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Zoologia (Curitiba)

Print version ISSN 1984-4670

Zoologia (Curitiba, Impr.) vol.27 no.3 Curitiba June 2010

https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-46702010000300015 

TAXONOMY AND NOMENCLATURE

 

Description of two new species of Lycinus (Araneae: Nemesiidae)

 

 

Sylvia M. Lucas; Rafael P. Indicatti

Laboratório de Artrópodes, Instituto Butantan. Avenida Vital Brazil 1500, 05503-900 São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. E-mail: sylvialucas@butantan.gov.br; indicatti@butantan.gov.br

 

 


ABSTRACT

Two new species of Lycinus Thorell, 1894 are described in this paper, L. portoseguro sp. nov. and L. choros sp. nov. Lycinus portoseguro sp. nov. is based on male and female from Porto Seguro, state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. This is the first record of a species of Lycinus from Brazil. Males of L. portoseguro sp. nov. differ from the remaining species of the genus by the presence of a retrolateral megaspine on tibia I and by the short embolus. Females can be distinguished by the scopulae divided on tarsi II. Lycinus choros sp. nov. is based on one male from La Serena, IV Region (Coquimbo), Chile. It is the eighth species described from this country. L. choros sp. nov. resembles L. epipiptus (Zapfe, 1963) by the longer embolus and differs from it by the short palpal tibia and by the scopulae undivided on male tarsi I-II.

Key words: Atlantic Forest; Chile; Diplothelopsinae; Mygalomorphae.


 

 

The Nemesiidae Simon, 1889 was raised to family status by RAVEN (1985) from the Nemesiae group proposed by SIMON (1889). RAVEN (1985) transferred to the family genera previously described in other families and considered it as a senior synonym of Pycnothelidae Chamberlin, 1917. To date, Nemesiidae contains 350 species and 42 genera divided into six subfamilies (RAVEN 1985, PLATNICK 2010).

GOLOBOFF (1995) revised the species of Nemesiidae from Peru, Chile, Argentina and Uruguay, postponing the study of the Brazilian Nemesiidae, a very large and poorly studied group. Most of the recent papers on Nemesiidae taxonomy are restricted to Southern (LUCAS & INDICATTI 2006, INDICATTI et al. 2008), Southeastern (LUCAS et al. 2008) and Central Brazil (INDICATTI & LUCAS 2005). From Northeastern Brazil, only one species of Nemesiidae was described, Pselligmus infaustus Simon, 1892 from Arquipélago de Abrolhos, a group of five islands ca. 70 km from the coast of the state of Bahia (SIMON 1892).

Lycinus was established by THORELL (1894), with the type species, L. longipes Thorell, 1984, based on a male from Córdoba, Argentina. GOLOBOFF (1995: 148) emended the diagnosis of the genus mentioning that the "only possible autapomorphy for the genus is the male bulb being coniform and gradually tapering to form the embolus. It can be quickly distinguished from Diplothelopsis Tullgren, 1905 by having the posterior median spinnerets present, and from Flamencopsis Goloboff, 1995 and Chilelopsis Goloboff, 1995 by the female patella IV having strong 1-1-1 P spines". The genus includes eight species, one from Argentina and seven from Chile (GOLOBOFF 1995, PLATNICK 2010).

In this study, two new species of Lycinus are described: L. portoseguro sp. nov. from Porto Seguro, state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. This is the first record of the genus from Brazil. L. choros sp. nov. from Choros, IV Region (Coquimbo), is the eighth species described of the genus from Chile.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The examined material is deposited in the following institutions (abbreviation and curator in parentheses): Instituto Butantan, São Paulo (IBSP, I. Knysak), Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador (MZUFBA, T.K. Brazil) and Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires (MACN, C. Scioscia). Spine notation follows PETRUNKEVITCH (1925). All measurements are in millimeters and were taken with a millimetric ocular lens. The length of leg segments was measured between joints in dorsal view. Length and width of carapace, eye tubercle, labium and sternum are maximum values obtained. Total body length includes chelicerae but not the pedicel and spinnerets. All drawings were made with the aid of a camera lucida attached to a Leica MZ 12.5 stereomicroscope. Spermathecae were cleared with clove oil and illustrated in dorsal view. Abbreviations: (AME) anterior median eyes, (ALE) anterior lateral eyes, (PME) posterior median eyes, (PLE) posterior lateral eyes, (PLS) posterior lateral spinnerets, (d) dorsal, (v) ventral, (p) prolateral, (r) retrolateral, (ap) apical, (s) superior.

 

TAXONOMY

Lycinus portoseguro sp. nov.

Figs 1-13

Types. Male holotype from BRAZIL, state of Bahia, Porto Seguro (Estação Vera Cruz, formerly Estação Veracel, 16º23'31"S, 39º10'19"W), 2006, J.P. Alves leg. (IBSP 112977). Paratypes with the same data as holotype, female (IBSP 112979) and two males (IBSP 112986; MZUFBA).

Diagnosis. Males of L. portoseguro sp. nov. differ from those of the remaining species of the genus by the presence of a retrolateral megaspine on tibia I (Figs 9 and 10) and by the short embolus (Figs 1-3). Females can be distinguished by the scopulae divided on tarsi II (Fig. 11).

 

 

Description. Male (holotype). Coloration pattern: carapace (Fig. 5) and legs reddish-brown. Abdomen dark brown, with five transversal bands of yellow mottles, with brown hairs covering dorsum (Fig. 6). Total length 25.8. Carapace 12.0 long, 10.0 wide, fovea short 0.8 wide and slightly procurved (Fig. 5). Clypeus narrow, 0.54. Anterior eye row slightly procurved and posterior recurved. AME 0.46, ALE 0.40, PME 0.22 and PLE 0.40. Eye group trapezoidal, wider than long (Fig. 5). Basal segment of chelicerae with 12 teeth, each in one row on promargin, with ca. 30 basal smaller teeth. Rastellum with very strong setae. Intercheliceral tumescence large, pale yellow, covered with few strong setae on base. Labium 1.1 long, 2.0 wide, with three cuspules (Fig. 7). Endites with 31 and 36 cuspules on internal basal angle (left and right, respectively). Serrula present. Sternum oval, 5.70 long, 4.90 wide (Fig. 7), profile in transverse section slightly domed, with six sternal sigilla, median and posterior away from margin by ca. one length, oval-elongated, posterior four times the size of anterior pair. Measurements: Palp: femur 5.5/patella 3.0/tibia 3.8/cymbium 2.1/total 14.4; legs: I: femur 11.2/patella 6.5/tibia 8.8/metatarsus 9.8/tarsus 5.5/total 41.8; II: 10.9/5.6/8.1/9.3/4.7/38.6; III: 10.0/4.7/7.4/10.8/5.0/37.9; IV: 13.0/5.4/10.7/13.5/5.4/48.0; spination: Palp: femur d0-0-0-1r-1-1-1r-1p-1-2-2, patella d1p-1p-1p, tibia d0-1p-0-0-0-0, p0-0-0-1-1-1-0-1, r0-0-0-0-0-1; legs: I: femur d0-0-0-1-2-1-1r-1-2-1-2-1-1, patella p0-0-1-1-0, tibia v0-2-1-0-0-1-1r-1p-(1r megaspine + 2p ap), p0-1-0-1-0, r0-1-0-0-1-0, metatarsus v0-0-1r-1p-0-0-1r-1p-1-0-0-0-0-0-0-2ap, p1-0-1-0-1-0-1, r0-0-0-1-0-0-1-0-1; II: femur d0-0-1-1r-3-0-3-1-2-1-2-1, patella p0-1-0-1-0-1, tibia v1p-2r-0-0-3-0-0-3ap, p1-1-0-1-0, r0-1-0-1-0, metatarsus d0-1r-0-1p-0-1r-1p-0-0-0, v0-0-2-0-0-2-1-0-0-0-3ap, p1-0-0-1-0-0-1-0-0-1-0, r0-0-0-0-1-0-0-1-0-1; III: femur d0-1-2-1r-1-2-3-0, patella p0-1-1-1, r1-0-1-0, tibia d2-0-0-1-0-1-0-0, v0-2-0-0-2-0-0-3ap, p1-1-0-1-1, r0-1-0-0-1-0, metatarsus d0-1r-1p-1-1p-1-0-0-0-0-2, v0-2-0-2-3ap, p0-1-0-0-1-0-0-1-0-0, r0-1-0-0-1-0-0-1-0-0; IV: femur d0-1-1r-1-1p-0-1r-1-1p-0-1r-2-1p, patella p0-0-0-0-1-0, r0-1-0, tibia d2-0-1-0-1p-0, v2-0-2-0-3ap, p0-1-0-0-1-0-0-2-0-2-0, r0-1-0-0-1-0, metatarsus d1p-1p-1p-0-2, v0-2-0-1p-0-1r-1p-0-3ap, p1-0-1-0-0-1-1, r1-0-1-0-0. Pseudopreening combs on metatarsi III-IV. Tarsi II-IV flexible. Scopulae on all tarsi. Superior tarsal claws with two rows of 3-4 teeth on all tarsi. Third claw absent on all tarsi. Four spinnerets: PLS three-segmented: basal, median and apical (digitiform short) segments 0.9, 1.37, 1.5 long, respectively (Fig. 8). Palp with bulb coniform and gradually tapering to form the embolus (Figs 1-3). Male palpal bulb with diagonal keels (Figs 2 and 3).

Female (paratype IBSP 112979). Coloration as in male, with less brown hairs covering abdomen dorsally (Fig. 13). Total length 27.0. Carapace 10.0 long, 7.7 wide, fovea short 1.35 and procurved. Clypeus narrow, 0.35. Anterior eye row slightly procurved and posterior recurved. AME 0.44, ALE 0.42, PME 0.28 and PLE 0.46. Eye group trapezoidal, wider than long (Fig. 12). Basal segment of chelicerae with 11 and 13 teeth (left and right, respectively) in one row on promargin, with ca. 45 basal smaller teeth. Rastellum with few strong setae. Intercheliceral tumescence absent. Labium 1.9 long, 1.2 wide, with two cuspules. Endites with 90 and 95 cuspules on internal basal angle (left and right, respectively). Serrula absent. Sternum oval, 5.1 long, 4.7 wide, profile in transverse section slightly domed. Six sternal sigilla, median and posterior away from margin by ca. one length, oval-elongated, posterior four times the size of anterior pair. Measurements: Palp: femur 4.3/patella 2.7/tibia 3.2/cymbium 2.2/total 12.4; legs: I: femur 6.2/patella 4.4/tibia 4.7/metatarsus 3.7/tarsus 2.0/total 21.0; II: 5.6/3.8/3.9/3.6/2.1/19.0; III: 5.0/3.5/3.2/4.7/2.3/18.7; IV: 7.0/4.1/5.5/7.0/2.8/26.4; spination: Palp: tibia v0-0-1p-0-3ap; legs: I: metatarsus v2-1r-0-2ap; II: tibia v0-1-0-1-0, metatarsus v0-2-2-0-3ap; III: patella d0-0-1p-0-1p-1p-1p-0-0, p0-0-1-1, tibia d0-0-1-0, v1p-0-2-0-0-3ap, p0-1-0-1-0, metatarsus d1-2-0-1p-2-0-0-0-2, v0-2-0-2-0-3ap, p0-1-0-1-0; IV: tibia v1r-0-1r-0-3ap, p0-1-0-1, r0-1-0-1, metatarsus d1-1p-0-2-0-2, v0-2-0-1p-1r-1p-0-5ap, p1-1-0-1-0-1-0-1-0. Palp with one row with three prolateral teeth. Pseudopreening combs on metatarsi III-IV. Tarsi I-IV not flexible. Scopulae on tarsi and 3/4 anterior of metatarsi I. Scopulae divided on 3/4 of tarsi II by one band of 4-6 strong setae (Fig. 11) and 1/4 anterior of metatarsi II by one band of 6 strong setae. Scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi I-II symmetric. Superior tarsal claws with two rows of 2-3 teeth on all tarsi. Third claw on tarsi IV (about 1/8 of length of superior tarsal claws). Four spinnerets: PLS three-segmented: basal, median and apical (digitform short) segments 1.75, 1.0, 0.8 long, respectively. Genitalia with two slightly twisted copulation ducts and drop-shaped spermathecae (Fig. 4).

Variation. Males (n = 5): total length 21.5-25.8; carapace 10.0-12.3; abdomen 8.5-11.3; endites with 31-42 cuspules and 3-5 on labium.

Additional material examined. Same data as holotype, 1 male (IBSP 112987); 1 male, 23.X.2001, M.G.C. Costa leg. (IBSP 112778).

Distribution. Known only from the type locality.

Etymology. The species name is a noun in apposition, taken from the type locality.

Lycinus choros sp. nov.

Figs 14-19

Type. Male holotype from Chile, IV Region (Coquimbo), (100 km N La Serena, Choros, 29º21'S, 71º10'W), 23.II.2006, A.A. Ojanguren-Affilastro & L. Compagnucci leg. (MACN 19699).

Diagnosis. L. choros sp. nov. resembles L. epipiptus (Zapfe, 1963) by the longer embolus and differs from it by the short palpal tibia (Fig. 17) and by the scopulae undivided on male tarsi I-II.

Description. Male (holotype). Coloration pattern: carapace yellowish-brown covered by golden setae (Fig. 18). Legs pale yellowish-brown. Abdomen dark brown dorsally, with 8-10 parallel yellow stripes, with short and long golden setae covering (Fig. 18). Total length 13.4. Carapace 7.3 long, 6.4 wide, fovea short 0.44, wide and straight (Fig. 18). Clypeus narrow, 0.32. Anterior and posterior eye row procurved. AME 0.44, ALE 0.36, PME 0.16 and PLE 0.26. Eye group trapezoidal, wider than long (Fig. 18). Basal segment of chelicerae with six teeth, each in one row on promargin, with ca. 15 basal smaller teeth. Rastellum with very strong setae. Intercheliceral tumescence large, pale yellow, without setae. Labium 0.7 long, 1.2 wide, without cuspules. Endites with nine cuspules, each on internal basal angle (Fig. 19). Serrula present. Sternum oval, 3.60 long, 3.10 wide (Fig. 19), profile in transverse section slightly domed. Six sternal sigilla, all away from margin by ca. one length, oval-elongated, posterior pair two times the size of anterior pair (Fig. 19). Measurements: Palp: femur 3.9/patella 1.5/tibia 2.4/cymbium 1.95/total 11.45; legs: I: femur 7.7/patella 3.5/tibia 6.2/metatarsus 7.3/tarsus 4.9/total 29.6; II: 7.4/3.3/6.1/7.3/4.9/29.0; III: 7.1/3.0/5.7/9.0/5.6/30.4; IV: 8.2/3.1/7.6/11.0/6.3/36.2; spination: Palp: femur d0-0-0-0-1-1-1-3-0-2, patella d0-1p-0-0-3, p0-1-0-0-0, tibia d1-1p-1r-2-1-4-1-2-1-2p, v0-0-0-0-0-1r; legs: I: femur d2-3-1-2-2-3-1, patella p0-1-0-1-0, r1-1-0, tibia d2-0-0-0-2-0, v2p-2r-0-0-0-0-1r-3-0-0-0-3ap, p1-1-0-1-1, r1-1-0-1-1, metatarsus d1-1r-0-1p-0-2-0, v0-1r-0-2-0-0-0-1ap, p1-0-1-0-1-1, r1-0-0-1-0-0; II: femur d0-2-2r-1r-3-1-2-1, patella p0-1-0-1, tibia d2-0-1-0-2-0, v4-0-3-0-3ap, p1-1-0-1-1, r0-1-0-1-0, metatarsus d0-1-1p-0-2-0, v2-1p-1r-0-0-1ap, p1-0-1-0-1, r1-0-0-1-0-0-1; III: femur d1-3-1r-1-1p-1-2-0, patella p0-1-0-1-0, r0-1-0-0, tibia d1-0-1-0-2-0, v3-0-0-2-0-0-3ap, p1-1-0-1-0, r1-1-0-1-0, metatarsus d2r-1p-1r-1p-0-1r-1p-0-2, v0-1p-1r-0-0-1p-1r-0-0-2ap, p0-1-0-0-1-0-0-0-0-1; IV: femur d0-1-3-1r-1-1r-2p-2, patella p0-1-1-1-0, r0-1-0-0, tibia d1-0-0-1-1-0-0-2-0, v3-0-2-0-0-3ap, p1-0-0-1-0-0-1-0-0, r 1-0-0-1-0-0-1-0-0, metatarsus d1-1r-1p-1r-1p-1r-1p-0-2, v0-0-1p-1r-0-0-0-1p-1r-1p-0-3ap, r0-1-0-0-1-0-0. Tarsi I-IV flexible. Scopulae divided by 1-2 bands of strong setae on tarsi and metatarsi I-III, IV divided by 1-3 bands of strong setae. Scopulae divided on all metatarsi, I-II present on 5/6, III on 2/5, IV on 1/4. Superior tarsal claws with two rows of 12-13 teeth on all tarsi. Third claw absent on all tarsi. Four spinnerets, PLS three-segmented: basal, median and apical (digitiform short) segments 0.28, 0.48, 0.44 long, respectively. Palpal tibia short and wide. Cymbial setae very thick, blunt, short, basally directed (Fig. 17). Palp with coniform bulb gradually tapering to form the embolus (Figs 14-16) and with diagonal keels (Fig. 16).

Female. Unknown.

Distribution. Known only from the type locality.

Etymology. The species name is a noun in apposition, taken from the type locality.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We thank Antonio D. Brescovit, Gustavo R.S. Ruiz and Daniele Polotow (Instituto Butantan, São Paulo), Adalberto J. Santos (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte) and an anonymous referee for helpful comments on this manuscript and Irene Knysak (Instituto Butantan) and Cristina L. Scioscia (Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires) for the loan of the specimens examined in this study. This work was supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (DR grant number 141062/2007-0, RPI) and was developed in the Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Animal da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro.

 

LITERATURE CITED

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INDICATTI, R. P. & S.M. LUCAS. 2005. Description of a new genus of Nemesiidae (Araneae, Mygalomorphae) from the Brazilian Cerrado. Zootaxa 188: 11-16.         [ Links ]

INDICATTI, R.P; S.M. LUCAS, R. OTT & A.D. BRESCOVIT. 2008. Litter dwelling mygalomorph spiders (Araneae: Microstigmatidae, Nemesiidae) from Araucaria forests in southern Brazil, with the description of five new species. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 25: 529-546.         [ Links ]

LUCAS, S.M. & R.P. INDICATTI. 2006. On the genus Psalistopoides Mello-Leitão (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 23: 547-549.         [ Links ]

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SIMON, E. 1889. Arachnides. In Voyage de M. E. Simon au Venezuela (décembre 1887-avril 1888). 4e Mémoire. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (6) 9: 169-220.         [ Links ]

SIMON, E. 1892. Études arachnologiques. 24e Mémoire XXXIX. Descriptions d'espèéces et de genres nouveaux de la famille des Aviculariidae (suite). Annales de la Société Entomologi-que de France 61: 271-284.         [ Links ]

THORELL, T. 1894. Decas aranearum in ins. Singapore a Cel. Th. Workman inventarum. Bollettino della Società Entomolo-gica Italiana 26: 321-355.         [ Links ]

 

 

Submitted: 26.XI.2009; Accepted: 29.V.2010.

 

 

Editorial responsibility: Gabriel L.F. Mejdalani

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