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Zoologia (Curitiba)

Print version ISSN 1984-4670

Zoologia (Curitiba) vol.30 no.5 Curitiba Oct. 2013

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-46702013000500008 

TAXONOMY AND NOMENCLATURE

 

South American leafhoppers of the tribe Typhlocybini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae)

 

 

Christopher H. Dietrich

Illinois Natural History Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois, 1816 S. Oak St., Champaign, IL 61820, USA. E-mail: chdietri@illinois.edu

 

 


ABSTRACT

The fauna of Typhlocybini (sensu stricto, excluding Empoascini) endemic to South America is reviewed and comprises seven closely related genera, five described herein as new, and 55 species, 52 here described as new. The genera and species are described and keys and illustrations are provided to aid in their identification. Columbonirvana Linnavuori comprises 17 species, 16 new. Eualebra Baker comprises 19 species, 17 new. Euzyginella gen. nov., comprises four new species. Neozyginella gen. nov., comprises six new species. Pseudhadina gen. nov., comprises one new species. Pseudozyginella gen. nov., comprises three new species. Tahurella gen. nov., comprises five new species. One new synonym is recognized: Eualebra smithii Baker, 1899 equals Dikraneura (Hyloidea) reticulata Osborn, 1928, syn. nov. One previously described species placed in Eualebra belongs in tribe Dikraneurini; thus, a new combination is proposed: Alconeura (Hyloidea) rubra (Van Duzee), comb. nov. Most of the specimens available for this study were from Malaise trap and canopy fogging samples obtained at very few localities in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, suggesting that further sampling in South America, particularly in the Amazonian rainforest and eastern foothills of the Andes Mountains, will reveal large numbers of additional species.

Key words: Distribution; Homoptera; morphology; Neotropical; taxonomy.


 

 

The leafhopper subfamily Typhlocybinae comprises ~6,000 described species of mostly small, delicate leafhoppers that feed preferentially on the contents of leaf parenchyma cells of their host plants. Based on described species, this is currently the second largest leafhopper subfamily (after Deltocephalinae, Zahniser & Dietrich 2010), but recent sampling of tropical faunas indicates that the extant, but mostly undescribed, fauna of Typhlocybinae is far larger than that of any other leafhopper subfamily (Dietrich & Wallner 2002). The Neotropical fauna, in particular, is highly diverse but appears to remain largely undocumented (Dietrich & Dmitriev 2006, 2008).

Study of canopy fogging samples from lowland rainforests in eastern Peru and Ecuador (Dietrich & Wallner 2002) indicates the presence of an enormously diverse typhlocybine fauna. Composition of this fauna contrasts strikingly with that of the somewhat better known, but still poorly documented faunas of the Old World tropics. Tribes Dikraneurini, Empoascini (= Jorumini) and Alebrini, in decreasing order of species richness, are well represented in the samples from Amazonia; but Erythroneurini and Typhlocybini, so abundant in north temperate forests and in the Old World tropics, are relatively rare.

Malaise trap samples from the eastern Andean foothills above 500 m elevation differ from those obtained from the canopy of lowland rainforest (unpublished data) in that they include larger numbers of Typhlocybini (sensu stricto). These species belong to a group of apparently closely related, endemic South American genera that includes Eualebra Baker. The group also includes Columbonirvana Linnavuori, a genus previously placed in Nirvaninae (Linnavuori 1959), but transferred to Typhlocybinae by Dietrich (2004) based on phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters. These two genera include a total of three previously described species (plus one new synonym, designated below). Recent sampling indicates that the South American fauna of Typhlocybini is much richer in both species and genera. In this paper, I review the endemic South American genera and species of Typhlocybini and discuss their possible relationships to the fauna of this tribe in other parts of the world. Considering that the 52 new species of Typhlocybini described herein were collected from only eight localities in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, further sampling in South America, especially in cloud forests of the eastern Andean foothills, will likely reveal the presence of a much more speciose assemblage belonging to this tribe.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Morphological terminology follows that of Young (1952) as modified by Dietrich (2005) except wing veins are labeled according to the simplified system illustrated in figures 3i, j. Drawings of genitalia were made by tracing over photographs taken using a digital camera mounted on a compound microscope. In drawings of the male genital capsule, the entire anal complex (segments X-XI) is shown in lateral view but only the well sclerotized and pigmented parts of segment X are shown in dorsal view. Material examined is deposited in the following institutions: Humboldt Institute, Villa de Leyva, Colombia (HIC); Carnegie Museum of Natural History (ICCM); Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign (INHS); Universidad de San Marcos, Lima (USML), United States National Museum (USNM).

 

TAXONOMY

Typhlocybinae Kirschbaum, 1868

The tribal classification of Typhlocybinae has long been unstable, with some authors (e.g., Young 1952) having recognized as few as four tribes and others (e.g., Ruppel 1987) as many as ten. In his review of Western Hemisphere Typhlocybinae, Young (1952) employed a relatively broad concept of Typhlocybini, including as synonyms the tribes Eupterygini Kirkaldy, 1906, Jorumini McAtee, 1926, and Empoascini Distant, 1908, despite differences in the hind wing venation of these groups. Dworakowska, the principal worker on the Old World typhlocybine fauna for the past four decades, recognized tribes Typhlocybini, with synonym Eupterygini; Empoascini, with synonym Jorumini; and Zyginellini (Dworakowska 1979). The latter tribe was erected to comprise species having the hind wing submarginal vein apparently connected directly to CuA rather than being joined by a crossvein (alternatively interpreted as the absence of the segment of vein CuA distad of its junction with the submarginal vein). Despite the unique hind wing venation, Zyginellini, as defined by Dworakowska (1979), is a rather heterogeneous assemblage. Most genera placed in this tribe strongly resemble many Typhlocybini (sensu stricto), particularly in the structure of the male genital capsule (e.g., presence of a single macroseta near the base of the plate) and aedeagus (e.g., presence of elongate paired apical processes). Moreover, some of the Neotropical species described herein vary intraspecifically (occasionally intra-individually) for the features used to distinguish Zyginellini from Typhlocybini. Ahmed (1983) considered Zyginellini to be an artificial group and treated it as a synonym of Typhlocybini. Until phylogenetic analyses can clarify the status and relationships of the various tribes proposed for groups of typhlocybine genera, it seems reasonable to adopt the classification of Ahmed (1983), which recognizes five tribes in the subfamily: Alebrini, Dikraneurini (= Forcipatini), Empoascini (= Jorumini), Erythroneurini, and Typhlocybini (= Eupterygini, Zyginellini).

Key to tribes of Typhlocybinae

1. Forewing appendix present..................................... Alebrini

1'. Forewing appendix absent ................................................ 2

2. Hind wing with submarginal vein complete, extended along costal margin and connecting apices of all veins (except Typhlocybella: submarginal vein absent, vannal vein unbranched, forewing inner apical cell tapered distally) .............
........................................................................Dikraneurini

2'. Hind wing submarginal vein incomplete, either extended along costal margin but not connecting vein apices along apical margin, or connecting vein apices along apical margin but not extended along costal margin (terminated at apex of vein RP or R+M) ............................................... 3

3. Forewing with inner apical cell parallel-sided, hind wing submarginal vein absent along apical margin, vannal vein unbranched ................................................ Erythroneurini

3'. Forewing with inner apical cell usually distinctly tapered through most of length (often short and oblique), hind wing submarginal vein, if present, not extended along costal margin basad of RP or R+M, vannal vein branched ....... 4

4. Ocelli absent or vestigial, hind wing submarginal vein absent between apices of veins MA or RP+MA and MP (Fig. 78) or, if present (Fig. 70), body strongly depressed with face nearly horizontal ...................................................... Typhlocybini

4'. Ocelli well developed (except in Paulomanus), hind wing submarginal vein present between apices of veins MA or RP+MA and MP, body not strongly depressed, face in profile oblique, not nearly horizontal ........................ Empoascini

Typhlocybini Kirschbaum

Typhlocybini Kirschbaum, 1868: 16.
Eupteryginae Kirkaldy, 1906: 296.
Zyginellini Dworakowska, 1979: 299.

Diagnosis. Species of Typhlocybini (sensu Ahmed 1983) differ from other Typhlocybinae in having the following combination of morphological features: ocelli absent or vestigial; forewing appendix absent, inner apical cell short and oblique, not extended to apical wing margin; hind wing vannal vein branched, submarginal vein present or absent at wing apex; male pygofer with few or no macrosetae (except Eualebra).

Remarks. The endemic South American taxa treated herein fit Ahmed's (1983) concept of Typhlocybini, but form a distinctive group within this tribe. Members of this group are readily distinguished by their depressed form, produced head, and presence of two or more macrosetae on the male subgenital plate (most Old World and Nearctic Typhlocybini have 0-1).

Some of the genera included here have hind wing venational patterns not known to occur among Typhlocybini in other parts of the world. One pattern (Figs 72 and 74), exemplified by the genus Eualebra, has the submarginal vein present and connecting the apices of veins RP, MA, MP and CuA at the wing apex, but absent along the costal margin; veins RP and MA are free, connected by a crossvein.

The second pattern (Figs 78 and 80), exemplified by new genera Neozyginella and Pseudhadina, has the submarginal vein extended distad along the anal margin from the jugal lobe and crossing the tips of veins CuA and MP but not extended to MA.

A third group of South American genera, exemplified by Euzyginella gen. nov. and Pseudozyginella gen. nov., has the hind wing submarginal vein absent at the wing apex as in Old World Typhlocybini, but varies intraspecifically, and occasionally within the same individual, for features traditionally diagnostic of tribes Typhlocybini, Eupterygini, and Zyginellini (Figs 82 and 83). Hind wing veins RP and MA may be separate and connected by a crossvein (as in Eupterygini) or confluent (as in Typhlocybini, s.s.). Also, the hind wing submarginal vein may be strongly curved and colinear with CuA preapically (as in "Zyginellini") or straight and connected to CuA by a crossvein (as in Typhlocybini, s.s.). Presence of such variation within a single species provides support for Ahmed's (1983) treatment of Eupterygini and Zyginellini as junior synonyms of Typhlocybini.

The presence of a submarginal vein at the hind wing apex and relatively numerous macrosetae on the male subgenital plates (as in Alebrini and Empoascini) suggests that Eualebra and related South American genera represent a plesiomorphic lineage of Typhlocybini not represented in the Old World. Other Typhlocybini, including genera and species endemic to the Old World and North America, lack a submarginal vein in the hind wing and almost always have two or fewer (usually 0-1) macrosetae on the male subgenital plate.

As in some Old World Typhlocybini, the lower part of the face in most South American genera is sexually dimorphic: females have the clypellus and lorum flattened and well delimited, but males have the lorum fused to the clypellus and both structures are markedly inflated (Fig. 59).

Based on the morphological similarities mentioned above, the South American fauna of Typhlocybini appear to be related to some Old World genera previously included in "Zyginellini" (sensu Dworakowska 1979) as well as to the "Eupteryx-complex" (sensu Dworakowska 1969) of genera that are most diverse in the Indomalayan region. These relationships need to be elucidated by phylogenetic analysis.

The endemic South American fauna of Typhlocybini comprises seven genera: Eualebra, placed by Young (1952) in Typhlocybini based on the branched vannal vein and absence of a submarginal vein along the costal margin in the hind wing; Columbonirvana Linnavuori, previously placed in Nirvaninae presumably based on its depressed form and produced head, but transferred to Typhlocybinae by Dietrich (2004); and five new genera described below, Euzyginella, Neozyginella, Pseudhadina, Pseudozyginella, and Tahurella.

Two Palearctic species of Typhlocybini known to be established in Argentina and Chile, Edwardsiana froggatti (Baker) and Ribautiana tenerrima (Herrich-Schaffer), have been well described elsewhere (Christensen 1942, Christian 1953) and are not treated here.

Key to endemic genera of South American Typhlocybini

1. Hind wing with submarginal vein obsolete apically (Figs 76, 78, 80, 82, 83); vein RP weak or appearing confluent with MA ..................................................................................... 2

1'. Hind wing with submarginal vein well developed apically (Figs 70, 72, 74, 86); vein RP well developed and separated from MA apically .............................................................. 5

2. Hind wing submarginal vein extended across apices of CuA and MP, forming closed cell (Figs 78, 80) ........................ 4

2'. Hind wing submarginal vein not extended to apex of MP, either forming continuous line with CuA (Fig. 82) or terminating slightly beyond CuA apex (Fig. 83) ............. 3

3. Male connective Y-shaped, stem as long as or longer than arms (Fig. 264); sclerotized base of segment X, in dorsal view, U-shaped, without anterolateral projections (Fig. 262) .......................................................... Euzyginella gen. nov.

3'. Male connective U-shaped, stem not developed (Fig. 308); sclerotized base of segment X, in dorsal view, with pair of sclerotized anterolateral projections articulated to pygofer (Fig. 306) .................................... Pseudozyginella gen. nov.

4. Head with coronal suture not extended beyond midlength of crown, crown with paired red spots (Fig. 43) ............... ......................................................... Neozyginella gen. nov.

4'. Head with coronal suture extended nearly to apex of crown; crown without spots (Fig. 49) ....... Pseudhadina gen. nov.

5. Form broad and strongly depressed (Figs 18-38), face horizontal and flat or concave in lateral view (Figs 62, 63); male subgenital plate with numerous macrosetae in irregular longitudinal band (Fig. 8a) ......................... Eualebra Baker

5'. Form slender and less depressed (Figs 1-17), face oblique and usually convex in lateral view (Figs 60, 61, 68); male subgenital plate with 3-4 macrosetae in single row (Fig. 87) ............... 6

6. Dorsal coloration mostly pale yellow with arcuate red and brown transverse bands; forewing apex emarginate or with distinct projection (Figs 84, 85); male subgenital plate with small stout setae at apex in addition to row of macrosetae near midlength (Fig. 317) ................... Tahurella gen. nov.

6'. Dorsal coloration mostly brown with pale spots (Figs 1-17); forewing apex rounded (Fig. 69); male subgenital plate without stout apical setae (Fig. 87) .................................... ................................................ Columbonirvana Linnavouri

Columbonirvana Linnavuori, new placement

Columbonirvana Linnavuori, 1959: 34.

Type species: C. aurea Linnavuori, 1959.

Diagnosis. Small to medium-sized, depressed, slender leafhoppers. Dorsal coloration (Figs 1-17) orange to dark brown with symmetrical yellow, brown or black markings; forewing apex usually with false eye spot, costal margin with oblique dark brown false veins; ventral coloration including legs yellow except mesepisternum brown.

Head (Figs 1-17) subequal to or narrower than pronotum, depressed, anterior margin angulately produced; face nearly horizontal; rostrum extended slightly beyond front trochanters; lower part of face sexually dimorphic, male anteclypeus inflated and expanded laterad, lorum very narrow; female anteclypeus narrow, flat, tapered distally, lorum broader than in male; frontoclypeus convex; lateral frontal sutures not extended dorsad of antennal pits; antennal ledges weakly developed; antennae as long as head width; ocelli absent; crown flat or slightly convex, coronal suture extended to or near apex of crown. Pronotum (Figs 1-17) with lateral margins moderately long, slightly divergent in dorsal view, distinctly carinate, carina even with posterior margin of eye. Front femur with AM1 enlarged and situated on ventral margin; intercalary row with few fine setae, basal seta larger than others; PV1 absent; tibia rounded dorsally, AD and PD without preapical macrosetae. Hind femur macrosetae 2+1+1; tibia row AV with 4 macrosetae near apex. Forewing (Fig. 69) with apex rounded, RA reflexed, RP confluent with MA for short distance, apical cell 2 triangular or petiolate; CuA joining M basad of its fork, inner apical cell trapezoidal; apical margin convex. Hind wing (Fig. 70) with RP and MA separate, connected by crossvein; submarginal vein extended from apex of RP to jugal lobe.

Male 2S apodemes (Figs 151-166) well developed, joined at base by transverse bridge, subparallel, extended beyond posterior margin of sternite III. Pygofer (Figs 87 and 88) strongly emarginate dorsally; tergite variable in length and shape among species; posterior lobe with strongly sclerotized acuminate dorsal section variably clothed with microtrichia, unpigmented ventral section bearing longitidinal row or band of short fine setae; ventral appendage slender, elongate, arising near base of ventral margin and curved posterodorsad, usually areolate distally. Anal tube (Figs 87 and 88) depressed, sclerotized dorsal band short, with pair of basolateral hooks. Subgenital plate (Figs 87 and 88) constricted near base, broadest near midlength, with row of 3-4 macrosetae near lateral margin, apical macrosetae absent; fine dorsal setae divided into medial and distal groups; apical lobe compressed, parallel sided and darkly pigmented. Style (Figs 89 and 90) apodeme short; apophysis elongate, without preapical lobe, with fine setae preapically. Connective (Figs 90 and 94) U- or V-shaped, articulated to aedeagus. Aedeagus (Figs 89 and 90) with preatrium elongate, dorsal apodeme weakly developed; shaft elongate and nearly straight, with or without paired ventral processes; apical processes absent; gonopore apical.

Female (based only on type species) sternite VII with posterior margin angulately produced; ovipositor not extended beyond pygofer; first valvulae with strigate sculpturing dorsally near apex; second valvulae (Fig. 357) elongate, slender, curved dorsad through most of length, slightly sinuate preapically, right blade with 9-10 small, rounded, close-set teeth near apex.

Remarks. The type species of this genus was described based on a single female from Colombia (illustrated by Linnavuori 1959 and Dietrich 2004). No additional specimens matching the type specimen of C. aurea Linnavuori in structure or color pattern have been found, but numerous congeneric male specimens representing 16 additional species were collected by Malaise trap in cloud forests in the Andes Mountains of Peru. No additional female representatives of this genus have yet been found. Dietrich (2004) transferred Columbonirvana from Evacanthinae (= Nirvaninae) to Typhlocybinae but considered its tribal placement uncertain. The genus is here placed in the tribe Typhlocybini based on the concept of the tribe embodied in the above diagnosis, which is narrower than that of Young (1952) but broader than that of Oman et al. (1990). It is similar to Tahurella gen. nov. but differs in the smaller size, darker overall coloration, lack of transverse black band on the anterior margin of the head, and rounded forewing apex.

The Southeast Asian Lowata Dworakowska resembles some species of Columbonirvana in having a pair of narrow transverse red stripes on the anterior margin of the head but differs in having the hind wing submarginal vein absent at the wing apex.

Key to species of Columbonirvana

1. Pronotum with large white or yellow crescent medially (Fig. 2)........................................................................................ 2

1'. Pronotum uniformly brown or with pair of small white spots (Figs 1, 7)........................................................................... 8

2. Posterior margin of pronotum yellow or white (Fig. 2), aedeagus with pair of elongate processes arising near base and extended distad along shaft (Fig. 93)....................... 3

2'. Posterior margin of pronotum brown (Fig. 5); aedeagus without spinelike processes (Fig. 102) .............................5

3. Aedeagus with ventral processes closely appressed to shaft in lateral view (Fig. 93)............................. ameliae sp. nov.

3'. Aedeagus with ventral processes distinctly divergent from shaft in lateral view (Fig. 105).......................................... 4

4. Dorsal sclerotized part of pygofer apex broad and only slightly curved ventrad (Fig. 95).............................. craigi sp. nov.

4'. Dorsal sclerotized part of pygofer apex slender and sharply bent ventrad (Fig. 103)............................... edgari sp. nov.

5. Aedeagal shaft distinctly denticulate preapically (Fig. 129) .... 6

5'. Aedeagal shaft without denticuli (Fig. 133)..................... 7

6. Aedeagus with denticuli restricted to margins of preapical flange (Fig. 150)............................................ vatia sp. nov.

6'. Aedeagus with denticuli scattered over preapical surface of shaft (Fig. 133)......................................... thomasi sp. nov.

7. Pygofer with ventral appendage gradually curved dorsad in lateral view (Fig. 127); aedeagal shaft widest at apex in lateral view (Fig. 129)................................... schulzi sp. nov.

7'. Pygofer with ventral appendage abruptly bent dorsad near midlength (Fig. 99); aedeagal shaft widest near base in lateral view (Fig. 101).................................... davidi sp. nov.

8. Anterior margin of head with pair of transverse parallel red stripes (Fig. 61).................................................................. 9

8'. Anterior margin of head white, bordered with light brown, without red stripes (Fig. 11)........................ noahi sp. nov.

9. Forewing apical cells with dark brown markings extended to margin (Fig. 61).......................................................... 10

9'. Forewing apical cells pale to light brown, third apical cell with dark brown medial spot not extended to margin (Fig. 69).................................................................................... 16

10. Aedeagus with paired ventral processes (Fig. 109) ........11

10'. Aedeagus without processes (Fig. 117)......................... 14

11. Aedeagal processes arising at or near base of shaft (Fig. 109) .........................................................................................12

11'. Aedeagal processes arising at or near midlength of shaft (Fig. 137)......................................................................... 13

12. Pygofer with dorsal process gently curved ventrad (Fig. 107); aedeagal processes straight in lateral view (Fig. 109)........
....................................................................... ernae sp. nov.

12'. Pygofer with dorsal process bent ventrad at right angle (Fig. 111); aedeagal processes distinctly curved in lateral view (Fig. 113)........................................... joshuai sp. nov.

13. Aedeagal processes very short, arising from ventrolateral flange, shaft apex not expanded in lateral view (Fig. 141)....................................................................... tumida sp. nov.

13'. Aedeagal processes long, arising from tubular shaft, shaft apex expanded in lateral view (Fig. 137) ...........................
.............................................................tuberculata sp. nov.

14. Aedeagal shaft in lateral view with apex narrower than base (Fig. 117).............................................. margaretae sp. nov.

14'. Aedeagal shaft in lateral view with apex wider than base (Fig. 121)......................................................................... 15

15. Aedeagal shaft with angulate preapical ventral projection (Fig. 121)................................................ matthewi sp. nov.

15'. Aedeagal shaft with ventral margin broadly rounded preapically (Fig. 145)........................ urodolobrata sp. nov.

16. Forewing with round white spot near midlength of clavus and another on adjacent area of corium (Fig. 1)..............
..................................................................... aidani sp. nov.

16'. Forewing with oblique white band on clavus extended onto corium (Fig. 60)....................................... aurea Linnavuori

Columbonirvana aidani sp. nov.

Figs 1, 69-70, 87-90, 151

Description. Length of male 4.3 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 1) mottled orange brown with symmetrical white spots; head anterior margin with pair of thin red transverse bands between eyes; pronotum with two pairs of posterolateral white spots; forewing clavus with large round white medial spot, brachial cell with smaller white spot, veins orange bordered with dark brown distally; venter of thorax pale yellow except mesosternum dark brown; abdomen brown ventrally except near midlength of subgenital plates. Head as wide as pronotum, crown slightly longer medially than next to eye.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 151) robust, parallel sided, weakly divergent, extended to posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer dorsal emargination (Fig. 88) with lateral margins convexly rounded, broadest distally; tergite produced medially, 1/3 length of distal lobe; dorsal sclerotized area of lobe weakly falcate but not produced beyond margin; ventral appendage strongly curved dorsad, apex areolate, curved posterolaterad (Fig. 87). Anal hook (Fig. 87) elongate and slender, weakly sinuate, extended ventrad. Subgenital plate (Fig. 87) with 3-4 macrosetae near midlength, without stout apical setae, apex abruptly curved dorsad. Style apophysis broadened preapically in ventral view (Fig. 87), apex tapered, curved ventrolaterad. Connective U-shaped (Fig. 90). Aedeagus (Figs 89 and 90) with preatrium distinctly shorter than shaft, broadened basally in ventral view; shaft slender, tubular, curved dorsad, with pair of ventral processes arising near base, closely paralleling shaft, and extended to or slightly beyond shaft apex; shaft apex slender, compressed.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., 10°39'39.7"S 75°22'0.1"W, 2300m, 10-13 October 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap across Rio San Alberto [USML]. Paratypes: 7 males, same data [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my nephew, Aidan Dietrich.

Columbonirvana ameliae sp. nov.

Figs 2, 91-94, 152

Description. Length of male 4.2 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 2) dark reddish brown with symmetrical pale yellow markings; anterior margin of head with pair of thin red transverse bands between eyes; crown yellow bordered anteriorly with brown; pronotum yellow medially with anterior and lateral margins brown and with brown transverse submarginal band posteriorly; mesonotum yellow medially, anterolateral triangles and apex of scutellum brown; forewing clavus with small white transcommisural spot bordered posteriorly with larger crimson area, veins orange bordered with brown in distal half; venter of thorax pale yellow except mesosternum orange brown. Head as wide as pronotum, crown nearly twice as long medially as next to eye.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 152) robust, subparallel, extended to posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer dorsal emargination (Fig. 92) parabolic; tergite 1/3 length of distal lobe; dorsal sclerotized area of lobe falcate, sinuate preapically, not produced beyond apical margin; ventral appendage gradually curved dorsad, apex curved posterolaterad (Fig. 91). Anal hook (Fig. 91) small and triangular. Subgenital plate (Fig. 91) with 3 macrosetae near midlength and few short, stout preapical setae, apex extended posterad. Style apophysis (Figs 93 and 94) parallel sided through most of length, apex tapered, curved ventrolaterad. Connective (Fig. 94) V-shaped. Aedeagus (Figs 93 and 94) with preatrium distinctly shorter than shaft, slightly broadened basally in ventral view; shaft slender, tubular, nearly straight, with pair of ventral processes arising near base, closely paralleling shaft, and extended 2/3 distance to shaft apex; shaft apex slightly compressed, rounded in lateral view, weakly emarginate in ventral view.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., 10°39'39.7"S 75°22'0.1"W, 2300m, 10-13 October 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap across Rio San Alberto [USML]. Paratypes: 4 males, same data [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my niece, Amelia Dietrich.

Columbonirvana aurea Linnavuori, 1959

Figs 3, 60, 18a-b

Columbonirvana aurea Linnavuori, 1959: 34.

Remarks. This species, the type species of the genus, was described based on a single female from "Sierra San Lorenzo", Colombia, by Linnavuori (1959). Dietrich (2004) examined the holotype from the Hungarian National Museum, Budapest, and illustrated the ovipositor. No male specimens that could be considered conspecific have been found.

Columbonirvana craigi sp. nov.

Figs 4, 95-98, 153

Description. Length of male 4.0 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 4) brown with extensive symmetrical pale markings; anterior margin of head with pair of thin red transverse bands between eyes; crown brown medially with broad white anterior and posterior margins; pronotum with white median crescent, posterior margin broadly white; mesonotum and scutellum white except midline anterad of scutellar suture and basolateral triangles brown; forewing with extensive large symmetrical white markings. Head subequal to pronotum in width, crown with median length much less than twice length next to eye.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 153) slender, divergent, extended beyond posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer dorsal emargination (Fig. 96) quadrate; tergite 1/3 length of distal lobe; dorsal sclerotized area of lobe relatively broad, weakly falcate with angulate dorsal preapical projection, not produced beyond apical margin; ventral appendage gradually curved dorsad, apex curved posteromesad (Figs 95 and 96). Anal hook (Fig. 95) well developed, triangular. Subgenital plate (Fig. 95) with 3 macrosetae near midlength and few short, stout preapical setae, apex bent posterodorsad. Style apophysis (Figs 97 and 98) parallel sided through most of length, apex blunt, curved ventrolaterad, extended slightly mesad in ventral view. Connective (Fig. 98) broadly V-shaped. Aedeagus (Figs 97 and 98) with preatrium distinctly shorter than shaft, nearly parallel sided in ventral view; shaft slender, tubular, nearly straight, curved slightly dorsad near apex; with pair of slender ventral processes arising near base and extended nearly to apex of shaft, only slightly divergent from shaft; shaft apex slightly compressed, rounded in lateral view, truncate in ventral view.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Villa Rica, 1400m, 10°43'21"S 75°15'43"W, 21 October 2002, C. H. Dietrich, vacuum, 2-28-1 [USML].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my brother, Craig B. Dietrich.

Columbonirvana davidi sp. nov.

Figs 5, 99-102, 154

Description. Length of male 3.4 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 5) dark brown with large symmetrical yellow markings. Anterior margin of head with two narrow transverse red bands; crown with posterior margin infused with yellow medially. Pronotum with large transverse yellow crescent. Mesonotum brown with large yellow median spot. Forewing clavus with large symmetrical transcommisural marking; veins mostly orange; anteapical and apical cells each with medial area hyaline; brachial and discal cell each with hyaline area near apex. Head as wide as pronotum, crown twice as long medially as next to eye.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 154) slender, bowed laterad, extended slightly beyond posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer emargination parallel sided (Fig. 100); tergite weakly developed and poorly sclerotized; dorsal sclerotized area of lobe gradually tapered distad, apex strongly hooked ventrad but not extended beyond apical margin; ventral appendage gradually curved dorsad, apex extended posterolaterad (Fig. 99). Anal hook (Fig. 99) digitiform, extended ventrad, apex hooked mesad. Subgenital plate (Fig. 99) with 3 macrosetae near midlength, without stout apical setae, apex gradually curved posterodorsad. Style apophysis (Figs 101 and 102) slightly broadened preapically, apex tapered, curved ventrolaterad. Connective (Fig. 102) U-shaped. Aedeagus (Figs 101 and 102) with preatrium distinctly shorter than shaft, slightly broadened basally in ventral view; shaft tubular, somewhat compressed basally, tapering toward apex in lateral view; without paired ventral processes, with indistinct ventrolateral flange extended to apex; apex tubular, subtruncate.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., 10°39'39.7"S 75°22'0.1"W, 2300m, 10-13 October 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap across Rio San Alberto [USML]. Paratypes: 4 males, same data [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my brother, David A. Dietrich.

Columbonirvana edgari sp. nov.

Figs 6, 103-106, 155

Description. Length of male 4.0 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 6) medium brown with extensive symmetrical pale markings; anterior margin of head with pair of thin red transverse bands between eyes; crown brown with anterior and posterior margins yellow; pronotum with large white median spot, posterior margin broadly white; mesonotum and scutellum yellow except midline and basolateral triangles brown; forewing with extensive large symmetrical white markings. Head subequal to pronotum in width, crown with median length much less than twice length next to eye.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 155) broad, parallel sided, extended nearly to posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer emargination quadrate (Fig. 104), tergite nearly 1/2 length of lobe; dorsal sclerotized area of lobe with digitiform distal section bent ventrad at slightly less than 90° angle, extended slightly beyond margin; ventral appendage gradually curved dorsad, apex curved slightly mesad (Figs 103 and 104). Anal hook (Fig. 103) slender, bifurcate, with slender dorsomedial branch and longer, broader ventral branch curved dorsad in lateral view. Subgenital plate (Fig. 103) with 3 macrosetae near midlength and few short, stout preapical setae, apex bent posterodorsad. Style apophysis (Figs 105 and 106) acuminate, apex curved ventrolaterad. Connective (Fig. 106) V-shaped. Aedeagus (Figs 105 and 106) with preatrium nearly as long as shaft, parallel sided in ventral view; shaft tubular, very slender, slightly sinuate in lateral view; with pair of acuminate ventral processes arising near midlength, curved away from, then toward shaft in ventral and lateral views; apex obliquely rounded in lateral view, blunt in ventral view.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Villa Rica, 1400m, 10°43'21"S 75°15'43"W, 21 October 2002, C.H. Dietrich, vacuum, 2-28-1[USML].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my father, Edgar H. Dietrich.

Columbonirvana ernae sp. nov.

Figs 7, 107-110, 156

Description. Length of male 3.8 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 7) brown, without distinct pale markings; head anterior margin with pair of thin red transverse bands between eyes; forewing veins yellow distally, apical and anteapical cells hyaline in middle, discal and brachial cell each with hyaline spot near apex. Head subequal to pronotum in width, crown less than twice as long medially as next to eyes.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 156) long, slightly divergent, parallel sided, extended nearly to posterior margin of sternite V. Pygofer emargination with sides divergent posteriorly (Fig. 108), base truncate; tergite ca. 1/3 length of distal lobe; dorsal sclerotized area of lobe moderately broad, gradually tapered distad, apex hooked ventrad and extended slightly beyond margin; ventral appendage acuminate, gradually curved dorsad, bowed slightly mediad (Figs 107 and 108). Anal hook (Fig. 107) short, tapered, extended ventrad, apex weakly bidentate in dorsal view (Fig. 108). Subgenital plate (Fig. 107) with 3 macrosetae near midlength and few smaller stout setae distally, apex gradually curved dorsad. Style (Figs 109 and 110) somewhat expanded beyond midlength, apex hooked ventrolaterad. Connective (Fig. 5d) V-shaped, stem poorly developed. Aedeagus (Figs 109 and 110) with preatrium nearly as long as shaft; shaft very slender, sinuate in lateral view, with pair of long slender straight processes arising near base and extended distad slightly more than half distance to shaft apex, divergent from shaft in lateral view, parallel in ventral view; shaft apex obliquely truncate in lateral view.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Villa Rica, 1400m, 10°43'21"S 75°15'43"W, 21 October 2002, C. H. Dietrich, vacuum, 2-28-1 [USML]. Paratype: 1 male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., 10°39'39.7"S 75°22'0.1"W, 2300m, 10-13 October 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap across Rio San Alberto [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my niece, Erna Dietrich.

Columbonirvana joshuai sp. nov.

Figs 8, 111-114, 157

Description. Length of male 3.8 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 8) brown, without distinct pale markings; head anterior margin with pair of thin red transverse bands between eyes; forewing veins yellow distally, apical and anteapical cells hyaline in middle, discal and brachial cell each with hyaline spot near apex. Head subequal to pronotum in width, crown approximately twice as long medially as next to eyes.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 157) parallel sided, parallel to each other, extended nearly to posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer emargination with sides divergent posteriorly (Fig. 112), base truncate; tergite ca. 1/2 length of distal lobe; dorsal sclerotized area of lobe moderately broad, gradually tapered distad, apex abruptly hooked ventrad and extended slightly beyond margin; ventral appendage acuminate, evenly curved dorsad, apex curved slightly mesad (Figs 111 and 112). Anal hook (Fig. 111) relatively long, tapered, extended ventrad, apex hooked mesad in dorsal view. Subgenital plate (Fig. 111) with 3 macrosetae near midlength, apex gradually curved dorsad. Style (Figs 113 and 114) somewhat expanded beyond midlength, apex hooked ventrolaterad. Connective (Fig. 114) V-shaped, stem absent. Aedeagus (Figs 113 and 114) with preatrium nearly as long as shaft; shaft very slender, sinuate in lateral view, with pair of long tapered evenly curved processes arising near base and extended distad half distance to shaft apex, divergent from shaft in lateral view, parallel in ventral view; shaft apex obliquely truncate in lateral view.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Villa Rica, 1400m, 10°43'21"S 75°15'43"W, 21 October 2002, C. H. Dietrich, vacuum, 2-28-1 [USML].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my nephew, Joshua Dietrich.

Columbonirvana margaretae sp. nov.

Figs 9, 115-118, 158

Description. Length of male 3.9 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 9) mostly dark brown; head anterior margin with pair of thin red transverse bands between eyes; forewing with oblique pale orange mark along posterior part of brochosome field and smaller orange areas more distad along costal margin, veins orange, bordered with brown, central areas of distal cells hyaline; venter of head and thorax stramineous except mesosternum dark brown, abdomen brown ventrally except submedial areas of sternite III, posterior margins of pregenital sternites and basal 2/3 of subgenital plate stramineous. Head narrower than pronotum, crown less than twice as long medially as next to eyes.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 158) weakly divergent, extended to posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer emargination parallel sided, base irregularly rounded (Fig. 116); tergite ca. 1/4 length of distal lobe; dorsal sclerotized area of lobe slender, parallel sided through most of length, apex tapered and decurved, extended slightly beyond apical margin; ventral appendage gradually curved dorsad, apex directed posteromesad (Figs 115 and 116). Anal hook (Fig. 115) with short anteroventral process, longer irregularly sinuate ventral extension hooked mesad. Subgenital plate (Fig. 115) with 3-4 macrosetae near midlength. Style (Figs 117 and 118) apophysis with slight preapical gibbosity, apex tapered blunt, weakly hooked ventrolaterad. Connective (Fig. 118) U-shaped with arms strongly bent mesad distally. Aedeagus (Figs 117 and 118) with preatrium much shorter than shaft, narrowest at base in ventral view; shaft weakly compressed, nearly straight, somewhat broadened medially, with indistinct angulate dorsolateral flange preapically without paired ventral processes, apex expanded in lateral view, compressed and subtruncate.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., 10°39'39.7"S 75°22'0.1"W, 2300m, 10-13 October 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap across Rio San Alberto [USML].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my grandmother, Margaret R. Baka.

Columbonirvana matthewi sp. nov.

Figs 10, 61, 119-122, 159

Description. Length of male 3.7-4.0 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 10) mostly brown, venter pale yellow except medial part of frontoclypeus, gena below eye, and mesepisternum brown. Head anterior margin with pair of transverse red bands, crown, pronotum, mesonotum and scutellum brown infused with stramineous; forewing with indistinct stramineous band extended from base of clavus across mesonotum and another larger transcommisural band near midlength, veins mostly orange, cells hyaline medially, costal margin with orange pigment in distal third. Head subequal to pronotum in width, crown only slightly longer medially than next to eye.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 159) weakly divergent, extended to near midlength of sternite IV. Pygofer emargination with lateral margins concave, widest posteriorly (Fig. 120); tergite 1/5 length of distal lobe; dorsal sclerotized area of lobe slender, tapered distally, apex curved ventrad and extended slightly beyond margin; ventral appendage with weakly sclerotized jointlike area near midlength, distal portion strongly curved dorsad (Figs 119 and 120). Anal hook (Fig. 119) somewhat elongate, divided preapically into digitiform posterolateral and flattened anteromedial process. Subgenital plate (Fig. 119) with 3-4 macrosetae near midlength, apex gently curved dorsad. Style (Figs 121 and 122) apophysis parallel sided, apex tapered, blunt, weakly hooked ventrolaterad. Connective (Fig. 122) V-shaped with tiny digitiform medial lobe. Aedeagus (Figs 121 and 122) with preatrium much shorter than shaft, only slightly expanded basally in ventral view; shaft tubular, slender, with indistinct ventrolateral flange ending 1/4 distance from apex, without paired ventral processes, apex compressed with broad triangular ventral keel.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., 10°39'39.7"S 75°22'0.1"W, 2300m, 10-13 October 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap across Rio San Alberto [USML]. Paratypes: 3 males, same data [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my brother, Matthew M. Dietrich.

Columbonirvana noahi sp. nov.

Figs 11, 59, 123-126, 160

Description. Length of male 4.0-4.1 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 11) brown marked with white and orange; head anterior margin white; pronotum with anterior margin orange; mesonotum and scutellum orange; forewing base brown infused with orange, costal area with two large white oblique markings; veins orange, cells mostly dark brown distally; venter mostly tan, mesosternum dark brown, abdomen tan ventrally, medial and anterior parts of sternites and apex of subgenital plate brown. Head subequal to pronotum in width, crown less than twice as long medially as next to eyes.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 160) straight, slightly divergent, extended slightly beyond posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer emargination parallel sided, base broadly V-shaped (Fig. 124); tergite short, ca. 1/6 length of distal lobe; dorsal sclerotized area of lobe broad, gradually tapered distad, apex strongly hooked ventrad but not extended beyond apical margin; ventral appendage broadened medially and abruptly narrowed and somewhat twisted preapically, curved dorsad, apex bent posterad (Figs 123 and 124). Anal hook (Fig. 123) bifid with two processes digitiform and subequal in length, extended ventromesad. Subgenital plate (Fig. 123) with 3-4 macrosetae near midlength, without stout apical setae, apex gradually curved dorsad. Style (Figs 125 and 126) apex somewhat expanded near apex, apex hooked ventrolaterad. Connective (Fig. 126) broadly V-shaped. Aedeagus (Figs 125 and 126) with preatrium nearly as long as shaft; shaft compressed, relatively broad in lateral view, without paired ventral processes, with weak ventrolateral flange; apex tubular and subtruncate.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., 10°39'39.7"S 75°22'0.1"W, 2300m, 10-13 October 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap across Rio San Alberto [USML]. Paratype: 1 male, same data [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my nephew, Noah Dietrich.

Columbonirvana schulzi sp. nov.

Figs 12, 127-130, 161

Description. Length of male 4.6 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 12) dark brown with large symmetrical yellow markings. Anterior margin of head with two narrow transverse red bands; crown with posterior margin infused with yellow medially. Pronotum with large transverse yellow crescent. Mesonotum yellow except dark brown anterolateral triangles; scutellum with anterior half yellow. Forewing clavus with large diamond-shaped transcommisural marking; veins mostly orange; anteapical and apical cells each with medial area hyaline; brachial and discal cell each with hyaline area near apex. Head as wide as pronotum, crown twice as long medially as next to eye.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 161) broad, tapered, not extended beyond posterior margin of sternite III. Pygofer emargination nearly parallel sided (Fig. 128); tergite weakly developed and poorly sclerotized; dorsal sclerotized area of lobe abruptly tapered distad, apex hooked ventrad at 90° angle but not extended beyond apical margin; ventral appendage areolate distally, gradually curved dorsad, apex extended posterolaterad well beyond pygofer apex (Fig. 127). Anal hook (Fig. 127) short, weakly bidentate, extended anteromesad. Subgenital plate (Fig. 127) with 4 macrosetae near midlength, without stout apical setae, apex gradually curved posterodorsad. Style (Figs 129 and 130) apophysis abruptly narrowed preapically, apex tapered, curved ventrolaterad. Connective (Fig. 130) Y-shaped; stem broad, slightly shorter than arms. Aedeagus (Figs 129 and 130) with preatrium shorter than shaft, parallel sided basally in ventral view; shaft strongly compressed, in lateral view nearly straight, parallel sided through most of length, apex broadened and subtruncate; without processes or flanges.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., 10°39'39.7"S 75°22'0.1"W, 2300m, 10-13 October 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap across Rio San Alberto [USML].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my brother-in-law, David Schulz.

Columbonirvana thomasi sp. nov.

Figs 13, 131-134, 162

Description. Length of male 3.4-3.9 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 13) dark brown with large symmetrical yellow markings. Anterior margin of head with two narrow transverse red bands; crown with posterior margin infused with yellow medially. Pronotum with large transverse yellow crescent. Mesonotum and scutellum without pale markings. Forewing clavus with large pentagonal transcommisural marking; veins mostly orange; anteapical and apical cells each with medial area hyaline; brachial and discal cell each with hyaline area near apex. Head as wide as pronotum, crown twice as long medially as next to eye.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 162) robust, parallel-sided, extended beyond posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer emargination nearly parallel sided (Fig. 132); tergite weakly developed and poorly sclerotized; dorsal sclerotized area of lobe broadend preapically, abruptly bent ventrad, apex tapered, not extended beyond apical margin; ventral appendage areolate distally, abruptly bent dorsad near midlength, apex not extended beyond pygofer apex (Fig. 131). Anal hook (Fig. 131) short, sinuate in lateral view, hooked mesad. Subgenital plate (Fig. 131) with 3 macrosetae near midlength, without stout apical setae, apex gradually curved posterodorsad. Style (Figs 133 and 134) apophysis narrowed preapically, apex tapered, curved ventrolaterad. Connective (Fig. 134) V-shaped. Aedeagus (Figs 133 and 134) with preatrium shorter than shaft, slightly broadened basally in ventral view; shaft strongly compressed, in lateral view nearly straight, gradually tapered through most of length, apex broadened and obliquely truncate; with pair of preapical ventrolateral flanges and numerous preapical denticuli.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., 10°39'39.7"S 75°22'0.1"W, 2300m, 10-13 October 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap across Rio San Alberto [USML]. Paratypes: 4 males, same data [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my brother-in-law, Thomas Braxton.

Columbonirvana tuberculata sp. nov.

Figs 14, 135-138, 163

Description. Length of male 4.3 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 14) mostly brown, venter pale yellow except medial part of frontoclypeus, gena below eye, and mesepisternum brown. Head anterior margin with pair of transverse red bands, crown, pronotum, mesonotum and scutellum brown infused with stramineous; forewing with indistinct stramineous band extended from base of clavus across mesonotum and another larger transcommisural band near midlength, veins mostly orange, cells hyaline medially, costal margin with orange pigment in distal third. Head subequal to pronotum in width, crown only slightly longer medially than next to eye.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 163) robust, parallel sided, extended to posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer emargination with lateral margins slightly divergent posteriorly (Fig. 136); tergite weakly sclerotized; dorsal sclerotized area of lobe with dorsal tooth adjacent to anal hook, apex curved ventrad and extended slightly beyond margin; ventral appendage areolate distally, abruptly bent dorsad near midlength and extended posterodorsad slightly beyond dorsal pygofer margin (Figs 135 and 136). Anal hook (Fig. 135) short, weakly bidentate, curved anteromesad. Subgenital plate (Fig. 135) with 3-4 macrosetae near midlength, apex gently curved dorsad. Style apophysis (Figs 137 and 138) parallel sided, apex tapered, blunt, weakly hooked ventrolaterad. Connective (Fig. 138) V-shaped, stem not developed. Aedeagus (Figs 137 and 138) with preatrium much shorter than shaft, slightly expanded basally in ventral view; shaft tubular, slender, somewhat compressed distally, apex slightly broadened and obliquely truncate in lateral view; with pair of slender ventral processes arising near midlength, extended distad and slightly divergent from shaft, not reaching shaft apex.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., 10°39'39.7"S 75°22'0.1"W, 2300m, 10-13 October 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap across Rio San Alberto [USML].

Etymology. The species name refers to the small dorsal preapical tooth (tubercle) on the male pygofer lobe.

Columbonirvana tumida sp. nov.

Figs 15, 139-142, 164

Description. Length of male 4.2 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 15) mostly brown, venter pale yellow except mesepisternum brown. Head anterior margin with pair of transverse red bands, crown, pronotum, mesonotum and scutellum brown infused with stramineous; forewing with indistinct stramineous band extended from base of clavus across mesonotum and another larger transcommisural band near midlength, veins mostly orange, cells hyaline medially, costal margin with orange pigment in distal third. Head subequal to pronotum in width, crown only slightly longer medially than next to eye.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 164) relatively slender, parallel-sided, extended slightly beyond sternite IV. Pygofer emargination with lateral margins slightly divergent posteriorly (Fig. 140); tergite weakly sclerotized; dorsal sclerotized area of lobe constricted preapically, apex curved ventrad and extended slightly beyond margin; ventral appendage areolate distally, abruptly bent dorsad near midlength and extended posterodorsad slightly beyond dorsal pygofer margin (Figs 139 and 140). Anal hook (Figs 139 and 140) short, sinuate in lateral view, hooked mesad. Subgenital plate (Fig. 139) with 3-4 macrosetae near midlength, apex gently curved dorsad. Style apophysis (Figs 141 and 142) parallel sided, apex tapered, blunt, weakly hooked ventrolaterad. Connective (Fig. 142) V-shaped. Aedeagus (Figs 141 and 142) with preatrium short, slightly expanded basally in ventral view; shaft slender, somewhat compressed distally, apex slightly broadened and obliquely rounded in lateral view; with pair of ventrolateral flanges broadening distad in ventral view and each giving rise to spine extended distad and slightly divergent from shaft, not reaching shaft apex.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., 10°39'39.7"S 75°22'0.1"W, 2300m, 10-13 October 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap across Rio San Alberto [USML].

Etymology. The species name refers to the tumid (swollen) medial section of the aedeagal shaft.

Columbonirvana urodolobrata sp. nov.

Figs 16, 143-146, 165

Description. Length of male 4.7 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 16) mostly dull orange-brown, venter pale yellow except mesepisternum brown. Head anterior margin with pair of transverse red bands, crown, pronotum, mesonotum and scutellum brown with few diffuse white markings; forewing with narrow transcommisural white band near midlength of clavus, veins mostly orange, cells hyaline medially, costal margin with orange pigment in distal third. Head subequal to pronotum in width, crown only slightly longer medially than next to eye.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 165) robust, short, tapered, extended slightly beyond sternite III. Pygofer emargination with lateral margins slightly divergent posteriorly(Fig. 144); tergite sclerotized in basal fifth; dorsal sclerotized area of lobe very slender, apex abruptly curved ventrad and extended slightly beyond margin; ventral appendage areolate distally, abruptly bent dorsad near midlength, bowed mesad and extended posterodorsad slightly beyond dorsal pygofer margin (Figs 143 and 144). Anal hook (Fig. 143) short, sinuate in lateral view, abruptly constricted preapically, hooked mesad. Subgenital plate (Fig. 143) with 3 macrosetae near midlength, apex gently curved dorsad. Style apophysis (Figs 145 and 146) parallel sided, apex tapered, blunt, weakly hooked ventrolaterad. Connective (Fig. 146) V-shaped. Aedeagus (Figs 145 and 146) with preatrium shorter than shaft, tapered basally in ventral view; shaft strongly compressed, nearly straight, slightly tapered in lateral view; apex strongly expanded with acute posterodorsal angle and rounded posteroventral lobe; without processes.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., 10°39'39.7"S 75°22'0.1"W, 2300m, 10-13 October 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap across Rio San Alberto [USML].

Etymology. The species name combines uro, meaning "tail", with dolobrata, meaning "hatchet", referring to the hatchetlike apex of the aedeagus.

Columbonirvana vatia sp. nov.

Figs 17, 147-150, 166

Description. Length of male 3.4-3.9 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 17) dark brown with symmetrical white markings; anterior margin of head with pair of thin red transverse bands between eyes; crown white bordered anteriorly with brown; pronotum white medially with anterior and lateral margins brown and with brown transverse submarginal band posteriorly; mesonotum white medially, anterolateral triangles and apex of scutellum brown; forewing clavus with large white transcommisural spot, veins orange bordered with brown in distal half; venter of thorax pale yellow except mesosternum orange brown. Head as wide as pronotum, crown slightly longer medially than next to eye.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 166) robust, subparallel, extended to posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer dorsal emargination quadrate, lateral margins constricted medially (Fig. 148); tergite 1/3 length of distal lobe; dorsal sclerotized area of lobe falcate, produced slightly beyond apical margin; ventral appendage gradually curved dorsad, apex curved dorsolaterad (Figs 147 and 148). Anal hook (Fig. 147) long, tapered, sinuate, apex hooked mesad. Subgenital plate (Fig. 147) with 3 macrosetae near midlength and few short, stout preapical setae, apex bent dorsad. Style apophysis (Figs 149 and 150) slightly sinuate, apex tapered, curved ventrolaterad then hooked mesad. Connective (Fig. 150) U-shaped. Aedeagus (Figs 149 and 150) with preatrium much shorter than shaft, not expanded basally in ventral view; shaft slender, tubular, nearly straight, with pair of rounded, finely serrate ventrolateral flanges arising near apex; shaft apex compressed, slightly expanded, obliquely rounded in lateral view.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., 10°39'39.7"S 75°22'0.1"W, 2300m, 10-13 October 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap across Rio San Alberto [USML]. Paratypes: 2 males, same data [INHS].

Etymology. The species name is derived from the Latin word vatius, meaning "bent", and refers to the sharply bent pygofer appendages.

 

Eualebra Baker

Eualebra Baker 1899: 402.

Type species: E. smithii Baker 1899.

Diagnosis. Small to medium sized, strongly depressed, somewhat ovoid leafhoppers (Figs 18-38) broadest across midlength of resting forewings in dorsal view. Color pale yellow to dark brown with symmetrical white, yellow, orange, brown, and/or black markings dorsally.

Head (Figs 18-38) narrower than pronotum, depressed, produced, anterior margin parabolic in dorsal view; crown slightly convex, declivous, glabrous, coronal suture restricted to posterior third; face horizontal (Figs 62-63); rostrum not extended beyond front trochanters; lower part of face sexually dimorphic, male anteclypeus inflated and expanded laterad, parallel-sided and weakly convex in female; lorum very narrow; frontoclypeus flat or concave medially; lateral frontal sutures not extended dorsad of antennal pits; antennal ledges curved, nearly vertical; antennae slightly longer than head width; ocelli vestigial, on crown margin approximately midway between eye and midline. Pronotum (Figs 18-38) with lateral margins long, divergent in dorsal view, distinctly carinate, carina even with posterior corner of eye. Front femur with AM1 enlarged and situated on ventral margin; intercalary row with few fine setae, basal seta larger than others; PV1 well developed; tibia somewhat flattened dorsally, AD and PD without preapical macrosetae. Hind femur macrosetae 2+1+1; tibia row AV with 3-4 macrosetae near apex. Forewing (Figs 71 and 73) with RA slightly to strongly reflexed, RP and MA separate and connected by crossvein or confluent for short distance preapically. Hind wing (Figs 72 and 74) with anterior branch of R absent, veins RP and MA separate, joined by crossvein; MP and CuA separate, joined by oblique m-cu crossvein; submarginal vein extended from apex of RP to jugal lobe.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 242-260) well developed, usually joined at base by transverse bridge, variable interspecifically in length and orientation. Pygofer (Figs 167 and 168) slightly to strongly emarginate dorsally; tergite variable interspecifically in length and shape; posterior lobe with or without dorsal process, side not or only weakly produced posteriorly, ventral appendage elongate, curved dorsad, usually areolate distally. Anal tube and appendages highly variable interspecifically, appendage usually well developed, arising from base of anal tube (segment X), articulated to posterodorsal margin of pygofer laterally and to dorsal connective medially, usually with at least one separate projection extended mesad and/or ventrad. Sclerotized dorsal connective present (Fig. 214), usually U-shaped (rarely platelike) and articulated between dorsal apodeme of aedeagus and paired basal processes of anal tube. Valve very short, rectangular, fused to pygofer. Subgenital plate (Fig. 167) depressed, ovoid in ventral view, distal half tapered with 5 or more macrosetae arranged in lateral band, fine setae short and sparse on dorsal surface, apex rounded or subtruncate. Style (Figs 169 and 170) apodeme short, broad; apophysis elongate, slender, apex simple, tapered and slightly hooked, without conspicuous setae. Connective (Fig. 170) U-shaped with pair of posterodorsal lobes articulated to aedeagus. Aedeagus (Figs 169 and 170) with preatrium well developed; dorsal apodeme short, lobelike; shaft short, tubular, with or without processes; gonopore apical.

Female with posterior margin of sternite VII (Fig. 361) angulately produced medially; ovipositor not extended beyond pygofer; first valvulae Figs 359, 364, and 369) with dorsal sculpturing strigate; second valvulae (Figs 362, 370, and 374) variable interspecifically in shape and dentition.

Remarks. Dietrich (2004) noted that Eualebra and Columbonirvana share a unique hind wing venational pattern different from that of other Typhlocybinae and therefore treated both genera as unplaced to tribe within Typhlocybinae. Based on the revised tribal diagnosis given above, both of these genera are now included in Typhlocybini (also see Remarks under Columbonirvana). Species of Eualebra resemble species of the Old World genus Eurhadina Haupt in their ovoid shape in dorsal view and strongly depressed body form. However Eurhadina differs in having the structure of the lower part of the face similar in males and females, the forewing narrow distally, the male subgenital plates usually with a single subbasal macroseta, and the pygofer lacking an elongate ventral process. Also, like all other known Old World Typhlocybini, Eurhadina lacks a submarginal vein at the apex of the hind wing. Species of Eualebra occur in both lowland Neotropical rainforest and premontane cloud forests.

Eualebra previously included five species. Young (1952) excluded E. notata Baker from Guatemala, noting that the hind wing venation of the female holotype is consistent with that of tribe Dikraneurini, but did not suggest an appropriate generic placement for the species so it remains incertae sedis. Examination of the holotype of Eualebra rubra Van Duzee from Jamaica, deposited in the California Academy of Sciences collection, indicates that it belongs in the subgenus Alconeura (Hyloidea) of tribe Dikraneurini. Therefore, A. (H.) rubra (Van Duzee) is proposed as a new combination. As a result, only three taxa previously included, E. smithii Baker, E. reticulata Osborn, and E. rufoornata (Stål), all described from Brazil, are retained in Eualebra. Seventeen new species, described below, are also included. Based on the species known at present, the genus appears to be restricted to South America.

Eualebra, as presently defined, is somewhat heterogeneous morphologically, comprising species that range in size from 2.7 to 4.7 mm and exhibit a variety of color patterns, shapes, and male genitalia configurations. Given the still poor state of knowledge of the genus, and particularly considering that females are known for only a few species, I have opted not to recognize additional genera or subgenera but, rather, place the known species into five informal species groups that may represent distinct lineages. Recognition of some of these groups as separate genera may be warranted once the fauna becomes better known. In particular, the ovipositors of the few female specimens available for study exhibit considerable variation and may provide genus-level characters.

Key to species of Eualebra

1. Body length >4.5 mm, head in profile with anterior margin thick (Fig. 63), hind tibia row AV with three macrosetae (michaelorum species group)............................................. 2

1'. Body length < 4.5 mm, head in profile with anterior margin thin (Fig. 62), hind tibia row AV usually with four macrosetae........................................................................ 4

2. Dorsal coloration mostly pale yellow with few brown or black markings (Fig. 34)............................................................. 3

2'. Dorsal coloration mostly brown with smaller pale markings (Fig. 36)............................................. michaelorum sp. nov.

3. Pronotum with narrow median posterior macula; forewing clavus unmarked (Fig. 35)..................... dorothyae sp. nov.

3'. Pronotum with broad transverse macula on posterior margin; forewing clavus with distinct transverse brown macula at midlength (Fig. 34).................... alberti sp. nov.

4. Dorsum color pale stramineous marked with numerous minute brown spots (Fig. 31), forewing with irregular cream-colored spots, crown unmarked or with small symmetrically arranged pale orange markings (smithii species group) .. 5

4'. Dorsal color pattern not consisting of small brown spots on a stramineous background, forewing with cream-colored spots absent or large and symmetrically arranged, crown with orange markings, if present, large........................... 6

5. Forewing clavus with small round white spots (Fig. 33); aedeagus with paired lateral flanges extended full length of shaft (Fig. 10t); female sternite VII with posterior margin broadly but shallowly produced (Fig. 18p) ....................... ......................................................... magaretannae sp. nov.

5'. Forewing clavus with irregular white vermiform areas (Fig. 31); aedeagus without paired lateral flanges (Fig. 10p); female sternite VII with short median lobe . smithii Baker

6. Crown and pronotum with pair of orange or brown longitudinal stripes extended onto pronotum (Fig. 20); length >4.0 mm (dorisae species group) ............................................... 7

6'. Crown and pronotum without pair of longitudinal stripes or, if stripes present, length <3.0mm ............................... 9

7. Dorsum predominantly bright yellow (Fig. 22); male tergite IX with narrow, parallel-sided posterior emargination (Fig. 184); aedeagus without processes (Fig. 185)...................... ................................................................. patriciae sp. nov.

7'. Dorsum predominantly brown; male tergite IX with broad, obtusely angulate emargination (Fig. 8j); aedeagus with pair of processes (Fig. 178)....................................................... 8

8. Crown width between eyes much less than 2X median length (Fig. 21); aedeagus with paired processes arising near apex (Fig. 182)................................................... jessicae sp. nov.

8'. Crown width between eyes ~2X median length (Fig. 20); aedeagus with paired processes arising near base (Fig. 178).................................................................... dorisae sp. nov.

9. Pronotum with narrow white median cruciform or trident-shaped mark surrounded by brown (Fig. 18); length <3 mm (barbarae species group).................................................. 10

9'. Pronotum with white marking, if present, broad and not cruciform or trident-shaped; length >3.0 mm.............. 11

10. Male pygofer with elongate dorsal spine and short, bifurcate ventral process (Fig. 167); aedeagus strongly curved in lateral view (Fig. 169)................................ barbarae sp. nov.

10'. Male pygofer with dorsal spine absent, ventral process long and acuminate (Fig. 8e); aedeagus nearly straight in lateral view (Fig. 173)........................................... charlesi sp. nov.

11. Crown brown with pale marking, if present, restricted to narrow area near apex (Fig. 38)...................................... 12

11'. Crown with large medial lobed or wedge-shaped pale area (Fig. 23, 29) (gingerae species group, part) .....................14

12. Pronotum uniformly brown, without white spots (Fig. 30); forewing clavus with pair of triangular yellow transcommisural markings (gingerae species group, part)..................... ................................................................ jenniferae sp. nov.

12'. Pronotum brown with narrow white posterior band and pair of white submedial spots; forewing clavus with transcommisural markings white (Fig. 37) .................................................. (leoni species group) 13

13. Forewing clavus with three small white transcommisural spots (Fig. 37)........................ .................................................. leoni sp. nov.

13'. Forewing clavus with large white arcuate transcommisural marking near midlength and pentagonal white transcommisural marking near apex (Fig. 38).......moralesi sp. nov.

14. Crown with pair of oblique claviform posterior maculae mesad of eyes; pronotum with distinct white transverse band on posterior margin (Fig. 23)......... gingerae sp. nov.

14'. Crown without pair of oblique claviform posterior maculae mesad of eyes; pronotum with posterior margin brown or with very narrow indistinct white posterior band ........15

15. Mesonotum with pair of black spots just anterad of scutellar suture (Fig. 29) ................................................................16

15'. Mesonotum without pair of black spots just anterad of scutellar suture................................................................ 17

16. Forewing with transcommisural pale marking at base of clavus much larger than marking at apex of clavus (Fig. 28); aedeagus with pair of distal processes shorter than shaft (Fig. 206)................................................... kathyae sp. nov.

16'. Forewing with transcommisural pale markings of clavus subequal in size (Fig. 27); aedeagus with pair of basal processes much longer than shaft (Fig. 210) .... peggyae sp. nov.

17. Crown with pale areas extended to lateral margin....... 18

17'. Crown with pale areas not extended to lateral margin, margin brown throughout length................................. 19

18. Pronotum with pair of small white spots laterad of large median pale marking (Fig. 25)............. marilynae sp. nov.

18'. Pronotum with pair of small white spots posterolaterad of large median pale marking (Fig. 26)........ susanae sp. nov.

19. Margin of median pale area of crown lobed laterally (Fig. 27); forewing with single pale transcommisural marking; aedeagus without apical processes (Fig. 202).................... .................................................................. helenae, sp. nov.

19'. Margin of median pale area of crown entire; forewing with two pale transcommisural markings; aedeagus with pair of apical processes......................................... rufoornata (Stål)

Eualebra barbarae species group

Diagnosis. Species of this group may be distinguished from other Eualebra in their very small size (<3 mm), relatively elongate crown (Figs 18 and 19), mottled brown coloration, cruciform or trident-shaped pronotal marking, basally quadrate third apical cell of the forewing, platelike dorsal connective, and absence of paired processes on the aedeagus (Fig. 170).

Eualebra barbarae sp. nov.

(Figs 18, 167-170, 242)

Description. Length of male 2.7 mm. Color (Fig. 18) mostly dark brown, marked with white and reddish orange; crown mostly brown with midline and lateral margins pale, face brown except for broad pale anterior band; pronotum brown with pale midline and symmetrical pattern of pale markings anteriorly; scutellum and mesonotal midline pale; forewing mostly mottled brown, clavus with two transcommisural pale areas outlined with dark brown, corium with large reddish orange submedial spot; veins yellow except near wing margin; venter dark brown, tibiae somewhat paler. Body relatively short and broad. Forewing with RP and MA separate, connected by crossvein; CuA connected to M basad of its fork. Hind tibia row AV with 3 macrosetae.

Male abdomen (Fig. 242) with 2S apodemes broad, slightly divergent, extended to midlength of sternite IV. Pygofer with posterodorsal emargination narrow and elliptical (Fig. 168); dorsal process elongate, curved posterolaterad and slightly ventrad; ventral appendage short, slender, divided into two slender acuminate processes, processes weakly divergent and curved dorsad (Figs 167 and 168). Anal hook (Fig. 167) slender, without ventrolateral arm, extended ventromesad and united with dorsal connective, apex acuminate, extended ventrad; segment X without additional posterior lobes or processes. Dorsal connective narrow, platelike. Subgenital plate (Fig. 167) strongly constricted at base, widest near midlength, apical half somewhat roundly tapered, with ~12 macrosetae in lateral band on distal half. Style apodeme (Figs 169 and 170) short, apophysis straight, extended posterad to midlength of plate. Connective (Fig. 170) U-shaped, moderately broad, with pair of prominent posterodorsal lobes. Aedeagus (Figs 169 and 170) with preatrium shorter than shaft; dorsal apodeme well developed; shaft slender, curved dorsad, apex weakly spatulate, atrial processes absent. Female unknown.

Material examined. Holotype male. Ecuador: Orellana, Tiputini Biodiversity Sta. nr. Yasuni Nat. Pk. 220-250m 00°37'55"S, 076°08'39"W, 6 February 1999, T. L. Erwin et al., lot 2073, transect T/, fogging terra firme forest [USNM]. Paratypes: 2 males, same data [USNM, INHS]. Etymology. This species is named in memory of my sister-in-law, Barbara B. Craft.

Eualebra charlesi sp. nov.

Figs 19, 171-174, 243, 358-360

Description. Length of male 2.8 mm, female 3.3 mm. Color (Fig. 19) mostly dark brown, marked with white and reddish orange; crown mostly brown with midline and lateral margins pale, face brown except for broad pale anterior band; pronotum brown with pale midline and symmetrical pattern of pale markings anteriorly; scutellum and mesonotal midline pale; forewing mostly mottled brown, clavus with two transcommisural pale areas outlined with dark brown, corium with large reddish orange submedial spot; veins yellow except near wing margin; venter dark brown, tibiae somewhat paler. Body relatively short and broad. Forewing with RP and MA separate, connected by crossvein; CuA connected to M basad of its fork. Hind tibia row AV with 3 macrosetae.

Male abdomen (Fig. 243) with 2S apodemes broad, slightly divergent, extended to midlength of sternite IV. Pygofer with posterodorsal emargination poorly delimited, shallow (Fig. 172); dorsal process absent but margin strongly sclerotized with broad posterodorsal lobe; ventral appendage arising near base of ventral margin, relatively robust, acuminate, curved dorsomesad (Figs 171 and 172). Anal hook (Fig. 171) extended posteroventrad, apex footlike with heel oriented posterodorsad and toe extended anteroventrad, united medially with dorsal connective; segment X without additional posterior lobes or processes. Dorsal connective narrow, platelike. Subgenital plate (Fig. 171) constricted at base, widest near midlength, apical half evenly tapered to bluntly rounded apex, with ~12 macrosetae in lateral band on distal half. Style apodeme (Figs 173 and 174) short, apophysis straight, extended posterad to distal 1/3 of plate. Connective (Fig. 174) U-shaped, moderately broad, with pair of prominent posterodorsal lobes. Aedeagus (Figs 173 and 174) with preatrium slightly longer than shaft; shaft slender, weakly sinuate and slightly tapered in lateral view, apex blunt.

Female sternite VII (Fig. 358) posterior margin with acute median projection longer than lateral angles; second valvulae (Fig. 360) moderately slender, evenly curved dorsad, apical 1/4 of dorsal margin with ~12 teeth decreasing in size distally.

Material examined. Holotype male, Ecuador: Orellana, Res. Etnica Waorani, Transect Ent. 1 km S Onkonegare Camp, 00°39'10"S, 076°26'00"W, 220 m, 26 June 1996, T. L. Erwin et al., lot 1589, fogging terra firme forest [USNM]. Paratype: 1 female, same data except, 23 February 1995, lot 1059 [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in memory of my brother-in-law, Charles Craft.

Eualebra dorisae species group

Diagnosis. Species of this group may be distinguished from other Eualebra in their moderate size, the color pattern (Figs 20-22) which includes a pair of broad orange or brown longitudinal stripes extended from the crown onto the pronotum, the basally quadrate third apical cell of the forewing, and the elongate aedeagal atrium (Fig. 177).

Eualebra dorisae sp. nov.

Figs 20, 175-178, 244

Description. Length of male 4.2 mm. Coloration of dorsum (Fig. 20) mostly brownish orange with paler orange and white markings; crown with midline and lateral margins white, with pair of irregular orange longitudinal submedial stripes; pronotum orange brown with medial and pair of submedial white stripes not extended to posterior margin; mesonotal triangles brown, scutellum white with brown preapical band; forewing mostly brown, mottled distally, with two angulate transcommisural marks on clavus, two smaller white spots on corium adjacent to clavus, brochosome field pale orange; abdominal terga brown; venter of head and thorax white, infused with brown except mesepisternum dark brown; abdominal terga brown, pygofer and medial area of male subgenital plates dark brown. Body relatively broad. Forewing with RP and MA separate, connected by crossvein; CuA connected to M at or basad of its branching point. Hind tibia row AV with 4 macrosetae.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 244) moderately broad, slightly divergent, extended to midlength of sternite IV. Pygofer with posterodorsal emargination broadly V-shaped (Fig. 176), dorsal process short, acuminate, extended posteromesad; ventral appendage shifted dorsad, partly fused to pygofer lobe, elongate, extended ventromesad then curved posterodorsad, apex contorted (Figs 175 and 176). Anal hook (Fig. 175) short, falcate, extended ventrad, united medially with dorsal connective; segment X without additional posterior lobes or processes. Dorsal connective broadly U-shaped. Subgenital plate (Fig. 175) narrowest at base, convexly broadened to midlength and narrowed distally to rounded apex, with ~13 macrosetae in lateral band on distal half. Connective (Fig. 178) compact, U-shaped, with prominent posterodorsal lobes. Style apodeme (Figs 177 and 178) moderately long; apophysis relatively straight, tapered, apex blunt, curved ventrad. Aedeagus (Figs 177 and 178) with preatrium slightly longer than shaft; dorsal apodeme weakly developed; shaft short, tapered in lateral view, curved dorsad, with pair of long, slender, somewhat asymmetrical lateral processes arising near base, extended laterad, curved mesad and extended nearly to midline below and distad of shaft apex; shaft also with pair of depressed lateral flanges extended to apex, apex acute. Female unknown.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., Huampal Stn. 10°11'9"S 75°34'27"W 6-9 X 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap acr. R. Huancabamba [USML]. Paratypes: 2 males, same data [INHS]; 7 males, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., Puesto de Control Huampal, 10°11'9"S 75°34'27"W, 1050m, 6 X 2002, D.M. Takiya [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my aunt, Doris A. Dietrich.

Eualebra jessicae sp. nov.

Figs 21, 179-182, 245

Description. Length of male 4.1 mm. Dorsal coloration (Fig. 21) mostly pale brown with symmetrical white, orange, and dark brown markings; venter dull stramineous except mesepisternum dark brown. Crown and pronotum orange, darkening to brown posteriorly with three white longitudinal stripes; mesonotum with anterolateral triangles and pair of small medial spots dark brown, medial area white tinged with orange; scutellum white with transverse brown band; forewing mostly brown with complex color pattern consisting of two transcommisural markings concentrically outlined with dark brown and white, numerous small brown spots and lines, and large orange brochosome field, veins mostly bright orange. Body robust, ovoid. Forewing with RP and MA separate, connected by crossvein; CuA connected to M basad of its branching point. Hind tibia row AV with 3 macrosetae.

Male abdomen (Fig. 245) with 2S apodemes robust, slightly divergent, extended slightly beyond midlength of sternite IV. Pygofer posterodorsal emargination V-shaped, forming right angle (Fig. 180); dorsal process absent; lobe weakly developed; ventral appendage robust, relatively short, evenly curved posterodorsad. Anal hook (Fig. 179) moderately short and broad, extended ventrad, apex footlike, articulated with broadly W-shaped dorsal connective. Subgenital plate (Fig. 179) in ventral view widest near midlength, lateral margin evenly convex throughout length, apex rounded. Style apodeme (Figs 181 and 182) relatively long, apophysis sinuate in lateral view, extended to apical 1/3 of subgenital plate. Connective (Fig. 182) robust, U-shaped. Aedeagus (Figs 181 and 182) curved dorsad; preatrium longer than shaft; shaft tubular, tapered, extended posterodorsad, with pair of slender subapical lateral processes curved and forming semicircle in ventral view. Female unknown.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., Puesto de Control Huampal, 10°11'9"S 75°34'27"W, 1050m, 6 X 2002, D.M. Takiya [USML]. Paratypes: two males, same data [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my niece, Jessica C. Bailey.

Eualebra patriciae sp. nov.

Figs 22, 183-186; 246

Description. Length of male 4.0 mm. Dorsal coloration (Fig. 22) pale yellow with symmetrical white, orange, and brown markings; venter uniformly dull yellow; head with crown margins and midline white, with pair of orange spots along anterior margin, pair of orange S-shaped lines submedially, and pair of large orange rectangles posteriorly; pronotum with paired orange spots anteromedially and at posterolateral angles, large orange marking posteromedially, divided along midline anteromedially; mesonotal triangles orange, pair of small brown spots present anterad of scutellar suture; scutellum with transverse brown band; forewing mostly yellow orange with veins white, clavus with two transcommisural white markings, brachial cell with two irregular white spots, brochosome field white infused with bright yellow, apex with diffuse brown markings. Body robust, ovoid. Forewing with RP and MA separate, connected by crossvein; CuA connected to M at or basad of its branching point. Hind tibia row AV with 3 macrosetae.

Male abdomen (Fig. 246) with 2S apodemes slender, parallel, widely separated, extended to nearly to posterior margin of sternite III. Pygofer posterodorsal emargination very narrow, forming deep acute angle (Fig. 184); dorsal process absent; lobe weakly developed, ventral appendage slender, evenly curved ventromesad then dorsolaterad, somewhat arcuate in lateral view; apex tapered and irregularly sinuate (Figs 183 and 184). Anal hook (Fig. 183) moderately broad, short, sinuate, apex curved mesad, articulated with broadly W-shaped dorsal connective; segment X weakly sclerotized. Subgenital plate (Fig. 183) in ventral view widest near midlength, tapered in distal half, apex broadly rounded. Style (Figs 185 and 186) apodeme short, apophysis very long, nearly straight, slightly arcuate in lateral view, extended to apical 1/4 of subgenital plate. Connective (Fig. 186) small, slender, broadly U-shaped. Aedeagus (Figs 185 and 186) short, preatrium longer than shaft; shaft tubular, tapered, without processes. Female unknown.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., Huampal Stn. 10°11'9"S 75°34'27"W 6-9 X 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap acr. R. Huancabamba [USML].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my sister-in-law, Patricia B. Schulz.

Remarks. When dissected, the holotype specimen had a late-instar dryinid (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae) larva in the abdominal cavity. Parasitism by dryinids sometimes causes abnormal development of the abdominal apodemes and genitalia in leafhoppers. The genitalia of the holotype appear to be fully developed, but the relatively small size of the 2S apodemes may be attributable to presence of the parasite.

Eualebra gingerae species group

Diagnosis. Species of this group may be distinguished from other Eualebra by their moderately small size, brown overall coloration (Fig. 23-30), and the presence of large pale transcommisural markings on the forewing and, usually, large pale symmetrical areas on the crown and pronotum (absent in E. jenniferae).

Eualebra gingerae sp. nov.

Figs 23-24, 187-190, 247, 367

Description. Length of male 3.3 mm, female 3.0 mm. Coloration of dorsum (Figs 23 and 24) mostly dark brown with symmetrical yellow, orange and white markings; crown and anterior half of pronotum with white medial area bearing 4 lateral extensions, 2 on crown, one on margin of crown and pronotum, and one medially on pronotum, latter with 2 smaller white spots more laterad, posterior margin of pronotum narrowly yellow; mesonotum and base of forewing with inverted pentagonal white mark bearing 2 small black spots on mesonotum and arcuate black band across clavus and scutellum; clavus with slender white transcommisural mark near midlength and larger triangular mark near apex; corium with small yellow spot near base and large oblique orange macula extended from near base of costal margin across brochosome field and into medial cell; veins orange in distal half, bordered with brown; venter of head, thorax and abdomen brown. Body moderately broad. Forewing with RP and MA separate, connected by crossvein; CuA connected to MP. Hind tibia row AV with 3 macrosetae.

Male abdomen (Fig. 247) with 2S apodemes relatively narrow, slightly divergent, extended to midlength of sternite IV. Pygofer with posterodorsal emargination broadly V-shaped (Fig. 188); dorsal appendage absent but posterodorsal margin thickened and darkly pigmented; ventral appendage shifted dorsad, articulated to pygofer lobe, broad basally with dorsal lobe, strongly tapered and attenuate distally, extended anteroventrad then curved dorsolaterad (Figs 187 and 188). Anal hook (fig. 187) without ventrolateral arm, mesal arm extended to dorsal connective, with digitiform distal process; segment X with separate pair of slender spinelike processes arising from ringlike sclerite near midlength. Dorsal connective broadly U-shaped. Subgenital plate (Fig. 187) narrowest at base, slightly broadened, then convexly tapered to blunt apex, with ~9 macrosetae in lateral band on distal half. Connective (Fig. 190) broadly U-shaped with prominent posterodorsal lobes. Style (Figs 189 and 190) apodeme short, apophysis tapered, sinuate, apex curved posteromesad, not surpassing midlength of subgenital plate. Aedeagus (Figs 189 and 190) with preatrium longer than shaft, dorsal apodeme well developed with compressed anterior lobe and posterior transverse plate; shaft compressed basally, tubular distally, curved dorsad; without atrial processes, apex with pair of long slender laterally directed processes.

Female sternite VII (Fig. 367) with short, acute median posterior lobe and pair of shorter lateral lobes. Second valvulae evenly curved and moderately narrow, right blade with ~13 teeth.

Material examined. Holotype male, BRAZIL: Goias, Uruaçu, Serra da Mesa Survey 14°17.1'S, 48°55.6'W, 26-31 May 1996, Malaise trap, cerrado [MZSP]. Paratype: 1 male, same data [INHS]. Other material: 1 female, ECUADOR: Orellana, Tiputini Biodiversity Sta. nr. Yasuni Nat. Pk. 220-250m 00°37'55"S, 076°08'39"W, 7 February 1999, T.L. Erwin et al., lot 2058, transect T/6, fogging terra firme forest [USNM].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my sister-in-law, Ginger P. Dietrich.

Remarks. The association between male specimens from Goias, Brazil and the female from Orellana, Ecuador, based on the nearly identical color pattern, must be considered tentative. The Ecuadorean specimen is excluded from the type series because it is somewhat smaller than the males from Brazil and differs in some small details of coloration, e.g., the specimen from Ecuador lacks the pair of small black submedial spots on the mesonotum and has the medial pale area of the pronotum relatively large.

Eualebra marilynae sp. nov.

Figs 25, 191-194, 248, 363-366

Description. Length of male 3.0 mm, female 3.0 mm. Coloration of dorsum (Fig. 25) mostly tan to medium brown with symmetrical white and black markings; crown white with pair of black marginal spots at apex and another just anterad of eyes; pronotum with large white anteromedial marking bearing pair of rounded posterolateral lobes; mesonotum with brown M-shaped medial marking; forewing with large white transcommisural marking at base of clavus continuous with scutellum and smaller marking at apex of clavus; veins pale, bordered with brown; venter of head, thorax and abdomen tan, legs dull stramineous, macrosetae black. Body relatively narrow. Forewing with RP and MA separate, connected by crossvein; CuA connected to MP. Hind tibia row AV with 3 macrosetae.

Male abdomen (Fig. 248) with 2S apodemes short, broad, well separated at base, convergently extended dorsomesad, not exceeding posterior margin of sternite III. Pygofer with posterodordal emargination V-shaped (Fig. 192); dorsal process absent; ventral appendage slender, elongate, arising ventrally anddd curved dorsad and slightly laterad with apical half contorted. Anal hook short, robust, extended posteromesad and terminating ventrally in short process, apex obliquely tapered, with basomesal arm united with dorsal connective. Dorsal connective broadly U-shaped. Subgenital plate (Fig. 191) narrowest at base, slightly broadened, then evenly tapered to blunt apex, with ~12 macrosetae in lateral double row on distal 2/3. Style apodeme (Figs 193 and 194) short, apophysis extended mesad, then gradually curved posterad, extended to distal 1/3 of subgenital plate. Connective (Fig. 194) broadly U-shaped. Aedeagus (Figs 193 and 194) with preatrium longer than shaft; shaft very short, slender, straight, tubular; atrium with pair of elongate ventrolateral processes recurved in lateral view, bowed laterad in ventral view with apices curved slightly laterad, > 3X longer than shaft.

Female sternite VII (Fig. 363) with posterior margin produced and forming narrowly obtuse angle; second valvulae (Figs 365 and 366) slender, evenly curved dorsad, right blade with ~13 close-set teeth decreasing in size distally.

Material examined. Holotype male, Ecuador: Orellana, Tiputini Biodiversity Sta. nr. Yasuni Nat. Pk. 220-250m 00°37'55"S, 076°08'39"W, 8 February 1999, T. L. Erwin et al., lot 2031, transect T/4, fogging terra firme forest [USNM]. Paratype: 1 female, same data except transect T/3, 8 February 1999, lot 2028 [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my aunt, Marilyn B. Dietrich.

Eualebra susanae sp. nov.

Figs 26, 195-198, 249, 368-370

Description. Length of male 2.8 mm; female 2.6 mm. Coloration of dorsum (Fig. 26) brown with large symmetrical cream-white areas bordered in dark brown; crown mostly white with margins anterad of eyes discontinuously dark brown; pronotum with large white medial area and pair of smaller posterolateral white spots; forewing clavus with two large transcommisural white spots extended onto corium, anterior spot continuous with white area on mesonotum and scutellum; brochosome field with small basal macula and large distal macula dark brown, costal margin more distad with triangular bright yellow marking bordered with dark brown, veins pale, cells darker brown; venter stramineous with apex of anteclypeus dark brown; apical portion of femur and base of tibia of mid- and hind legs dark brown, basal 2 setae of hind tibial row AD black. Body relatively slender. Forewing with RP and MA confluent preapically, outer apical cell relatively large; CuA connected to MP. Hind tibia row AV with 3 macrosetae. Male abdomen (Fig. 249) with 2S apodemes relatively narrow, slightly divergent, extended to midlength of sternite IV. Pygofer with posterodorsal emargination V-shaped with basal constriction (Fig. 196), dorsal appendage absent; ventral appendage arising posteroventrad, rigidly attached to pygofer lobe, slender and moderately long, curved dorsolaterad, apex hooked laterad (Figs 195 and 196). Anal hook (Fig. 195 and 196) consisting of quadrate sclerotized plate articulated to pygofer side and extended dorsomesad to midlength of segment X, with acute ventromesal extension and ventrolateral articulation to dorsal connective, posterior of anal ring present, not extended ventrad of segment X margin. Dorsal connective broadly U-shaped. Subgenital plate (Fig. 195) narrowest at base, slightly broadened, then convexly tapered to blunt apex, with ~10 macrosetae in lateral band on distal half. Connective small H-shaped with posterodorsal lobes larger than anterior arms. Style apodeme (Figs 197 and 198) short, apophysis tapered, sinuate, apex curved ventrolaterad, blunt, not surpassing midlength of subgenital plate. Aedeagus (Figs 197 and 198) with preatrium longer than shaft, dorsal apodeme well developed with compressed anterior lobe and posterior transverse plate; shaft very short and slender, tubular, straight; with pair of slender processes arising from atrium and extended ventrad of shaft beyond shaft apex, bent slightly dorsad in lateral view near apex, slightly divergent in ventral view.

Female sternite VII (Fig. 368) convexly produced posteriorly with slight median emargination; ovipositor evenly curved posterodorsad; second valvulae (Fig. 370) slightly broadened from base to apex, with ~13 irregular teeth.

Material examined. Holotype male, Ecuador: Orellana, Res. Etnica Waorani, Transect Ent. 1 km S Onkonegare Camp, 00°39'10"S, 076°26'00"W, 220 m, 9 February 1995, T.L. Erwin et al., lot 986, fogging terra firme forest [USNM]. Paratypes: 1 male, same data except lot 977; 1 female, same data except 30 September 1996, lot 1680; 1 female, same data except lot 1677 [USNM, INHS]. Other material: 1 female, ECUADOR: Orellana, Tiputini Biodiversity Sta. nr. Yasuni Nat. Pk. 220-250m 00°37'55"S, 076°08'39"W, 9 February 1999, T. L. Erwin et al., lot 2035, transect T/3, fogging terra firme forest [USNM].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my wife, Susan M. Braxton.

Remarks. The female specimen from Tiputini is very similar to the specimens included in the type series in coloration but has a pair of black spots near the posterior margin of the crown, lacks the bright yellow mark on the costal margin of the forewing, and has the pregenital sternite of the abdomen more strongly produced. It may represent a distinct species or a variant of E. susanae.

Eualebra helenae sp. nov.

Figs 27, 199-202, 250, 361-362

Description. Length of male 3.4 mm. Color mostly dark brown (Fig. 27); dorsum with three conspicuous opaque white medial markings, one on crown triangular with lateral invagination, one on pronotum winglike, one at base of clavus and extended onto scutellum and mesonotum semicircular anteriorly, tapered posteriorly; forewing costal brochosome field bright red. Body short and broad. Forewing with RP and MA separate, connected by crossvein; CuA connected to MP. Hind tibia row AV with 3 macrosetae.

Male abdomen (Fig. 250) with 2S apodemes long, narrow, slightly divergent, joined at base, extended to midlength of sternite V. Pygofer with posterodorsal emargination broadly U-shaped (Fig. 200); dorsal appendage absent; lobe produced posterodorsad; ventral appendage arising from base of dorsal lobe, elongate, slender, extended posteroventrad then curved dorsad, enclosed laterally by unpigmented acuminate posterior sheath (Figs 199 and 200). Anal hook (Fig. 199) extended ventromesad, with short digitiform apical process extended ventrad from articulation with U-shaped dorsal connective; segment X without additional posterior lobes or processes. Subgenital plate (Fig. 199) narrowest at base, slightly broadened in basal 1/3, distal 2/3 of lateral margin concavely tapered to blunt apex, with ~10 macrosetae in irregular lateral row on distal 2/3. Style apodeme (Figs 201 and 202) short, apophysis straight, extended posteromesad, not surpassing midlength of subgenital plate. Connective (Fig. 202) broadly W-shaped. Aedeagus (Figs 201 and 202) with preatrium as long as shaft; dorsal apodeme well developed; shaft narrow, tubular, tapered, curved dorsad, without processes.

Female sternite VII (Fig. 361) strongly produced posteromedially, concealing basal half of ovipositor. Second valvulae (362) moderately broad, evenly curved, right blade with ~13 close-set teeth grouped near apex.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Madre de Dios; Rio Tambopata Res; 30 air km. SW Pto. Maldonado, 290m. 16-20 XI 1979 J.B. Heppner, subtropical moist forest [USNM]. Paratype: 1 female, same data [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in memory of my aunt, Helen R. Huchko.

Eualebra kathyae sp. nov.

Figs 28, 203-206, 251

Description. Length of male 4.4 mm. Coloration (Fig. 28) mostly medium brown with symmetrical pale yellow, white, and red markings. Head brown, gena, anterior margin, and median wedge-shaped area of crown yellow, crown with paired darker brown maculae mesad of eyes and along anterior margin. Pronotum with large median white marking consisting of pair of small anteromedial lobes extended to anterior margin and pair of larger posterolateral quadrate lobes. Mesonotum brown anteriorly, yellow posteriorly, area anterad of scutellar suture brown; scutellum yellow with brown transverse band. Forewing clavus with two triangular transcommisural markings, one near base an another smaller one near apex, basal triangle orange medially; corium with two round spots, one near base and another near midlength; costal area with brochosome field bright red; veins mostly orange; outer two apical cells hyaline distally. Body robust, ovoid. Forewing with RP and MA separate, connected by crossvein; CuA connected to MP. Hind tibia row AV with 3 macrosetae.

Male abdomen (Fig. 251) with 2S apodemes robust, parallel, extended to midlength of sternite IV. Pygofer posterodorsal emargination broadly V-shaped, forming shallow obtuse angle (Fig. 204); dorsal process absent; lobe weakly developed; ventral appendage robust, nearly straight, somewhat expanded near midlength, tapered and irregularly sinuate distally, extended posteromesad (Figs 203 and 204). Anal hook (Fig. 203) short, extended ventrad, bidentate apically with teeth widely separated, articulated with broadly W-shaped dorsal connective; segment X with pair of denticulate ventrolateral lobes distally. Subgenital plate (Fig. 203) in ventral view widest near midlength, tapered in distal half, apex rounded. Style apodeme (Figs 205 and 206) short, apophysis sinuate, extended to apical 1/3 of subgenital plate. Connective (Fig. 206) relatively large, U-shaped with weak anteromedial tooth. Aedeagus (Figs 205 and 206) nearly straight; preatrium subequal in length to shaft; shaft tubular, tapered, extended posterodorsad, with pair of slender subapical lateral processes oriented approximately perpendicular to shaft. Female unknown.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., Huampal Stn. 10°11'9"S 75°34'27"W 6-9 X 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap acr. R. Huancabamba [USML].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my sister-in-law, Katherine (Kathy) E. Dietrich.

Remarks. This species is similar to E. rufoornata (Stål), but differs in its much larger size, brown ventral coloration, more shallowly emarginate tergite IX, and bifid anal hook.

Eualebra peggyae sp. nov.

Figs 29, 207-210, 252

Description. Length of male 3.9 mm. Dorsal coloration (Fig. 29) mostly medium brown with symmetrical pale yellow, white, and orange markings; venter dull yellow except dark brown mesepisternum and meso- and metathoracic femora. Head and pronotum with large median white wedge-shaped marking extended beyond midlength of pronotum; posterior margin of pronotum narrowly yellow. Mesonotum brown anteriorly, yellow posteriorly, area anterad of scutellar suture with pair of brown spots; scutellum yellow with brown transverse band. Forewing clavus with two transcommisural diamond-shaped markings, one near base an another smaller one near apex; corium with round spots near midlength in discal cell midlength; costal area with brochosome field orange; veins mostly orange; outer two apical cells hyaline distally. Body robust, ovoid. Forewing with RP and MA separate, connected by crossvein; CuA connected to MP. Hind tibia row AV with 3-4 macrosetae.

Male abdomen (Fig. 252) with 2S apodemes robust, parallel, extended to midlength of sternite IV. Pygofer posterodorsal emargination narrowly V-shaped, forming deep acute angle (Fig. 208); dorsal process absent; lobe weakly developed, with hyaline membranous cleft near midheight of posterior margin; ventral appendage slender, evenly curved ventromesad then dorsolaterad; apex tapered and irregularly sinuate (Figs 207 and 208). Anal hook (Fig. 207) very short, broad, with ventromedial toothlike process, articulated with broadly V-shaped dorsal connective; segment X weakly sclerotized. Subgenital plate (Fig. 207) in ventral view widest near midlength, tapered in distal half, with lateral margin concave, apex narrowly rounded. Style apodeme (Figs 209 and 210) short, apophysis long, nearly straight, extended to apical 1/3 of subgenital plate. Connective (Fig. 210) robust, U-shaped. Aedeagus (Figs 209 and 210) short, preatrium subequal in length to shaft; shaft tubular, extended posterodorsad, apex depressed, rounded in posterior view; atrium expanded with pair of elongate slender lateral processes curved posterodorsad then strongly hooked ventrolaterad, extended well beyond shaft apex. Female unknown.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., Huampal Stn. 10°11'9"S 75°34'27"W 6-9 X 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap acr. R. Huancabamba [USML].

Etymology. This species is named in memory of my mother-in-law, Margarete (Peggy) D. Braxton.

Remarks. This species is very similar to E. rufoornata (Stål) in size and coloration, but differs in its short, broad anal hook and elongate basal aedeagal processes.

Eualebra rufoornata (Stål)

Typhlocyba rufoornata Stål 1860: 55.

Remarks. Specimens were not examined for the present study but the species was redescribed by Linnavuori (1954), who examined the male holotype from "Brazil" and illustrated the dorsal color pattern and male genitalia. Based on Linnavuori's drawings, the color pattern resembles that of E. peggyae sp. nov. (Fig. 29) in having a wedgelike white marking extended from the crown onto the pronotum, the posterior portion of the mesonotum and scutellum pale, and two diamond-shaped transcommisural markings on the forewing, but the aedeagus of E. rufoornata has a pair of short distal processes that are perpendicular to the shaft rather than the long, sinuate basal processes present in E. peggyae.

Eualebra jenniferae sp. nov.

Figs 30, 71-72, 211-214, 253

Description. Length of male 3.4 mm. Color mostly dark brown dorsally (Fig. 30), apex of crown paler, scutellum white with brown transverse preapical stripe; forewing clavus with pair of triangular transcommisural yellow areas, large triangular area on costal margin distad of brochosome field, three small yellow marks more basad; venter dull yellow, heavily infused with brown. Body relatively narrow. Forewing with RP and MA separate, connected by crossvein (Fig. 3c), or confluent for short distance; CuA connected to MP. Hind tibia row AV with 4 macrosetae.

Male abdomen (Fig. 253) with 2S apodemes slender, slightly divergent, extended nearly to posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer posterodorsal emargination U-shaped, moderately broad (Fig. 212); ventral appendage shifted to near dorsal margin, articulated to pygofer lobe, moderately long, slender, partially enclosed by posteroventral lobe, extended ventromesad then curved posterodorsad (Figs 211 and 212). Anal hook (Fig. 211) robust, extended ventromesad, articulated with dorsal connective, apex with short digitiform process; segment X with pair of short, slender posteriorly directed posteroventral spines. Dorsal connective relatively narrow, slightly U-shaped, platelike (Fig. 214). Subgenital plate (Fig. 211) only slightly constricted at base, lateral margin gradually tapered to more strongly tapered apical 1/4, with ~15 macrosetae in lateral double row on distal 2/3. Style apodeme (Figs 213 and 214) short, apophysis extended posterad and curved slightly mesad, apex blunt, reaching distal 1/3 of plate. Connective (Fig. 214) very broad and short, U-shaped with prominent posterodorsal lobes. Aedeagus (Figs 213 and 214) with preatrium as long as shaft; dorsal apodeme well developed; shaft depressed, apex broken off in only known specimen, with pair of slender lateral processes arising near base and extended along sides of shaft. Female unknown.

Material examined. Holotype male, Ecuador: Orellana, Res. Etnica Waorani, Transect Ent. 1 km S Onkonegare Camp, 00°39'10"S, 076°26'00"W, 220 m, 4 October 1996, T.L. Erwin et al., lot 1754, fogging terra firme forest [USNM]. Paratypes: 1 male, same data as holotype except 22 June 1996, lot 1561; 1 male, same data except 6 July 1995, lot 1113; 1 male, same data except 2 October 1996, lot 1704.

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my sister-in-law, Jennifer L. Dietrich.

Eualebra smithii species group

Diagnosis. Species of this group, which includes the type species of the genus, may be distinguished from other Eualebra by the pale overall coloration (Figs 31-33), color pattern consisting of numerous irregular tiny brown spots and larger cream-colored spots, the absence of paired processes on the aedeagus (Figs 218 and 222), and the broad, straight ovipositor which lacks teeth on the second valvulae (Fig. 374).

Eualebra smithii Baker

Figs 31-32, 215-218, 254

Eualebra smithii Baker 1899b: 402.

Dikraneura (Hyloidea) reticulata Osborn, 1928a: 279, syn. nov.

Description. Length of male 3.3-3.4 mm, female 3.8 mm. Color (Figs 31 and 32) mostly pale yellow to white, marked with white, orange and brown; crown and pronotum with few indistinct paired orange maculae; antennal ledge dark brown; pronotum, mesonotum and forewing with sparse brown stipples posteriorly; forewing with brown maculae at midlength of costal margin and in third and fourth apical cells, clavus and distal half of corium stippled with brown, median area of wing with ca. 15-20 conspicuous opaque white spots of various sizes; abdominal terga brown medially; venter pale except anteclypeus and femorotibial joint of mesothoracic leg dark brown. Body relatively short and broad. Forewing with RP and MA separate, connected by crossvein; CuA connected to branching point of M. Hind tibia row AV with 3 macrosetae.

Male abdomen (Fig. 254) with 2S apodemes moderately broad, slightly divergent and expanded distally, extended nearly to posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer with posterodorsal emargination broadly V-shaped (Fig. 216); posterodorsal appendage absent but margin thickened and heavily sclerotized; ventral appendage arising near midheight of posterior margin, extended ventromesad then curved posterodorsad, apical half areolate (Figs 215 and 216). Anal hook (Fig. 215) with short acute ventral projection and slender posterior branch extended mesad to dorsal connective, slightly broadened distally. Dorsal connective broadly U-shaped. Subgenital plate (Fig. 215) relatively broad at base, slightly broadened to near midlength, then tapered to broadly rounded apex, with ~13-16 macrosetae in lateral band on distal half. Style (Figs 217 and 218) apodeme short and slender, apophysis moderately long and slender, nearly straight, bent slightly mesad at apex, apex surpassing midlength of subgenital plate. Connective (Fig. 218) U-shaped, very short and broad. Aedeagus (Figs 217 and 218) with preatrium very short; dorsal apodeme weakly developed; shaft short and slender, tubular, with depressed rounded lateral flanges near base; apex acute. Female sternite VII slightly produced posteromedially.

Material examined. 2 males, Bolivia: Cochabamba, Villa Tunari, Hotel Los Tucanes 16°58.302'S, 65°23.793'W, 320m 5-IX-2000, M. Hauser, S. Gaimari, D. Yeates [INHS];

4 males, 4 females, Peru: Madre de Dios, Rio Tambopata Res. 30 km (air) SW Pto. Maldonado, 290 m, 12°50'S, 069°17'W, Smithsonian Institution Canopy Fogging Project, T.L. Erwin et al. colls. 02 May 1984, 02/03/58 [USNM. Female holotype, Dikraneura (Hyloidea) reticulata Osborn labeled: "Janoria/Minca/Brazil; Dec 17/1907; Carn. Mus./Acc. 3702; 5045; TYPE" [ICCM].

Remarks. Young (1952) illustrated and described the male genitalia of E. smithii, presumably based on study of the type specimen. Comparisons of specimens from Peru and Bolivia to Young's illustrations of E. smithii and to the female holotype of Dikraneura (Hyloidea) reticulata indicate that these two species are synonyms. The specimen from Bolivia has the connective proportionately larger than those of the specimens from Peru, but the genitalia appear otherwise to be identical. Further collecting is needed to determine whether such variation is indeed intraspecific.

Eualebra margaretannae sp. nov.

Figs 33, 62, 219-222, 255, 371-374

Diagnosis. Length of male 3.5-3.8 mm, female 3.8 mm. Color (Fig. 33) mostly pale yellow to white, marked with white, orange and brown; crown and pronotum with few indistinct paired orange maculae; antennal ledge dark brown; pronotum with sparse brown stipples posteriorly; scutellum apex dark brown; forewing with brown maculae at midlength of costal margin and in third and fourth apical cells, clavus and distal half of corium stippled with brown, median area of wing with ca. 15-20 conspicuous opaque white spots of various sizes; abdominal terga brown medially; venter pale except femorotibial joint of mesothoracic leg dark brown. Body relatively short and broad. Forewing with RP and MA separate, connected by crossvein; CuA connected to MP. Hind tibia row AV with 3 macrosetae.

Male abdomen (Fig. 255) with 2S apodemes broad, slightly divergent, extended to midlength of sternite IV. Pygofer with posterodorsal emargination broadly V-shaped (Fig. 220); dorsal appendage absent but dorsal margin with strongly sclerotized ridge; with two paired ventral appendages, one arising near mid-height of posterior margin and another more ventrad, both elongate and slender, extended ventromesad then strongly curved dorsad, ventral pair twice as long as dorsal and contorted distally (Figs 219 and 220). Anal hook (Fig. 219) massive, extended mesad, broad distally, apex broadly and shallowly bifid, with ventral lobe articulated to dorsal connective; segment X without additional lobes or processes (Figs 219 and 220). Dorsal connective very small, platelike. Subgenital plate (Fig. 219) narrowest at base, broadened to near midlength, then tapered to blunt apex, with ~13 macrosetae in lateral band on distal half. Style (Figs 221 and 222) apodeme short, apophysis extended mesad then curved posterad, apex surpassing midlength of subgenital plate. Connective (Fig. 222) U-shaped, moderately broad. Aedeagus (Figs 221 and 222) with preatrium as long as shaft, arcuate; dorsal apodeme well developed; shaft tapered and curved dorsad in lateral view; with broad depressed lateral flanges extended over most of length but terminated slightly basad of apex; apex acute. Female sternite VII (Fig. 371) broadly and shallowly rounded posteriorly.

Material examined. Holotype male, Ecuador: Orellana, Tiputini Biodiversity Sta. nr. Yasuni Nat. Pk. 220-250m 00°37'55"S, 076°08'39"W, 8 February 1999, T.L. Erwin et al., lot 2035, transect T/4, fogging terra firme forest [USNM]. Paratypes: 5 males and 4 females, same data [USNM, INHS]. Other material: 1 male, 2 females, Ecuador: Orellana, Res. Etnica Waorani, Transect Ent. 1 km S Onkonegare Camp, 00°39'10"S, 076°26'00"W, 220 m, 4 February 1996, T. L. Erwin et al., lot 1413, fogging terra firme forest [USNM, INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my mother, Margaret Anne B. Dietrich.

Eualebra michaelorum species group

Diagnosis. Members of this group differ from other Eualebra as follows: size relatively large; crown relatively short with anterior margin in profile relatively thick; forewing veins RP and MA partially confluent preapically, forming petiolate apical cell (Fig. 73); pygofer dorsomedial emargination short and relatively narrow (Fig. 224); pygofer lobe with semicircular unpigmented area posterodorsally.

Eualebra alberti sp. nov.

Figs 34, 223-226, 256

Description. Length of male 4.7 mm. Dorsal coloration (Fig. 34) yellow, crown with pair of oblique brown maculae betwen eyes extended toward apex; pronotum with large posteromedial black semicircular marking; mesonotum with basolateral triangles brown; forewing clavus with oblique black transcommisural macula near midlength, costal margin with narrow black maculae at base and apex of brochosome field, apex with diffuse brown markings. Body relatively long and narrow; forewing veins RP and MA partially confluent preapically, CuA connected to M basad of its branch; hind tibial row AV with 3 macrosetae.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 256) short and tapered. Pygofer with tergite deeply and narrowly emarginate posteriorly in dorsal view (Fig. 224); with small rigid posterodorsal process; ventral appendage elongate, slender, curved dorsad (Figs 223 and 224). Anal hook (Fig. 223) present, articulated to pygofer, base of anal tube, and dorsal connective. Dorsal connective broadly U-shaped in posterior aspect. Subgenital plate (Fig. 223) with base slender, broadened to midlength then gradually tapered toward apex; with 10 or more macrosetae. Style apodeme (Figs 225 and 226) short; apophysis elongate, without preapical lobe, with few fine preapical setae, apex hooked. Connective (Fig. 226) weakly U-shaped with pair of posterodorsal lobes articulated to aedeagus. Aedeagus (Figs 225 and 226) with preatrium elongate and cleft in dorsal view with margins closely appressed in basal half and divergent in distal half; dorsal apodeme weakly developed; shaft tubular, broad, curved dorsad, without processes. Female unknown.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., 10°39'39.7"S 75°22'0.1"W, 2300m, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap across Rio San Alberto [USML]. Paratypes: 3 males, same data [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in memory of my grandfather, Albert E. Dietrich Jr.

Eualebra dorothyae sp. nov.

Figs 35, 227-230, 257

Description. Length of male 4.7 mm. Dorsal coloration (Fig. 35) mostly yellow; head with diffuse brown spot at apex, pronotum with small brown medial stripe extended slightly onto mesonotum; forewing with narrow brown maculae at base and apex of brochosome field, and brown macula at base of inner apical cell. Body relatively long and narrow; forewing veins RP and MA partially confluent preapically, CuA connected to M basad of its branch; hind tibial row AV with 3 macrosetae.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 257) small, digitiform, not extended to posterior margin of sternite III. Pygofer with tergite deeply and narrowly emarginate posteriorly in dorsal view (Fig. 228); with small rigid posterodorsal process; ventral appendage elongate, slender, curved dorsad (Figs 227 and 228). Anal hook (Fig. 227) present, articulated to pygofer, base of anal tube, and dorsal connective. Dorsal connective broadly U-shaped in posterior aspect. Subgenital plate (Fig. 227) with base slender, broadened to midlength then gradually tapered toward apex; with 10 or more macrosetae. Style apodeme (Figs 229 and 230) short; apophysis elongate, without preapical lobe, with few fine preapical setae, apex hooked. Connective (Fig. 230) U-shaped with posterodorsal lobes weak. Aedeagus (Figs 229 and 230) with preatrium elongate and cleft in dorsal view with margins parallel-sided in basal half, constricted preapically; dorsal apodeme weakly developed; shaft tubular, broad, curved dorsad, without processes.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., 10°39'39.7"S 75°22'0.1"W, 2300m, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap across Rio San Alberto [USML]. Paratype: 1 male, same data [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in memory of my grandmother, Dorothy H. Dietrich.

Eualebra michaelorum sp. nov.

Figs 36, 73-74, 231-234, 258

Description. Length of male 4.7 mm. Ground color (Fig. 36) stramineous, heavily marked with brown and black. Crown midline black bordered with diffuse brown pigment; pronotum with diffuse brown median longitudinal stripe marked with white anteromedially, pair of dark brown oblique maculae posterolaterally; mesonotum with basal triangles and medial area dark brown; forewing mostly brown with two white transcommisural markings, brochosome field yellow. Body relatively long and narrow; forewing veins RP and MA partially confluent preapically (Fig. 73), CuA connected to M basad of its branch; hind tibial row AV with 3 macrosetae.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 258) widely separated, weakly hooked mesad, extended to midlength of sternite IV. Pygofer with tergite deeply and narrowly emarginate posteriorly in dorsal view (Fig. 232); with small rigid posterodorsal process; ventral appendage elongate, slender, curved dorsad (Figs 231 and 232). Anal hook (Fig. 231) present, articulated to pygofer, base of anal tube, and dorsal connective. Dorsal connective broadly U-shaped in posterior aspect. Subgenital plate (Fig. 231) with base slender, broadened to midlength then gradually tapered toward apex; with 10 or more macrosetae. Style apodeme (Figs 233 and 234) short; apophysis elongate, without preapical lobe, with few fine preapical setae, apex hooked. Connective (Fig. 234) H-shaped with posterodorsal lobes as long as anterior arms. Aedeagus (Figs 233 and 234) with preatrium elongate and cleft in dorsal view with margins tapered in basal two-thirds and divergent distally; dorsal apodeme weakly developed; shaft tubular, broad, curved dorsad, without processes. Female unknown.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., 10°39'39.7"S 75°22'0.1"W, 2300m, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap across Rio San Alberto [USML]. Paratypes: 7 males, same data [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in memory of my grandfather, Michael Baka, Sr., and in honor of my uncle, and cousin, Michael Baka, Jr., and III.

Eualebra leoni species group

Diagnosis. Species of this group may be distinguished from other Eualebra by their small size, relatively weakly produced head, brown overall coloration (Figs 37 and 38), white posterior pronotal margin, partially confluent forewing veins RP and MA, and relatively shallow, broad emargination of male abdominal tergite IX (Fig. 236).

Eualebra leoni sp. nov.

Figs 37, 235-237, 298

Description. Length of male 3.1 mm. Overall color medium brown (Fig. 37). Face uniformly brown; band across head apex stramineous, complete; crown midline dark brown in distal half, coronal suture black. Pronotum with pair of submedian ovoid white spots, and two smaller sublateral spots; posterior margin narrowly white, bordered anteriorly with dark brown. Mesonotum and scutellum black except paired white posterolateral spots. Scutellum black except white apex. Forewing clavus with three diamond-shaped white transcommisural markings, progressively larger posteriorly; corium with two small white spots along claval suture, one in inner anteapical cell; brochosome field white tinged with orange; costal margin with three brown false veinlets preapically. Legs stramineous except middle and hind femora mostly black, hind tibia with macrosetae in rows AD, PD and AV black. Forewing R and M confluent for considerable distance.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 258) widely separated, moderately wide and parallel sided, extended to posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer in dorsal view with posterior margin broadly V-shaped (Fig. 236); side evenly sclerotized; ventral appendage very slender, needlelike, smooth, curved evenly dorsad in lateral view, bowed laterad in ventral view (Figs 235 and 236). Anal hook (Fig. 235) short and slender, apex acuminate, extended ventromesad. Dorsal connective broadly U-shaped in posterior view. Subgenital plate (Fig. 235) with 7-8 macrosetae; dorsolateral band of fine setae with longer setae interspersed with shorter ones. Style apophysis acuminate, curved dorsad in lateral view, apex bent ventrad. Connective stout, narrowly U-shaped. Aedeagus (Fig. 237) with shaft very short, tubular, straight in lateral view, lateral processes extended posterolaterad and surpassing shaft apex, curved dorsolaterad apically. Female unknown.

Material examined. Holotype male, Bolivia: Cochabamba, Villa Tunari, Hotel Los Tucanes, 16°58.302'S, 65°23.793'W, 320m 5-IX-2000, M. Hauser, S. Gaimari, D. Yeates [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my father-in-law, Leon E. Braxton.

Remarks. This species closely resembles E. moralesi but is most readily distinguished by the external color pattern, the slender, needlelike pygofer appendage, and the shorter aedeagal shaft relative to the preatrium.

Eualebra moralesi sp. nov.

Figs 38, 238-241, 260

Description. Length of male 3.4 mm. Overall color medium brown (Fig. 38). Face with lateral areas dull stramineous; ocellar vestiges and indistinct broken band across head apex stramineous; crown midline stramineous in distal half, coronal suture black. Pronotum with teardrop-shaped median white spot, pair of large submedian ovoid white spots, and two smaller sublateral spots; posterior margin narrowly white, bordered anteriorly with dark brown. Mesonotal triangles dark brown, posterolateral angles white. Scutellum black except white anteromedially and at apex. Forewing clavus with two white transcommisural markings, anterior one thin and arcuate, posterior one pentagonal; corium with two small white spots along claval suture and large ovoid white spot tinged with orange encompassing brochosome field; costal margin with three brown false veinlets preapically. Legs stramineous except front femur and tibia pale orange, middle femur mostly black, hind tibia with macrosetae in basal half of rows AD and PD and at apex of AV black. Forewing with RP and MA confluent for short distance.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 260) widely separated, moderately wide and parallel-sided, extended to posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer in dorsal view with posterior margin broadly and shallowly concave (Fig. 239), ventral appendage slender, areolate distally, curved evenly dorsad in lateral view, nearly straight in ventral view (Figs 238 and 239). Anal hook (Fig. 238) short and broad, dorsal margin with subbasal tooth, apex acute, extended posteromesad. Dorsal connective broadly U-shaped in posterior view. Subgenital plate (Fig. 238) with 5-6 macrosetae not reaching apex of plate; dorsolateral band of fine setae with longer setae toward apex. Style apophysis (Figs 240 and 241) acuminate, curved dorsad in lateral view, apex bent ventrad. Connective (Fig. 241) stout, broadly U-shaped. Aedeagus (Figs 240 and 241) with preatrium longer than shaft; shaft slightly arcuate in lateral view, with lateral processes extended posterolaterad and slightly surpassing shaft apex, curved dorsad apically. Female unknown.

Material examined. Holotype male, Bolivia: Cochabamba, Villa Tunari, Hotel Los Tucanes, 16°58.302'S, 65°23.793'W, 320m 5-IX-2000, M. Hauser, S. Gaimari, D. Yeates [INHS].

Etymology. The species is named in honor of Juan Evo Morales Ayma, President of the Republic of Bolivia.

Remarks. This species differs from E. leoni in its color pattern, longer aedeagal shaft, and thicker, areolate ventral pygofer appendage.

Euzyginella gen. nov.

Type species: Euzyginella marki sp. nov.

Diagnosis. Small, depressed leafhoppers (Figs 39-42). Coloration pale yellow, orange, or reddish brown, dorsum with symmetrical white, orange, black and/or red markings. Head (Figs 39-42) wider than pronotum, depressed, anterior margin angulately produced; face nearly horizontal (Fig. 64); rostrum not extended beyond front trochanters; lower part of face sexually dimorphic, male anteclypeus inflated and expanded laterad, lorum very narrow; female anteclypeus relatively narrow, flat, and tapered, lorum relatively broad; frontoclypeus convex; lateral frontal sutures not extended dorsad of antennal pits; antennal ledges weakly developed; antennae as long as head width; ocelli absent; crown convex, coronal suture restricted to posterior third of crown. Pronotum (Figs 39-42) with lateral margins moderately long, slightly divergent posteriorly in dorsal view, distinctly carinate, carina even with posterior margin of eye. Front femur with AM1 enlarged and situated on ventral margin; intercalary row with few fine setae, basal seta larger than others; PV1 well developed; tibia somewhat flattened dorsally, AD and PD without preapical macrosetae. Hind femur macrosetae 2+1+1; tibia row AV with three macrosetae near apex. Forewing (Fig. 75) with RA reflexed, RP confluent with MA for short distance, apical cell 3 triangular, inner apical cell trapezoidal; hind wing (Fig. 76) venation somewhat variable inter- and intraspecifically, submarginal vein absent between CuA and RP, RP and MA separate, connected by crossvein or confluent; distal segment of CuA (beyond connection with submarginal vein) present.

Male abdomen (Figs 337-340) with 2S apodemes well developed, connected by sclerotized bridge at base but widely separated distally, more or less parallel, usually extended beyond posterior margin of sternite III. Pygofer (Figs 261 and 262) with dorsal emargination well developed; tergite well developed but short; posterior lobe acutely produced, dorsal part heavily sclerotized, with falcate distal process; ventral appendage well developed, elongate. Valve short, emarginate posteriorly, fused to pygofer. Segment X (Fig. 261) largely membranous with sclerotized basal ring, lateral ends of ring produced and free posteriorly. Dorsal connective absent. Subgenital plate (Fig. 261) narrow basally, slightly broadened near middle, with 3-5 macrosetae arranged in continuous row along lateral margin distally; apex weakly to strongly compressed and slightly upturned. Connective (Fig. 264) Y- shaped, articulated to aedeagus, without prominent posterodorsal lobes. Style (Figs 263 and 264) apodeme short, apophysis elongate, with few fine setae preapically, apex tapered and curved. Aedeagus (Figs 263 and 264) with preatrium well developed, dorsal apodeme weakly to strongly developed, shaft with or without paired processes, gonopore apical.

Female sternite VII (Fig. 375) parabolically produced posteriorly; ovipositor (Fig. 377) elongate, slender, slightly sigmoid, first valvulae (Fig. 376) with strigate dorsal and ventral sculpturing near apex, second valvula (Fig. 377 and 378) right blade with ~13 small close-set teeth near apex of dorsal margin.

Etymology. The genus name, a feminine noun, was chosen to indicate its morphological similarity to Zyginella and Eualebra.

Remarks. This genus is similar to Pseudozyginella (and most other Typhlocybini) in having the hind wing submarginal vein not extended to MP (i.e., the hind wing lacks closed apical cells), but differs in in having the row of macrosetae on the subgenital plate continuous and the connective Y-shaped, and in lacking basolateral apodemes on the anal ring. The species are also somewhat broader and more strongly depressed than in Pseudozyginella. The four known species, described below, were collected by fogging the canopy of terra firme forest at two localities in Orellana Province, Ecuador.

Key to species of Euzyginella

1. Aedeagus with pair of preapical processes (Fig. 272, 276) ... 2

1'. Aedeagus without processes (Fig. 264, 268)..................... 3

2. Crown mostly orange with narrow white band along posterior margin (Fig. 40); anal hook slender, unbranched (Fig. 269) .....................................................quartalberti, sp. nov.

2'. Crown mostly white with narrow transverse red band between anterior margins of eyes (Fig. 41); anal hook with three acute distal branches (Fig. 273) ...teralberti, sp. nov.

3. Anal hook short, blunt (Fig. 265); aedeagal shaft evenly curved dorsad in lateral view (Fig. 13g)..... marki, sp. nov.

3'. Anal hook long and slender (Fig. 261); aedeagal shaft nearly straight with ventral margin slightly sinuate in lateral view (Fig. 263)...................................................... theari sp. nov.

Euzyginella marki sp. nov.

Figs 39, 75-76, 265-268, 337, 375-378

Description. Length of male 3.1 mm. Color (Fig. 39) dull stramineous, crown and pronotum each with arcuate transverse orange band near midlength. Forewing with brown maculae at base and apex of costal brochosome field, clavus with three large milky spots; remainder of wing in basal 2/3 milky.

Male abdomen (Fig. 337) with 2S apodemes robust, nearly parallel sided, extended slightly beyond posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer with posterodorsal emargination extended to base, broadly U-shaped (Fig. 266); dorsal appendage robust, extended posterad, abruptly tapered and decurved apically; ventral appendage slender, straight, extended posterodorsad along pygofer margin, expanded preapically in ventral view apex acuminate and curved laterad (Figs 265 and 266). Anal hook (Fig. 265) short, slender, spinelike. Subgenital plate (Fig. 265) with 3-4 preapical macrosetae. Style (Fig. 267 and 268) apophysis sinuate, apex hooked mesad, acute. Connective (Fig. 268) Y-shaped, stem as long as arms. Aedeagus (Fig. 267 and 268) with preatrium slightly shorter than shaft, slender in ventral view; dorsal apodeme weakly developed; shaft tubular, curved evenly dorsad throughout length, slightly tapered in lateral and ventral views, without processes, apex rounded. Female as described for genus.

Material examined. Holotype male, Ecuador: Orellana, Res. Etnica Waorani, Transect Ent. 1 km S Onkonegare Camp, 00°39'10"S, 076°26'00"W, 220 m, 7 February 1996, T. L. Erwin et al., lot 1440, fogging terra firme forest [USNM]. Paratypes: 1 male, 2 females, same data as holotype; 4 males, 4 females, same data except 21 June 1996, lot #1560 [USNM, INHS]

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my nephew, Mark Schultz.

Euzyginella quartalberti sp. nov.

Figs 40, 64, 269-272, 338

Description. Length of male 3.0 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 40) mostly red-orange; crown with white anterior and posterior bands; pronotum with posterior margin white; mesonotal triangles white; clavus with white basal, medial and apical spots; corium with white medial spot, brochosome field white infused with orange and bordered with dark brown on each end; venter stramineous infused with fuscous.

Male abdomen (Fig. 338) with 2S apodemes parallel-sided, slightly divergent, extended to midlength of sternite IV. Pygofer with posterodorsal emargination subquadrate (Fig. 270); dorsal appendage robust, evenly tapered, apex hooked ventrad; ventral appendage robust, swollen preapically, apex hooked slightly mesad (Figs 269 and 270). Anal hook (Fig. 269) moderately long, slender, needlelike, curved slightly dorsad. Subgenital plate (Fig. 269) with 3 preapical macrosetae. Style apophysis (Figs 271 and 272) nearly straight, somewhat broadened preapically, apex hooked ventrad, acuminate. Connective (Fig. 272) consisting of triangular basal plate with well-developed stem. Aedeagus (Figs 271 and 272) with preatrium shorter than shaft; dorsal apodeme weakly developed; shaft slender, compressed, slightly sinuate, with pair of basolateral spines extended less than half shaft length ventrad of shaft; shaft apex slightly broadened and truncate in ventral view. Female unknown.

Material examined. Holotype male, Ecuador: Orellana, Tiputini Biodiversity Sta. nr. Yasuni Nat. Pk. 220-250m 00°37'55"S, 076°08'39"W, 26 October 1998, T. L. Erwin et al., lot 1940, transect T/5, fogging terra firme forest [USNM].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my cousin, Albert E. Dietrich, IV.

Euzyginella teralberti sp. nov.

Figs 41, 273-276, 339

Description. Length of male 2.8 mm. Crown (Fig. 41) white with narrow transverse red-orange band between anterior corners of eyes; pronotum red-orange with white band across posterior margin; mesonotum red-orange; scutellum white; forewing clavus red-orange with small white mark along anal margin, large transcommisural diamond-shaped mark near midlength, and white mark at extreme apex; corium red-orange basally, brochosome field white bordered with brown, distal third smoky hyaline with darker mark in inner apical cell and veins bordered with fuscous; venter dull stramineous with apex of anteclypeus and front and middle legs infused with fuscous.

Male abdomen (Fig. 339) with 2S apodemes slightly tapered and divergent, extended to posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer with posterodorsal emargination quadrate, extended to base of segment (Fig. 274); dorsal appendage absent; ventral appendage slender, not strongly curved, irregularly sinuate through most of length (Figs 273 and 274). Anal hook (Fig. 273) long, extended posterad, slightly arcuate, with 3 terminal spines. Subgenital plate (Fig. 273) with 2 preapical macrosetae. Style apophysis (Figs 275 and 276) straight, slender, apex hooked slightly ventrad, acute. Connective (Fig. 276) Y-shaped with stem short and broad, anterior margin semicircular. Aedeagus (Figs 275 and 276) with preatrium slightly longer than shaft; dorsal apodeme compressed anteriorly with transverse posterior plate; shaft slender, tubular, curved dorsad near base, with pair of slender lateral processes arising near midlength and extended distad along shaft but not reaching shaft apex; shaft apex slightly broadened, rounded in lateral view and compressed; gonopore apical. Female unknown.

Material examined. Holotype male, Ecuador: Orellana, Tiputini Biodiversity Sta. nr. Yasuni Nat. Pk. 220-250m 00°37'55"S, 076°08'39"W, 7 February 1999, T. L. Erwin et al., lot 2040, transect T/5, fogging terra firme forest [USNM].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my uncle, Albert E. Dietrich, III.

Euzyginella theari sp. nov.

Figs 42, 261-264, 340

Description. Length of male 2.8 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 42) mostly pale-orange; crown with white anterior and posterior bands; pronotum with posterior margin white; mesonotal triangles white; clavus with white basal, medial and apical spots; corium with white medial spot, brochosome field white infused with orange and bordered with dark brown on each end; venter stramineous infused with fuscous.

Male abdomen (Fig. 340) with 2S apodemes robust, parallel sided, extended to posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer with posterodorsal emargination parabolic (Fig. 262); dorsal process slender, falcate; ventral appendage slender, somewhat arcuate, apex curved slightly laterad (Figs 261 and 262). Anal ring with elongate slender spine extended posterad from each side (Fig. 261). Subgenital plate (Fig. 261) with 3 preapical macrosetae. Style apophysis (Figs 263 and 264) straight, slender, apex hooked slightly ventrad, acute. Connective (Fig. 264) with stem slender, arms very short, anterior margin slightly concave. Aedeagus (Figs 263 and 264) with preatrium slightly shorter than shaft; dorsal apodeme compressed anteriorly with transverse posterior plate; shaft long, slender, tubular, somewhat sinuate in lateral view, distal half keeled dorsally, without processes, apex blunt. Female unknown.

Material examined. Holotype male, Ecuador: Orellana, Tiputini Biodiversity Sta. nr. Yasuni Nat. Pk. 220-250m 00°37'55"S, 076°08'39"W, 26 October 1998, T. L. Erwin et al., transect T/5, lot 1945, fogging terra firme forest [USNM].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my nephew, T.R. Braxton; the name is a phonetic spelling of his first two initials.

Neozyginella gen. nov.

Type species: N. baileyi sp. nov.

Diagnosis. Small, depressed leafhoppers (Figs 43-48). Coloration pale yellow, dorsum with symmetrical bright yellow, orange, black and/or red markings; head with two pairs of red spots, small pair on margin of crown near apex, larger pair just anteromesad of eyes. Head wider than pronotum, depressed, anterior margin angulately produced; face nearly horizontal (Fig. 65); rostrum not extended beyond front trochanters; lower part of face sexually dimorphic, male anteclypeus inflated and expanded laterad, lorum very narrow; female anteclypeus relatively narrow, flat and tapered, lorum relatively broad; frontoclypeus convex; lateral frontal sutures not extended dorsad of antennal pits; antennal ledges weakly developed; antennae as long as head width; ocelli absent; crown convex, coronal suture restricted to posterior third of crown. Pronotum (Figs 43-48) with lateral margins moderately long, slightly divergent in dorsal view, distinctly carinate, carina even with posterior margin of eye. Front femur with AM1 enlarged and situated on ventral margin; intercalary row with few fine setae, basal seta larger than others; PV1 well developed; tibia somewhat flattened dorsally, AD and PD without preapical macrosetae. Hind femur macrosetae 2+1+1; tibia row AV with three macrosetae near apex. Forewing (Fig. 77) with RA reflexed, RP confluent with MA for short distance, apical cell 2 triangular, inner apical cell trapezoidal; hind wing (Fig. 78) veins RP and MA separate, connected by crossvein, submarginal vein incomplete, extended from jugal lobe to point slightly beyond MP, forming closed cell between MP and CuA.

Male abdomen (Figs 341-346) with 2S apodemes well developed, connected by sclerotized bridge at base but widely separated distally, more or less parallel, usually extended beyond posterior margin of sternite III. Pygofer (Figs 277 and 278) with dorsal emargination well developed; tergite well developed but short; dorsal part of lobe heavily sclerotized or not, with or without digitiform distal process; ventral appendage well developed, elongate; one or more additional posterior pygofer spines also present in several species. Valve short, emarginate posteriorly, fused to pygofer. Segment X (Fig. 277) largely membranous with sclerotized basal ring, lateral ends of ring articulated to internal surface of pygofer lobe or to separately articulated anal hook. Subgenital plate (Fig. 277) narrow basally, broadened near middle, with 3-5 macrosetae in sublateral row near apex; apex weakly to strongly compressed. Connective (Fig. 280) U- or Y-shaped, articulated to aedeagus, without prominent posterodorsal lobes. Style (Figs 279 and 280) apodeme short, apophysis elongate, with few fine setae preapically, apex tapered and curved. Aedeagus (Figs 279 and 280) with preatrium well developed, dorsal apodeme weakly to strongly developed, shaft longer than preatrium, with or without paired processes.

Female sternite VII (Fig. 379) with posterior margin convex; ovipositor elongate, slender, somewhat sigmoid, first valvulae (Fig. 380) with strigate dorsal and ventral sculpturing, second valvulae (Fig. 380) with right blade bearing ~13 small, close-set teeth near apex of dorsal margin.

Etymology. The genus name, a feminine noun, combines Neo- (new) with Zyginella, the name of an apparently related Old World genus.

Remarks. This genus shares a hind wing venational pattern with Pseudhadina gen. nov., in which the submarginal vein connects the apices of CuA and MP to form a closed apical cell but does not extend to MA. This pattern is unknown among other Typhlocybini. Neozyginella is easily distinguished from other Typhlocybini by the unique color pattern. The known species are recorded from terra firme forests in western Amazonia and premontane forests of the eastern Andean foothills.

Key to species of Neozyginella

1. Male pygofer lobe with three posterior processes (Fig. 285)........................................................................................... 3

1'. Male pygofer lobe with two posterior processes (Fig. 293).. ........................................................................................... 2

1". Male pygofer lobe with only one posterior processes, arising ventrally (Fig. 281)..................................... bethae, sp. nov.

2. Male pygofer lobe with processes well separated from each other, dorsal process much shorter than ventral process (Fig. 297); aedeagus with pair of massive ventrolateral processes arising from base, distal processes very short (Fig. 300)... .............................................................. jenncraftae sp. nov.

2'. Male pygofer lobe with processes closely adjacent to each other, subequal in length (Fig. 293); aedeagus without basal processes, apex with pair of slender, curved lateral processes (Fig. 296)................................................ dougi, sp. nov.

3. Aedeagus with pair of short basal spines arising below shaft (Fig. 291)................................................. braxtoni, sp. nov.

3'. Aedeagus without pair of basal spines (Fig. 287) .............4

4. Pygofer lobe with three processes subequal in size; anal hook acuminate (Fig. 285) ...............................bradleyi, sp. nov.

4. Pygofer lobe with dorsal process much shorter than medial spine and both much shorter than ventral process; anal hook short and blunt (Fig. 277).............baileyae, sp. nov.

Neozyginella baileyae sp. nov.

Figs 43, 277-280, 341

Description. Length of male 3.3-3.5 mm. Color (Fig. 43) off white, heavily infused with yellow; head with posterior pair of red spots relatively large; pronotum, base of clavus, and apex of scutellum without brown pigment; pronotum with extensive posteromedial orange area extended posterolaterally onto mesonotum; scutellum apex orange; irregular orange band extended length of clavus onto corium, ending just short of apical cells; dark brown maculae present on costal margin at base and apex of brochosome field.

Male abdomen (Fig. 341) with 2S apodemes moderately wide, bowed laterad, extended to posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer posterodorsal emargination quadrate (Fig. 278); posterodorsal spine well developed, extended posterodorsad, with row of fine setae along posteroventral margin; posteromesal spine short, slender, straight, extended posterodorsad along pygofer margin; ventral appendage elongate, slender, curved dorsad, areolate and curved slightly mesad distally (Figs 277 and 278). Anal hook (Fig. 277) robust, curved posteroventrad, connected by membrane with basal ring of anal tube. Subgenital plate (Fig. 277) with 4-5 preapical macrosetae. Style apophysis (Figs 279 and 280) slightly sinuate, slightly expanded beyond midlength, apex blunt in lateral view, curved laterad then hooked mesad and acute in ventral view. Connective (Fig. 280) broadly U-shaped. Aedeagus (Figs 279 and 280) with preatrium short, broad in ventral view; dorsal apodeme well developed, with compressed anterior lobe and depressed posterodorsal extension; shaft slender, tubular, sinuate, apex with pair of small lateral spines, with pair of short basal spines arising on atrium below shaft; gonopore apical. Female unknown.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: San Martín, 35km N Tarapoto, Bosque Prot. Cord. Escalera, 900m, 6°27.46'S, 76°17.24'W, 6-16 Mar 2005, ME Irwin, JD Vasquez, Malaise, humid montane forest 12-01 [INHS]. Paratypes: 3 males, same data [INHS]

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my niece, Bailey Schultz.

Neozyginella bethae sp. nov.

Figs 44, 281-284, 342

Description. Length of male 3.3 mm. Color (Fig. 44) off white, infused with yellow; head with posterior pair of red spots relatively large; pronotum with large round medial black spot; apex of scutellum black; forewing clavus with black macula at base and another near midlength of commisural margin, corium with black macula at base of brochosome well developed.

Male abdomen (Fig. 342) with 2S apodemes short and slender, slightly tapered, slightly surpassing posterior margin of sternite III. Pygofer with posterodorsal emargination quadrate (Fig. 282); posterodorsal spine absent; pygofer lobe strongly acuminate but weakly sclerotized; ventral appendage elongate, slender, sinuate, apex curved slightly mesad (Figs 281 and 282). Anal hook (Fig. 281) absent but anal tube with ventrolateral extensions of basal ring well developed. Subgenital plate (Fig. 281) with 3 preapical macrosetae. Style apophysis (Figs 283 and 284) sinuate, apex bent abruptly mesad, acuminate. Connective (Fig. 284) robust, V-shaped. Aedeagus (Figs 283 and 284) with preatrium moderately long, moderately wide in ventral view; dorsal apodeme well developed with compressed anterior lobe and transverse posterior plate; shaft slender, tubular, tapered, curved dorsad, apex with pair of short lateral spines, basal processes absent; gonopore apical. Female unknown.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Huanuco, 5km N Tingo Maria, 600m, 9°14'49"S, 75°58'59"W, 24 Oct 2002, C.H. Dietrich, merc. vapor light, 02-38-1 [USML]. Paratype: 1 male, same data [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my cousin, Marilyn Beth D. Lindberg.

Neozyginella bradleyi sp. nov.

Figs 45, 285-288, 343

Description. Length of male 3.0 mm. Color (Fig. 45) off white, infused with yellow; head with posterior pair if red spots relatively small; pronotum with small brown medial spot; forewing clavus with small brown basal spot and diffuse brown maculae more distally, corium with brown spots at base and apex of brochosome field small.

Male abdomen (Fig. 343) with 2S apodemes moderately robust, convexly rounded laterally, extended to posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer posterodorsal emargination V-shaped, moderately broad (Fig. 286); pygofer lobe strongly attenuated into two posteromedial spines appressed to each other and to ventral appendage basally but separate and curved dorsad distally; ventral appendage long, moderately broad, acuminate, nearly straight throughout length (Figs 285 and 286). Anal hook (Fig. 285) well developed, curved ventrad, connected by membrane to basal ring of anal tube. Subgenital plate (Fig. 285) with four preapical macrosetae. Style apophysis (Figs 287 and 288) slender and sinuate in lateral view, broadened near midlength in ventral view, apex blunt. Connective (Fig. 288) broadly U-shaped. Aedeagus (Fig. 287 and 288) with preatrium short; dorsal apodeme well developed with large compressed anterior lobe and transverse posterior plate; shaft very slender and elongate, curved slightly dorsad, apex in ventral view with pair of short, slender spines extended laterad, basal processes absent; gonopore apical. Female unknown.

Material examined. Holotype male, Bolivia: Cochabamba, Villa Tunari, Hotel Los Tucanes, 16°58.302'S, 65°23.793'W, 320m 5-IX-2000, M. Hauser, S. Gaimari, D. Yeates [INHS]. Paratypes: 2 males, same data [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my cousin, Bradley Dietrich.

Neozyginella braxtoni sp. nov.

Figs 46, 289-292, 344

Description. Length of male 3.0 mm. Color (Fig. 46) off white, heavily infused with yellow; head with posterior pair of red spots relatively large; small brown spot present medially on pronotum, one at base of forewing clavus, and one at base of costal brochosome field; apex of scutellum black.

Male abdomen (Fig. 344) with 2S apodemes robust, roundly tapered laterally, extended to posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer posterodorsal emargination V-shaped (Fig. 290); posterodorsal spine well developed, extended dorsad, with row of fine setae along posteroventral margin; pair of elongate posterior spines of equal length extended posterad, closely appressed through most of length (Figs 289 and 290). Anal hook (Fig. 289) robust, moderately long, with angulate ventral projection near midlength, apex acuminate, curved mesad. Subgenital plate (Fig. 289) with four preapical macrosetae. Style apophysis (Figs 291 and 292) moderately robust, slightly sinuate, apex blunt in lateral view, hooked mesad and acute in ventral view. Connective (Fig. 292) broadly U-shaped. Aedeagus (Figs 291 and 292) with preatrium shorter than shaft, broad in ventral view; dorsal apodeme well developed, with compressed anterior lobe and depressed posterodorsal extension; shaft slender, tubular, slightly sinuate in lateral view, without apical processes, base with pair of short posteriorly directed ventrolateral spines; gonopore apical. Female unknown.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: San Martín, 35km N Tarapoto, Bosque Prot. Cord. Escalera, 900m, 6°27.46'S, 76°17.24'W, 6-16 Mar 2005, ME Irwin, JD Vasquez, Malaise, humid montane forest 12-01 [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my nephew, Braxton Schultz.

Neozyginella dougi sp. nov.

Figs 47, 293-296, 345, 379-380

Description. Length of male 3.0 mm. Color (Fig. 47) off white, infused with yellow; head with posterior pair of red spots relatively large; brown spot present medially on pronotum, at base of forewing clavus, and at base of costal brochosome field; apex of scutellum, male subgenital plate, and female third valvulae also brown.

Male abdomen (Fig. 345) with 2S apodemes slender, bowed laterad, extended to posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer posterodorsal emargination U-shaped, moderately broad (Fig. 294); dorsal process absent; posterior lobe rounded, posteromedial appendage present just dorsad of and closely appressed to ventral appendage; both appendages slender, acuminate and curved dorsomesad (Figs 293 and 294). Anal hook (Fig. 293) robust, moderately long, curved ventrad, apex connected to basal ring of anal tube by sclerotized bar. Subgenital plate (Fig. 293) with four preapical macrosetae. Style apophysis (Figs 295 and 296) slender and sinuate in lateral view, broadened near midlength in ventral view, apex blunt, straight. Connective (Fig. 296) broadly U-shaped. Aedeagus (Figs 295 and 296) with preatrium moderately long, moderately broad in ventral view; dorsal apodeme well developed with compressed anterior lobe and posterior transverse plate; shaft in lateral view broadened toward midlength with prominent dorsal lobe, then abruptly narrowed and slender to slightly expanded apex, broad and parallel sided in posterior view, with pair of rounded lateral lobes at apex and pair of slender strongly recurved lateroapical processes, basal processes absent; gonopore apical. Female as described for genus.

Material examined. Holotype male, Ecuador: Orellana, Res. Etnica Waorani, Transect Ent. 1 km S Onkonegare Camp, 00°39'10"S, 076°26'00"W, 220 m, 10 February 1996, T. L. Erwin et al., lot 1485, fogging terra firme forest [USNM]. Paratypes: 4 males and 1 female, same data [USNM, INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my cousin, Douglas Dietrich.

Neozyginella jenncraftae sp. nov.

Figs 48, 77-78, 297-300, 346

Description. Length of male 3.8 mm, female 3.8 mm. Color (Fig. 48) pale yellow, head with posterior pair of red spots relatively large; small brown spot present medially on pronotum; apex of scutellum brown; base of forewing clavus with small brown spot; costal margin with three black maculae, one near base, one near midlength and one near apex, wing margin with several additional diffuse brown markings; venter pale yellow.

Male abdomen (Fig. 346) with 2S apodemes small, tapered, extended to midlength of sternite III. Pygofer posterodorsal emargination deep, quadrate (Fig. 298); dorsal appendage movably articulated with margin and fused to anal hook arising from ringlike basal sclerite of segment X and terminating in long posteroventrally directed spine; posterodorsal process short, tapered to acute angle, extended posterodorsad, with row of fine setae along posteroventral margin; ventral process elongate, slender, extended posterad to apex of subgenital plate, weakly curved dorsomesad (Figs 297 and 298). Subgenital plate (Fig. 297) with five preapical macrosetae. Style apophysis (Figs 299 and 300) moderately robust, slightly sinuate in lateral view, apex tapered, hooked mesad and acute in ventral view. Connective (Fig. 300) broadly U-shaped. Aedeagus (Figs 299 and 300) with preatrium very short; dorsal apodeme well developed, columnlike; shaft very slender, tubular, slightly sinuate in lateral view, with pair of short retrorse lateral spines apically, base with pair of robust posteriorly directed ventrolateral spines as long as shaft; gonopore apical. Female as described for genus.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., Huampal Stn. 10°11'9"S 75°34'27"W 6-9 X 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap acr. R. Huancabamba [USML]. Paratype: 1 female, same data [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in memory of my niece, Jennifer Craft.

Pseudhadina gen. nov.

Type species P. amazonica sp. nov.

Diagnosis. Small, depressed leafhoppers (Fig. 49). Overall color stramineous, dorsum with symmetrical dark brown markings; forewing apical cell 2 with false eyespot, costal margin with 2 oblique dark brown lines. Head (Fig. 49) wider than pronotum, depressed, anterior margin angulately produced; face nearly horizontal (Fig. 66); rostrum not extended beyond front trochanters; male anteclypeus not inflated (Fig. 58), flattened and tapered; lorum long and narrow; frontoclypeus flattened; lateral frontal sutures not extended dorsad of antennal pits; antennal ledges weakly developed; antennae shorter than head width; ocelli absent; crown flat, coronal suture extended to apex of crown. Pronotum (Fig. 49) with lateral margins short, slightly divergent in dorsal view, distinctly carinate, carina even with posterior margin of eye. Front femur with AM1 enlarged and situated on ventral margin; intercalary row with few fine setae, basal seta much larger than others; PV1 stout; tibia rounded dorsally, AD and PD without preapical macrosetae. Hind femur macrosetae 2+1+1; tibia row AV with 4 macrosetae near apex. Forewing (Fig. 79) with RA reflexed, RP confluent with MA for short distance, apical cell 2 triangular, inner apical cell trapezoidal; hind wing (Fig. 80) with RP and MA separate, connected by crossvein; submarginal vein absent between RP and MP+CuA.Male abdomen (Fig. 347) with 2S apodemes well developed, connected by sclerotized bridge at base but widely separated distally, more or less parallel. Pygofer (Fig. 301-302) with dorsal emargination well developed; tergite well developed; lobe evenly sclerotized, with dorsal process; ventral appendage well developed, elongate. Valve short, emarginate posteriorly, fused to pygofer. Segment X (Fig. 301) largely membranous with sclerotized basal ring, lateral ends of ring articulated to internal surface of pygofer lobe and extended ventrad into anal hook. Subgenital plate (Fig. 301) narrow basally, broadened near middle, with 4 macrosetae in sublateral row near apex; apex weakly compressed, with preapical lateral row of long fine setae and apical group of short rigid setae. Connective (Fig. 304) U-shaped, articulated to aedeagus, with small posterodorsal lobes. Style apodeme short, apophysis elongate, with few fine setae preapically, apex tapered and curved. Aedeagus (Figs 303 and 304) with preatrium very short, dorsal apodeme absent, shaft depressed, with paired lateral flanges; gonopore apical.

Female abdominal sternite VII (Fig. 381) ~1.5X longer than sternite VI, posterior margin truncate with small median notch and paired lateral lobes; first valvulae with strigate sculpturing; second valvulae (Figs 382 and 383) relatively elongate and slender, evenly curved dorsad through most of length, apex slightly sigmoid, dorsal margin of apex with ~12 small, close-set teeth.

Etymology. The name, a feminine noun, was formed by combining "pseud-", meaning false, with Eurhadina, a superficially similar Old World genus.

Remarks. This genus is based on a single species from the eastern Ecuadorean rainforest canopy. It appears to be morphologically intermediate between Neozyginella and Columbonirvana. It is readily distinguished from other South American Typhlocybini by the narrow, flattened (not sexually dimorphic) male anteclypeus. It resembles Eualebra in shape and proportions but differs in having the coronal suture extended nearly to the apex of the crown and the face in profile oblique rather than horizontal.

Pseudhadina amazonica sp. nov.

Figs 49, 58, 66, 79-80, 301-304, 347, 381-383

Description. Length of male 3.4 mm. Crown unmarked (Fig. 49); pronotum with narrow lateral longitudinal stripe, two transverse posterior lines, and posterior margin dark brown; mesonotum with 4 small brown spots in transverse row; forewing clavus with narrow brown arch extended posteriorly onto corium, veins in distal half yellow bordered with dark brown; venter of head and thorax brown, legs stramineous.

Male abdomen (Fig. 347) with 2S apodemes moderately robust, falcate, extended to midlength of sternite IV. Pygofer dorsal emargination rounded, tergite 1/3 total length of pygofer (Fig. 302); dorsal process short, bent mesad; lobe concave posterodorsally, rounded apically; ventral appendage curved dorsad in lateral view, weakly contorted and curved mesad distally in dorsal view (Figs 301 and 302). Subgenital plate (Fig. 301) with 4 macrosetae. Style apophysis (Figs 303 and 304) abruptly narrowed preapically, apex curved ventrolaterad, blunt. Aedeagus (Figs 303 and 304) with preatrium very narrow at base in ventral view, atrium broad with two pairs of lateral lobes; shaft strongly depressed, slender and slightly arcuate in lateral view, broad and nearly parallel sided with slightly expanded, rounded apex in ventral view. Female terminalia as described for genus.

Material examined. Holotype male, Ecuador: Orellana, Tiputini Biodiversity Sta. nr. Yasuni Nat. Pk. 220-250m 00°37'55"S, 076°08'39"W, 8 February 1999, T. L. Erwin et al., lot# 2028, transect T/3, fogging terra firme forest [USNM]. Paratypes: 1 female, same data except 26 October 1998, transect T/6, lot# 1950; 1 male, ECUADOR: Orellana, Res. Etnica Waorani, Transect Ent. 1 km S Onkonegare Camp, 00°39'10"S, 076°26'00"W, 220 m, 4 October 1995, T. L. Erwin et al., lot 1188, fogging terra firme forest; 1 male, same data except 8 October 1995, lot# 1263 [USNM, INHS].

Pseudozyginella gen. nov.

Type species: P. grahami sp. nov.

Diagnosis. Small, depressed leafhoppers (Figs 50-52). Coloration mostly brown with large, symmetrical white markings dorsally. Head (Figs 50-52) wider than pronotum, depressed, anterior margin angulately produced; face nearly horizontal (Fig. 67); rostrum not extended beyond front trochanters; lower part of face sexually dimorphic, male anteclypeus inflated and expanded laterad, lorum very narrow; female anteclypeus relatively narrow, tapered and flat, lorum relatively broad; frontoclypeus convex; lateral frontal sutures not extended dorsad of antennal pits; antennal ledges weakly developed; antennae as long as head width; ocelli absent; crown convex, coronal suture restricted to posterior third of crown. Pronotum (Figs 50-52) with lateral margins moderately long, slightly divergent in dorsal view, distinctly carinate, carina even with posterior margin of eye. Front femur with AM1 enlarged and situated on ventral margin; intercalary row with few fine setae, basal seta larger than others; PV1 well developed; tibia somewhat flattened dorsally, AD and PD without preapical macrosetae. Hind femur macrosetae 2+1+1; tibia row AV with three macrosetae near apex. Wing venation variable intra- and interspecifically; forewing (Fig. 81) inner apical cell trapezoidal; hind wing (Figs 82 and 83) submarginal vein absent between CuA and RP, RP and MA separate, connected by crossvein or confluent; distal segment of CuA, beyond connection with submarginal vein, present or (more rarely) absent.

Male abdomen (Figs 348-350) with 2S apodemes variably developed, connected by sclerotized bridge at base but widely separated distally, more or less parallel, usually extended beyond posterior margin of sternite III. Pygofer (Figs 305 and 306) with dorsal emargination well developed, broadly U-shaped; tergite well developed but short; lateral lobe tapered from base to apex, dorsal part heavily sclerotized, with posteroventrally directed distal process; ventral appendage well developed, elongate, extended posterodorsad along inner surface of lobe. Segment X (Fig. 305) largely membranous but with well sclerotized and darkly pigmented dorsal ring basally bearing falcate posterolateral process and anterolateral projection articulated to dorsal margin of pygofer lobe. Dorsal connective absent. Valve short, emarginate posteriorly, fused to pygofer. Subgenital plate (Fig. 305) very narrow basally, slightly broadened near middle, tapered distally, with 1-2 macrosetae slightly beyond midlength and, usually 1-2 macrosetae at apex, apex compressed. Connective (Fig. 308) U-shaped, stem absent, articulated to aedeagus, without prominent posterodorsal lobes. Style (Figs 307 and 308) apodeme short, apophysis elongate, with few fine setae preapically, apex tapered and curved. Aedeagus (Figs 307 and 308) with preatrium well developed, dorsal apodeme weakly to strongly developed, shaft longer than preatrium, with pair of distally directed spines arising near base of shaft, with or without apical processes, gonopore apical.

Female abdominal sternite VII (Fig. 384) produced posteriorly; ovipositor moderately elongate, curved dorsad, somewhat expanded preapically, first valvulae (Fig. 385 and 386) with strigate dorsal and ventral sculpturing, second valvulae (Fig. 387) with right blade bearing ~10 large, close-set, quadrate teeth near apex of dorsal margin.

Etymology. The genus name, a feminine noun, combines "pseudo-" meaning "false" with Zyginella, and reflects the morphological similarity to the latter genus.

Remarks. This is the only New World typhlocybine genus known to include species with hind wing venation resembling that of the Old World genus Zyginella, although the Zyginella-like features (i.e., absence of a distal segment of CuA extended beyond the submarginal vein) are not consistently present and, in some cases, vary between the right and left wings of a single specimen. Thus, for members of Pseudozyginella, at least, the criteria previously used by some previous authors to justify recognition of Zyginellini as a separate tribe are unstable, providing support for the present treatment of Zyginellini as a junior synonym of Typhlocybini. The new genus differs from Zyginella and other genera placed by Dworakowska (1979) in "Zyginellini" in having a well-developed, elongate ventral pygofer process similar to that of Columbonirvana. It also resembles Columbonirvana in having a well-developed anal hook articulated to the pygofer and anal tube, a slender apically setose style, and subgenital plates with a reduced number of macrosetae. The genus includes three species, all collected by fogging terra firme rainforest canopy at a single locality in eastern Ecuador.

Key to species of Pseudozyginella

1. Male subgenital plate without one or more macrosetae at apex (Fig. 305); aedeagus without pair of apical processe... P. grahami sp. nov.

1'. Male subgenital plate with one or more macrosetae at apex (Fig. 313); aedeagus with pair of apical processes (Fig. 312) 2

2. Forewing mostly brown with two white spots near midlength, one along costal margin and one in clavus (Fig. 52); aedeagus in ventral view with preatrium evenly tapered toward base (Fig. 316) P. dougbraxtoni sp. nov.

2'. Forewing white in basal half, brown distally (Fig. 51); aedeagus in ventral view with preatrium constricted near midlength (Fig. 312) P. davei sp. nov.

Pseudozyginella grahami sp. nov.

Figs 50, 67, 81-82, 305-308, 348, 384-387

Description. Length of male 2.5-2.6 mm, female 2.6 mm. Color (Fig. 50) off white, heavily infused with brown, crown uniformly pale, pronotum and basal triangles of mesonotum brown; forewing base and apex brown, interrupted medially by large transcommisural pale area containing irregular areas of orange in some specimens, widest medially and narrowest at costal margin; corresponding areas of abdomen pale with brown areas at base and apex including pygofer.

Male abdomen (Fig. 348) with 2S apodemes robust, nearly parallel sided, extended to midlength of sternite V. Pygofer (Figs 305 and 306) with dorsal appendage slender, acuminate, bent posteroventrad and extended well beyond ventral margin of lobe; ventral appendage robust, weakly convoluted through most of length, apex bent laterad then hooked slightly mesad. Anal hook (Fig. 305) moderately long, slender, acuminate, curved posteroventrad. Subgenital plate (Fig. 305) with 2 preapical macrosetae. Style apophysis (Figs 307 and 308) slightly tapered through most of length, nearly straight, apex hooked strongly mesad, acuminate. Connective (Fig. 308) robust, V-shaped. Aedeagus (Fig. 307 and 308) with preatrium shorter than shaft, parallel sided in ventral view; dorsal apodeme weakly developed; shaft slender, tubular, curved dorsad, with pair of short slender spines arising near midlength, only slightly divergent from shaft, and extended slightly beyond shaft midlength; shaft apex slightly expanded and obliquely truncate in lateral view, without processes. Female abdominal sternite VII (Fig. 384) with posterior margin obtusely angulate; ovipositor as described for genus.

Material examined. Holotype male, Ecuador: Orellana, Res. Etnica Waorani, Transect Ent. 1 km S Onkonegare Camp, 00°39'10"S, 076°26'00"W, 220 m, 7 October 1995, T. L. Erwin et al., lot 1246, fogging terra firme forest [USNM]. Paratypes: 1 male, 1 female, same data except 10 February 1996, lot#1496; 1 male, same data except 21 June 1996, lot# 1549 [USNM, INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my nephew, Graham Dietrich.

Pseudozyginella davei sp. nov.

Figs 51, 309-312, 349

Description. Length of male 2.4 mm, female 2.5 mm. Color (Fig. 51) off white, heavily infused with brown, crown uniformly pale, pronotum and basal triangles of mesonotum brown; forewing with basal half white, distal half brown; abdomen pale dorsally except near apex. Forewing veins RP and MA confluent for short distance distally.

Male abdomen (Fig. 349) with 2S apodemes vestigial (possibly due to parasitism of only available male specimen). Pygofer (Figs 309 and 310) with dorsal appendage robust, tapered, evenly curved posteroventrad and extended slightly beyond margin of lobe; ventral appendage relatively slender, curved slightly dorsad through most of length, apex curved slightly laterad. Subgenital plate (Fig. 309) with 1-2 macrosetae near midlength and 1 at apex. Style apophysis (Figs 311 and 312) slightly tapered through most of length, nearly straight, apex bent ventrad and curved slightly mesad, acuminate. Connective (Fig. 312) broadly U-shaped, arms slender. Aedeagus (Figs 311 and 312) with preatrium slightly shorter than shaft, relatively slender and constricted near midlength in ventral view; dorsal apodeme weakly developed; shaft slender, tubular, curved slightly dorsad, with basal processes relatively large, evenly divergent from shaft in ventral view, extended well beyond shaft midlength; with pair of slender retrorse lateral processes at apex, extended anteroventrad. Female as described for genus.

Material examined. Holotype male, Ecuador: Orellana, Res. Etnica Waorani, Transect Ent. 1 km S Onkonegare Camp, 00°39'10"S, 076°26'00"W, 220 m, 2 July 1995, T. L. Erwin et al., lot 1068, fogging terra firme forest [USNM]. Paratypes: 2 females, same data; 1 female, same data except 10 February 1996, lot# 1496 [USNM, INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my nephew, David Braxton.

Pseudozyginella dougbraxtoni sp. nov.

Figs 52, 313-316, 350

Description. Length of male 2.4-2.5mm. Color (Fig. 52) mostly brown, crown uniformly pale, pronotum and basal triangles of mesonotum brown; forewing with brochosome field white and small transcommisural white spot relatively small and restricted to clavus; abdomen brown.

Male abdomen (Fig. 350) with 2S apodemes robust, nearly parallel sided, extended to midlength of sternite V. Pygofer (Figs 313 and 314) with dorsal appendage robust, tapered, evenly curved posteroventrad and extended slightly beyond margin of lobe; ventral appendage robust, weakly convoluted through most of length, apex curved slightly laterad. Subgenital plate (Fig. 313) with 2 macrosetae near midlength and 2 at apex. Style apophysis (Figs 315 and 316) slightly tapered through most of length, nearly straight, apex bent ventrad and curved slightly mesad, acuminate. Connective (Fig. 316) broadly U-shaped, arms stout. Aedeagus (Fig. 315 and 316) with preatrium slightly shorter than shaft, evenly tapered toward base in ventral view; dorsal apodeme weakly developed; shaft slender, tubular, curved slightly dorsad, with basolateral processes relatively large, evenly divergent from shaft in ventral view, extended well beyond shaft midlength; with pair of slender retrorse lateral processes at apex, extended anteroventrad. Female unknown.

Material examined. Holotype male, Ecuador: Orellana, Res. Etnica Waorani, Transect Ent. 1 km S Onkonegare Camp, 00°39'10"S, 076°26'00"W, 220 m, 2 July 1995, T. L. Erwin et al., lot# 1069, fogging terra firme forest [USNM]. Paratypes: 2 males, same data except 8 October 1995, lot# 1266; 1 male, same data except 12 February 1995, lot# 1239 [USNM, INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my brother-in-law, Douglas Braxton.

Tahurella gen. nov.

Type species: T. lynnae, sp. nov.

Diagnosis. Medium-sized, depressed leafhoppers (Figs 53-57). Dorsal coloration pale with symmetrical arcuate transcommisural bands across forewings; forewing apex with false eyespot, costal margin with 6 or more oblique dark brown false veins. Head (Figs 53-57) narrower than pronotum, depressed, anterior margin angulately produced; face nearly horizontal (Fig. 68); rostrum extended slightly beyond front trochanters; male anteclypeus inflated and expanded laterad (Fig. 59); lorum very narrow; frontoclypeus convex; lateral frontal sutures not extended dorsad of antennal pits; antennal ledges weakly developed; antennae as long as head width; ocelli absent; crown flat, coronal suture extended to crown apex. Pronotum (Figs 53-57) with lateral margins moderately long, slightly divergent in dorsal view, distinctly carinate, carina even with posterior margin of eye. Front femur with AM1 enlarged and situated on ventral margin; intercalary row with few fine setae, basal seta larger than others; PV1 absent; tibia rounded dorsally, AD and PD without preapical macrosetae. Hind femur macrosetae 2+1+1; tibia row AV with 4 macrosetae near apex. Forewing (Figs 84 and 85) with RA reflexed, RP and MA separate and joined by crossvein or confluent for short distance; CuA joining M basad of its fork; inner apical cell trapezoidal; apical margin with distinct concavity. Hind wing (Fig. 86) venation as in Eualebra.

Male 2S apodemes (Figs 351-355) well developed, joined at base by transverse bridge, variable interspecifically in shape. Pygofer (Figs 317 and 318) strongly emarginate dorsally; tergite variable in length and shape among species; posterior lobe with strongly sclerotized, distally falcate dorsal section variably clothed with microtrichia, unpigmented ventral section bearing longitidinal row or band of short fine setae; ventral appendage slender, acuminate, arising near base of ventral margin and curved posterodorsad, usually areolate distally. Anal tube (Figs 317 and 318) depressed, sclerotized dorsal band short, with pair of basolateral hooks. Dorsal connective absent. Subgenital plate (Fig. 317) constricted near base, broadest near midlength, with row of 3-4 macrosetae near lateral margin and row of smaller setae ventrally near apex; apical lobe compressed, parallel sided and darkly pigmented. Style (Figs 319 and 320) apodeme short; apophysis elongate, without preapical lobe, with several fine setae preapically. Connective (Fig. 320) Y-shaped with stem short and broad, articulated to aedeagus. Aedeagus (Figs 319 and 320) with preatrium elongate, dorsal apodeme weakly developed; shaft elongate and nearly straight, usually with paired ventral preapical spines or processes; apical processes absent; gonopore apical. Female unknown.

Etymology. The genus name, a feminine noun, is a diminutive form of Tahura, a genus of Nirvanini that is superficially similar in having distal projections on the forewings.

Remarks. This genus is structurally similar to Columbonirvana but differs in the larger body size, paler dorsal coloration, emarginate forewing apex, and Y-shaped connective. The five known species were collected in Malaise traps in cloud forests at two localities in Colombia and Peru.

Key to species of Tahurella

1. Anterior margin of head with two parallel transverse black bands (Fig. 68); male pygofer with distal spine elongate (Fig. 325); aedeagal processes not diverging from shaft in ventral view (Fig. 328)...................................................... 2

1'. Anterior margin of head with one transverse black band; male pygofer with distal spine short (Fig. 317); aedeagal processes diverging from shaft in ventral view (Fig. 320) or absent (Fig. 336)................................................................ 3

2. Pygofer lobe distinctly emarginate apically (Fig. 329) ........ .................................................................T. clairae sp. nov.

2'. Pygofer lobe entire apically (Fig. 325).... T. lynnae sp. nov.

3. Aedeagus without processes or spines (Fig. 335)................. ............................................................ T. heatherae sp. nov.

3' Aedeagus with paired ventral processes or spines (Fig. 319)............................................................................................ 4

4. Aedeagal processes very short, spinelike (Fig. 323)............. ........................................................... T. katherinae sp. nov.

4' Aedeagal processes elongate, extended nearly to shaft apex (Fig. 319)................................................ T. josephi sp. nov.

Tahurella josephi sp. nov.

Figs 53, 317-320, 351

Description. Length of male 4.8 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 53) pale yellow with symmetrical red-orange and dark brown markings; head anterior margin with narrow dark brown band between eyes, discontinuous with similar band extended across thoracic pleuron; pronotum with anterior margin red-orange, posterior margin with convex red-orange marking medially; mesonotum orange anteriorly; scutellum orange at apex. Forewing with series of 7 oblique brown lines distributed along costal margin; basal third of corium and clavus hyaline with narrow red-orange transcommisural arcuate band; distal 2/3 of forewing smoky hyaline with paler areas in apical cells; veins orange; distal lobe well developed. Thoracic venter pale yellow; abdomen pale yellow ventrally except sternite VIII and valve brown.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 351) robust, close together at base, evenly tapered toward apex, extended to midlength of sternite IV. Pygofer with dorsal emargination broad, quadrate (Fig. 318); tergite ca. 1/4 length of distal lobe; dorsal sclerotized area of lobe broad, truncate apically and terminating ventrally in short ventrally directed spine; ventral appendage gradually curved dorsad in lateral view, apex bowed laterad in dorsal view (Figs 317 and 318). Anal hook (Fig. 317) small, triangular. Subgenital plate (Fig. 317) with 2-4 macrosetae near midlength and another 5 at apex. Style apophysis (Figs 319 and 320) gradually tapered distally, apex curved ventrolaterad, blunt. Connective (Fig. 320) stem short and broad. Aedeagus (Figs 319 and 320) with preatrium relatively short; narrow at base; shaft broad basally and slightly sinuate in lateral view, with pair of slender ventral processes separated from but paralleling shaft and extended 3/4 distance to shaft apex, divergent in ventral view; apex compressed with ventral keel, rounded in lateral view.

Material examined. Holotype male, Colombia: Nariño, RN La Planada Parcela Olga, 1°15'N 78°15'W 1850m, Malaise 16.vii-2.viii.2001, G. Oliva leg. M.2402 [HIC]. Paratype: 1 male, Colombia: Nariño, RN La Planada Parcela Permanente 1°15'N 78°15'W 1885m Malaise 2-16.vii.2001, G. Oliva leg. M.2404 [INHS]

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my nephew, Joseph Dietrich.

Tahurella katherinae sp. nov.

Figs 54, 321-324, 352

Description. Length of male 5.0 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 54) pale yellow with symmetrical red-orange and dark brown markings; head anterior margin with narrow dark brown band between eyes, discontinuous with similar band extended across thoracic pleuron; pronotum with anterior margin red-orange, posterior margin with convex red-orange marking medially; mesonotum orange anteriorly; scutellum orange at apex. Forewing with series of 7 oblique brown lines distributed along costal margin; basal third of corium and clavus hyaline with narrow red-orange transcommisural arcuate band; distal 2/3 of forewing smoky hyaline with paler areas in apical cells; veins orange; apical lobe well developed. Thoracic venter pale yellow; abdomen pale yellow ventrally except sternite VIII and valve brown. Head slightly narrower than pronotum, crown twice as long medially as next to eye; forewing apical cell 2 quadrate; hind tibia row AV with 4 macrosetae.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 352) robust, bowed laterad, extended to midlength of sternite IV. Pygofer with dorsal emargination parallel sided, base broadly V-shaped (Fig. 322); tergite ca. 1/3 length of distal lobe; apical process short, toothlike; ventral appendage weakly curved dorsomesad (Figs 321 and 322). Anal hook (Fig. 321) small, triangular. Subgenital plate (Fig. 321) with 3-4 macrosetae near midlength and 0-2 stout apical setae. Style apophysis (Figs 323 and 324) slightly broadened medially, apex curved ventrolaterad and bluntly rounded. Connective (Fig. 324) stem short and broad. Aedeagus (Figs 323 and 324) with preatrium relatively short, not broadened basally in ventral view; shaft slender, compressed, nearly straight, with two pairs of small ventral spines, one near midlength and one near apex; apex compressed, broadened in lateral view and obliquely rounded.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., 10°39'39.7"S 75°22'0.1"W, 2300m, 10-13 October 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap across Rio San Alberto [USML].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my niece, Katherine Dietrich.

Tahurella lynnae sp. nov.

Figs 55, 68, 84, 325-328, 353

Description. Length of male 5.3 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 55) yellow to white, heavily marked with dark brown and orange; head anterior margin with pair of thin brown transverse bands between eyes, crown yellow; pronotum white with anterior margin red-orange and incomplete posterior submarginal orange transverse band; mesonotum and scutellum orange; forewing basal half with alternating white, red-orange, white, and dark brown transcommisural arcuate bands; brochosome field bright yellow, costal margin with 6 oblique brown bands, veins yellow, cells with large fuscous areas; thorax and abdomen brown ventrally. Head subequal to pronotum in width, crown slightly less than twice as long medially as next to eyes. Forewing with apical cell 2 triangular, apical lobe short (Fig. 84). Hind tibia row AV with 4 macrosetae.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 353) weakly divergent, extended to posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer with dorsal emargination broad, parabolic (Fig. 326); tergite ca. 1/3 length of distal lobe; apical process long, slender, extended ventrad; ventral appendage weakly curved dorsomesad (Figs 325 and 326). Anal hook (Fig. 325) small, triangular. Subgenital plate (Fig. 325) with 2-4 macrosetae near midlength and two small stout apical setae. Style apophysis (Figs 327 and 328) parallel sided through most of length, apex curved laterad then bent mesad, blunt. Connective (Fig. 328) Y-shaped, stem short and broad. Aedeagus (Figs 327 and 328) with preatrium relatively short, slightly broadened basally in ventral view; shaft very slender, slightly sinuate, with pair of long slender processes arising near base, closely appressed to each other, separated from shaft through most of length, contacting shaft apically; apex compressed, expanded in lateral view, obliquely truncate.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., 10°39'39.7"S 75°22'0.1"W, 2300m, 10-13 October 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap across Rio San Alberto [USML]. Paratypes: 4 males, same data [INHS].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my niece Lynn Dietrich.

Tahurella clairae sp. nov.

Figs 56, 329-332, 354

Description. Length of male 4.7 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 56) yellow to white, heavily marked with dark brown and orange; head anterior margin with pair of thin brown transverse bands between eyes, crown yellow; pronotum white with anterior margin red-orange and incomplete posterior submarginal orange transverse band; mesonotum and scutellum orange; forewing basal half with alternating white, red-orange, white, and dark brown transcommisural arcuate bands; brochosome field bright yellow, costal margin with 6 oblique brown bands, veins yellow, cells with large fuscous areas; thorax and abdomen brown ventrally; apical lobe weakly developed. Head subequal to pronotum in width, crown slightly less than twice as long medially as next to eyes. Forewing with apical cell 2 triangular, apical margin concave. Hind tibia row AV with 4 macrosetae.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 354) weakly divergent, extended nearly to posterior margin of sternite IV. Pygofer with dorsal emargination relatively narrow, parabolic (Fig. 330); tergite ca. 1/3 length of distal lobe; lobe with distinct apical emargination above distal spine, spine nearly straight; ventral appendage curved dorsad, extended into emargination of pygofer lobe (Figs 329 and 330). Anal hook (Fig. 329) short, blunt. Subgenital plate (Fig. 329) with 3 macrosetae near midlength, without stout preapical setae. Style apophysis (Figs 331 and 332) parallel-sided through most of length, apex curved ventrolaterad, blunt. Connective (Fig. 332) V-shaped, stem poorly developed. Aedeagus (Fig. 331 and 332) with preatrium nearly as long as shaft, slightly broadened basally in ventral view; shaft slender, compressed distally, constricted preapically in lateral view, slightly sinuate, with pair of long slender processes arising near midlength and extended ventrally along shaft nearly to apex, closely parallel to each other in ventral view; apex obliquely rounded in lateral view.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., 10°39'39.7"S 75°22'0.1"W, 2300m, 10-13 October 2002, D. Takiya, C. Peña, R. Rakitov, Malaise trap across Rio San Alberto [USML].

Etymology. This species is named in honor of my daughter, Claire E. Dietrich.

Tahurella heatherae sp. nov.

Figs 57, 85-86, 333-336, 355

Description. Length of male 4.8 mm. Dorsum (Fig. 57) pale yellow with symmetrical red-orange and dark brown markings; head anterior margin with narrow dark brown band between eyes, discontinuous with similar band extended across thoracic pleuron; pronotum with anterior margin red-orange, posterior margin with convex red-orange marking medially; mesonotum orange anteriorly; scutellum orange at apex. Forewing with series of 7 oblique brown lines distributed along costal margin; basal third of corium and clavus hyaline with narrow red-orange transcommisural arcuate band; distal 2/3 of forewing smoky hyaline with paler areas in apical cells; veins orange; apical lobe well developed (Fig. 85). Thoracic venter pale yellow; abdomen pale yellow ventrally except sternite VIII and valve brown.

Male 2S apodemes (Fig. 355) parallel sided, slightly divergent, extended to midlength of sternite IV. Pygofer with dorsal emargination parabolic (Fig. 334); tergite ca. 1/3 length of distal lobe; dorsal sclerotized area of lobe gradually tapered, apex sharply hooked ventrad and extended slightly beyond margin; ventral appendage nearly straight in lateral and dorsal view (Figs 333 and 334). Anal hook (Fig. 333) short, apex truncate. Subgenital plate (Fig. 333) with 3-4 macrosetae near midlength and several shorter stout setae preapically. Style apophysis (Figs 335 and 336) nearly straight and parallel sided through most of length, apex curved ventolaterad, truncate. Connective (Fig. 336) Y-shaped with stem as long as arms. Aedeagus (Figs 335 and 336) with preatrium distinctly shorter than shaft, slightly broadened basally in ventral view; shaft slender, compressed distally, constricted preapically in lateral view, slightly sinuate, without spines or processes, apex obliquely rounded in lateral view.

Material examined. Holotype male, Peru: Pasco, Yanachaga-Chemillén N.P., Puesto de Control Huampal 10°11'9"S 75°24'27"W, 2300m, 6 October 2002, D. Takiya [USML].

Etymology. The species is named in honor of my cousin, Heather B. Denne.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am indebted to Carlos Peña, Pedro Lozada and Gerardo Lamas for helping facilitate fieldwork in Peru, to Terry Erwin for providing access to his canopy fogging samples from Western Amazonia, to Paul Freytag and Michael Sharkey for providing access to Malaise trap samples from Colombia, and to Mike Irwin for donating Malaise trap samples from Bolivia and Peru. I am also grateful to Norman Penny (California Academy of Sciences) for providing photos of type material, to Chen Young (Carnegie Museum) and Stuart McKamey (U.S. National Museum) for lending other types and to Gabriel Mejdalani and two anonymous referees for constructive criticism of the manuscript. This work was funded in part by NSF grants DEB 0089671 and DEB-0529679.

 

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Submitted: 04.IV.2013; Accepted: 07.VII.2013.
Editorial responsibility: Gabriel L.F. Mejdalani

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