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Dementia & Neuropsychologia

Print version ISSN 1980-5764

Dement. neuropsychol. vol.7 no.1 São Paulo Jan./Mar. 2013 


Chilean version of the INECO Frontal Screening (IFS-Ch): Psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy

Versão Chilena do Rastreio Frontal INECO: propriedades psicométricas e utilidade diagnóstica

Josefina Ihnen1 

Andrés Antivilo2 

Carlos Muñoz-Neira1 

Andrea Slachevsky3 

1Unidad de Neurología Cognitiva y Demencias, Servicio de Neurología, Hospital del Salvador. Santiago, Región Metropolitana, Chile. Universidad de Chile.

2Departamento de Psicología, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Chile. Departamento de Psicología, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Chile.

3Unidad de Neurología Cognitiva y Demencias, Servicio de Neurología, Hospital del Salvador. Santiago, Región Metropolitana, Chile. Universidad de Chile. Departamento de Psicología, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Chile. Centro de Investigación Avanzada en Educación, Universidad de Chile. Departamento de Farmacología Molecular y Clínica, ICBM y Departamento de Ciencias Neurológicas Oriente, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Servicio de Neurología, Clínica Alemana de Santiago, Región Metropolitana, Chile.



This study sought to analyze the psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy of the Chilean version of the INECO Frontal Screening (IFS-Ch) in a sample of dementia patients and control


After adapting the instrument to the Chilean context and obtaining content validity evidence through expert consultation, the IFS-Ch was administered to 31 dementia patients and 30 control subjects together with other executive assessments (Frontal Assessment Battery [FAB], Modified version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [MCST], phonemic verbal fluencies [letters A and P] and semantic verbal fluency [animals]) and global cognitive efficiency tests (Mini mental State Examination [MMSE] and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised [ACE-R]). Caregivers of dementia patients and proxies of control subjects were interviewed with instruments measuring dysexecutive symptoms (Dysexecutive Questionnaire [DEX]), dementia severity (Clinical Dementia Rating Scale [CDR]) and functional status in activities of daily living (Activities of Daily Living Scale [IADL] and Technology-Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire [T-ADLQ]). Convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency reliability, cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity for the IFS-Ch were estimated.


Evidence of content validity was obtained. Evidence of convergent validity was also found showing significant correlations (p<0.05) between the IFS-Ch and the other instruments measuring: executive functions (FAB, r=0.935; categories achieved in the MCST, r=0.791; perseverative errors in the MCST, r= -0.617; animal verbal fluency, r=0.728; A verbal fluency, r=0.681; and P verbal fluency, r=0.783), dysexecutive symptoms in daily living (DEX, r= -0.494), dementia severity (CDR, r= -0.75) and functional status in activities of daily living (T-ADLQ, r= -0.745; IADL, r=0.717). Regarding reliability, a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.905 was obtained. For diagnostic accuracy, a cut-off point of 18 points (sensitivity=0.903; specificity=0.867) and an area under curve of 0.951 were estimated to distinguish between patients with dementia and control subjects.


The IFS-Ch showed acceptable psychometric properties, supported by evidence of validity and reliability for its use in the measurement of executive functions in patients with dementia. The diagnostic accuracy of the IFS-Ch for detecting dementia patients was also considered acceptable.

Key words: INECO Frontal Screening; executive functions; neuropsychological tests; dementia



Analisar as propriedades psicométricas e utilitário de diagnóstico da versão chilena do rastreio frontal INECO (IFS-Ch) em uma amostra de pacientes com demência e controles.


Após a adaptação do instrumento para o contexto chileno e obtenção de evidências de validade de conteúdo, o IFS-Ch foi administrado a 31 pacientes com demência e 30 indivíduos do grupo controle, além de outros testes de eficiência cognitiva global e executiva. Cuidadores de pacientes com demência e informantes de indivíduos controles foram entrevistados com instrumentos de medidas de sintomas disexecutivos, gravidade da demência e estado funcional nas atividades da vida diária. Validade convergente e discriminante, consistência interna, pontos de corte, sensibilidade e especificidade para o IFS-Ch foram estimados.


A evidência de validade de conteúdo foi obtida através de consulta a um especialista. Evidências de validade convergente foram encontrados, bem como, descritas correlações significativas entre o IFS-Ch e outros instrumentos de medidas: de funções executivas (FAB, r=0,935; categorias alcançadas no MCST, r=0,791; erros perseverativos na MCST, r= -0,617; fluência verbal animais, r=0,728; "A" de fluência verbal, r=0,681; gravidade de demência e fluência verbal de "P", r=0,783), sintomas disexecutivos na vida diária (DEX, r= -0,494), (CDR, r= -0,75) e estado funcional nas atividades da vida diária (T-ADLQ, r= -0,745; AIVD, r=0,717). Quanto à confiabilidade, coeficiente alfa de Cronbach de 0,905 foi obtido. Quanto a utilidade de diagnóstico, um ponto de corte de 18 pontos (sensibilidade=0,903, especificidade=0,867) e uma área sob a curva de 0,951 foi estimada para distinguir entre pacientes com demência e sujeitos controles.


O IFS-Ch mostra propriedades psicométricas aceitáveis, apoiadas por evidências de validade e confiabilidade para sua utilização como medida de funções executivas em pacientes com demência. Sua utilidade diagnóstica para detectar pacientes com demência também é considerada aceitável.

Palavras-chave: INECO triagem frontal; funções executivas; testes neuropsicológicos; demência

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Received: November 04, 2012; Accepted: January 08, 2013

Andrea Slachevsky. Unidad de Neurología Cognitiva y Demencias, Servicio de Neurología, Hospital del Salvador - Avenida Salvador 364 - Santiago - Región Metropolitana - Chile. E-mail:

Disclosure: The authors report no conflicts of interest.

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