A, Kivimaki M, Glymour MM, et al. Timing of onset of cognitive decline: results from Whitehall II prospective cohort study. BMJ 2012;344:d7622. [ Links ]

Gifford DR, Cummings JL. Evaluating dementia screening tests: methodologic standards to rate their performance. Neurology 1999;52: 224-227. [ Links ]

Montejo P, Montenegro M, Fernández MA, Maestú F. Memory complaints in the elderly: Quality of life and daily living activities. A population based study. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2012;54:298-304. [ Links ]

Waldorff F, Siersma V, Waldemar G. Association between subjective memory complaints and health care utilisation: a three-year follow up. BMC Geriatrics 2009;9:43. [ Links ]

Gallassi R, Oppi F, Poda R, et al. Are subjective cognitive complaints a risk factor for dementia? Neurol Sci 2010;31:327-336. [ Links ]

Vale FAC, Balieiro-Júnior AP, Silva-Filho JH. Manual de Procedimentos de Rotina - Revisado (MPR-Rev) do Ambulatório de Neurologia Comportamental do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo. In. Ribeirão Preto: Ambulatório de Neurologia Comportamental do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (ANCC-HCFMRP); 2006. [ Links ]

Vale FAC. Manual de Procedimentos de Rotina do Ambulatório Interdisciplinar de Neurologia da Universidade Federal de São Carlos (ANEU-UFSCar). In. São Carlos: Ambulatório Interdisciplinar de Neurologia da Universidade Federal de São Carlos (ANEU-UFSCar) 2011. [ Links ]

Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. "Mini-mental state". A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12:189-198. [ Links ]

Brucki SM, Nitrini R, Caramelli P, Bertolucci PH, Okamoto IH. [Suggestions for utilization of the mini-mental state examination in Brazil]. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2003;61:777-781. [ Links ]

Hughes CP, Berg L, Danziger WL, Coben LA, Martin RL. A new clinical scale for the staging of dementia. Br J Psychiatry 1982;140:566-572. [ Links ]

Chaves ML, Camozzato AL, Godinho C, et al. Validity of the clinical dementia rating scale for the detection and staging of dementia in Brazilian patients. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2007;21:210-217. [ Links ]

Bertolucci P, Okamoto I, Brucki S, Siviero M, Toniolo-Neto J, Ramos L. Applicability of the CERAD neuropsychological battery to Brazilian elderly. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2001;59:532-536. [ Links ]

Sunderland T, Hill JL, Mellow AM, et al. Clock drawing in Alzheimer's disease. A novel measure of dementia severity. J Am Geriatr Soc 1989; 37:725-729. [ Links ]

Yesavage JA, Brink TL, Rose TL, et al. Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res 1983;17:37-49. [ Links ]

Almeida OP, Almeida SA. Short versions of the geriatric depression scale: a study of their validity for the diagnosis of a major depressive episode according to ICD-10 and DSM-IV. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1999;14:858-865. [ Links ]

Pfeffer RI, Kurosaki TT, Harrah CH, Jr., Chance JM, Filos S. Measurement of functional activities in older adults in the community. J Gerontol 1982;37:323-329. [ Links ]

Beato RG, Nitrini R, Formigoni AP, Caramelli P. Brazilian version of the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). Preliminary data on administration to healthy elderly. Dement Neuropsychol 2007;1:59-65. [ Links ]

Dubois B, Slachevsky A, Litvan I, Pillon B. The FAB. A frontal assessment battery at bedside. Neurology 2000;55:1621-1626. [ Links ]

Hurt CS, Burns A, Brown RG, Barrowclough C. Perceptions of subjective memory complaint in older adults: the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Memory (IPQ-M). Int Psychogeriatr 2010;22:750-60. [ Links ]

Smith G, Della Sala S, Logie RH, Maylor EA. Prospective and retrospective memory in normal ageing and dementia: a questionnaire study. Memory 2000;8:311-321. [ Links ]

Crook TH, 3rd, Feher EP, Larrabee GJ. Assessment of memory complaint in age-associated memory impairment: the MAC-Q. Int Psychogeriatr 1992;4:165-176. [ Links ]

Rami L, Bosch B, Sanchez-Valle R, Molinuevo JL. The memory alteration test (M@T) discriminates between subjective memory complaints, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2010;50:171-174. [ Links ]

Vale FAC, Balieiro-Júnior AP, Silva-Filho JH. P3-186: Subjective memory complaint in Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement 2008;4: T574-T575. [ Links ]

Silva-Filho JH, Balieiro-Júnior AP, Vale FAC. The Questionnaire of Subjective Memory Complaints in Manaus - preliminary results. Dement Neuropsychol 2007;1:39. [ Links ]

Balieiro-Júnior AP, Vale FAC, Silva-Filho JH. MCQ - An Instrument to Assess Memory Complaints. Dement Neuropsychol 2011;5:43. [ Links ]

Kashiwa Y, Kitabayashi Y, Narumoto J, Nakamura K, Ueda H, Fukui K. Anosognosia in Alzheimer's disease: Association with patient characteristics, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2005;59:697-704. [ Links ]

Hurt CS, Burns A, Brown RG, Barrowclough C. Perceptions of subjective memory complaint in older adults: the Illness Perception Questionnaire - Memory (IPQ-M). Int Psychogeriatr 2010;22:750-760. [ Links ]

Received: September 10, 2012; Accepted: November 15, 2012

Francisco A.C. Vale. Federal University of São Carlos / Department of Medicine - Rod. Washington Luís, km 235 / SP-310 - 13565-905 São Carlos SP - Brazil. E-mail: facvale@ufscar.br

Disclosure: The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Creative Commons License This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License