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Zoologia (Curitiba)

versão impressa ISSN 1984-4670

Zoologia (Curitiba) vol.31 no.1 Curitiba fev. 2014

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-46702014000100008 

TAXONOMY AND NOMENCLATURE

 

On the Brazilian Amazonian species of Acanthoscurria (Araneae: Theraphosidae)

 

 

Felipe dos S. PaulaI; Ray GabrielII; Rafael P. IndicattiI; Antonio D. BrescovitI; Sylvia M. LucasI

ILaboratório Especial de Coleções Zoológicas, Instituto Butantan. Avenida Vital Brazil 1500, 05503-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil. E-mail: fs.paula11@gmail.com; sylviamlucas@gmail.com; indicatti@gmail.com
IIHope Entomological Collections, Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PW, United Kingdom

 

 


ABSTRACT

In this study the Brazilian Amazonian species of Acanthoscurria Ausserer, 1871 are redescribed: A. geniculata (C.L. Koch, 1841), A. tarda Pocock, 1903, A. juruenicola Mello-Leitão, 1923, A. theraphosoides (Doleschall, 1871). Acanthoscurria simoensi Vol, 2000 and A. insubtilis Simon, 1892, previously known from French Guyana and Bolivia, respectively, are recorded for Brazil by the first time. The females of these two species are described for the first time and a new species, A. belterrensis sp. nov., is described from Belterra, Pará, Brazil. In addition, four synonymies are established: A. transamazonica Piza, 1972 as junior synonym of A. geniculata; A. ferina Simon, 1892 and A. brocklehursti F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1896 of A. theraphosoides; and A. xinguensis Timotheo da Costa, 1960 of A. juruenicola. Acanthoscurria belterrensis sp. nov. resembles A. gomesiana Mello-Leitão, 1923 by the color pattern and structure of sexual organs. The male can be distinguished by the less curved embolus and the very projected prolateral superior and prolateral inferior keels, giving a triangular aspect to the basis of embolus, and the female seminal receptacles presenting a larger and narrower basis.

Keywords: Mygalomorphae; new species; taxonomy; Theraphosinae; spiders.


 

 

Acanthoscurria Ausserer, 1871 currently contains 29 described species (PLATNICK 2014) distributed in South America, the Lesser Antilles and Guatemala. The following species were described from states in the Brazilian Amazonian: A. geniculata (C.L. Koch, 1841) from Roraima, A. ferina Simon, 1892 and A. tarda Pocock, 1903 from Amazonas, A. brocklehursti F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1896, A. fracta Chamberlin, 1917 and A. transamazonica Piza, 1972 from Pará, A. juruenicola Mello-Leitão, 1923 and A. xinguensis Timotheo da Costa, 1960 from Mato Grosso. Except for A. fracta, recently synonymized with A. natalensis Chamberlin, 1917 (LUCAS et al. 2011), the remaining species have been considered valid (PLATNICK 2014). The original descriptions of the species are generally based on only one specimen collected in the XIX or XX century, and emphasized color, position of the eyes, and measurements, but did not illustrate the sexual organs, now regarded as important features in taxonomy. The holotypes are deposited in the most important European museums, many as dry specimens, but some are too fragile to be manipulated. Here, the Amazonian species are revised and redescribed based on type-material and also on specimens from the collection of the Instituto Butantan and other important Brazilian arachnological collections.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The material examined is deposited in the following institutions: Instituto Butantan, São Paulo (IBSP, R.P. Moraes); Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus (INPA, C. Magalhães); Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém (MPEG, A.B. Bonaldo); Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (MZSP, R. Pinto da Rocha); Faculdades Integradas do Tapajós, Santarém (FIT, H. Chalkidis); Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN, C. Rollard, E.A. Leguin); The Natural History Museum, London (NHM, J. Beccaloni); Zoologisches Museum Berlin, Berlin (ZMB, J. Dunlop); Naturwissenschaftliches Museum Wien, Vienna (NWMW, C. Hörweg); and Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford (OUMNH, Z. Simmons, J. Hogan, D.J. Mann). All measurements are in millimeters and were taken with a millimetric ocular lens. Length of leg segments were measured between joints in dorsal view, length and width of carapace, eye tubercle, labium and sternum are the maximum values obtained. Total body length excludes chelicerae, pedicel and spinnerets. Terminology for number and disposition of spines follows that of PETRUNKEVITCH (1925), with modifications proposed by BERTANI (2001). Variation and natural history observations for each species are provided when available. All drawings were made with a drawing tube mounted on a Leica MZ-12 stereomicroscope; photos were taken with a Leica DFC500 digital camera attached to a Leica MZ16A stereomicroscope. Extended focal range images were composed with Leica Application Suite version 2.5.0. The terminology of keels of male palpal bulbs follows BERTANI (2000). Abbreviations: (AME) anterior median eyes, (ALE) anterior lateral eyes, (PLE) posterior lateral eyes, (PME) posterior median eyes, (STC) superior tarsal claws; spines: (ap) apical, (d) dorsal, (v) ventral, (p) prolateral, (r) retrolateral; keels: (PI) prolateral inferior keel, (PS) prolateral superior keel, (A) apical keel, (SGA) subapical granular area.

 

TAXONOMY

Acanthoscurria geniculata (C.L. Koch, 1841)

Figs 1-13, 63

Mygale geniculata C.L. Koch, 1841: 43, fig. 718 (male holotype, BRAZIL, Roraima: (Rio Branco), J. Natterer leg., deposited in ZMB 2055, examined by photos sent by J. Dunlop).

Acanthoscurria geniculata: Ausserer, 1871: 206, fig. 10; Simon, 1892: 158; F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1896: 737, pl. XXXIV, fig. 17; Mello-Leitão, 1923: 283; Schiapelli & Gerschman de Pikelin, 1979: 293, figs 15-16; Bertani, 2001: 325, figs 45-47; Platnick, 2014.

Acanthoscurria transamazonica Piza, 1972: 99, fig. 1 (male holotype, BRAZIL, Pará: Marabá (5°22'41.37"S, 49°6'33.69"W), I.1972, G. Ranzani & M. Camponez do Brasil leg., deposited in IBSP 138248, examined, later destroyed by the fire in the IBSP); Platnick, 2014. Syn. nov.

Diagnosis. Acanthoscurria geniculata is distinguished from all other species of the genus by the bright color with distal end of each segment broadly covered by a patch of short creamy-pink setae, abdomen black, velvety, clothed with long reddish-rufous setae on the dorsal side (Figs 1-2). Acanthoscurria geniculata resembles A. juruenicola, A. simoensi and A. chacoana Brèthes, 1909 by the morphology of sexual organs, but it can be distinguished by the more elongated accessory keel on male palpal bulb, sometimes less projected (Figs 6-7), and by the female seminal receptacle presenting a squarer base, with evident and rounded subapical lobes (Figs 8-9).

Description. Male (IBSP 151260). Coloration: carapace in front bordered with pale-pink setae; dorsal side of chelicerae, palps and legs with bright-rufous setae. Legs with patch of creamy-pink setae on tip of patella, tibia and metatarsus. Abdomen dark, coffee-brown on dorsal side, with long rufous setae, and ventral side dark brown (Fig. 1). Total length 48.7. Carapace 26.0 long, 23.0 wide. Fovea procurved. Clypeus narrow. Eye group rectangular 2.2 long, 3.6 wide. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior recurved. Eye sizes: AME 0.51, ALE 2.06, PME 1.50, PLE 2.32. Labium 3.31 long, 3.30 wide, with ca. 150 cuspules. Endites with ca. 240 cuspules each. Sternum moderately convex, 13.1 long, 10.1 wide, with anterior and posterior pairs of sigillae of same size. Cheliceral furrow with 11 larger teeth and 85 smaller basal ones. Stridulatory apparatus with around 20 bristles. STC I with 9 teeth, II with 6, III with 7 and IV with 5. Measurements: palp, femur length 14.0, patella 8.0, tibia 12.8, cymbium 7.0, total 41.8; Legs - I: femur 23.2, patella 12.1, tibia 19.0, metatarsus 20.0, tarsus 12.3, total 86.6; II: 21.0, 11.0, 17.4, 18.2, 10.9, 78.5; III: 19.0, 10.2, 15.0, 20.0, 11.0, 75.2; IV: 22.4, 10.5, 19.4, 27.6, 12.0, 91.9. Spines: palp, femur p0-0-1p, tibia v0-1p-0-1r-3-3. I: femur p0-0-1, patella r0-1v-1-1ap, tibia v2-1r-1-0-1p-2-1-1-1-2-0-7ap; II: patella r0-0-2ap, tibia v0-2-0-1r-1p-2-1r-1-1p-0-5ap, metatarsus v0-0-3ap; III: patella r0-1-0-0, tibia v0-1-0-2-2-2-0-4ap, metatarsus v2-1-1-2-1-1r-4ap; IV: tibia v2-0-2-1r-2-1r-4ap, metatarsus v1-1-1-1r-1-1-1-1r-3-1-2-1r-1-1-1r-3-5ap. Scopulae on metatarsi I and II throughout ventral portion, on metatarsus III restricted to apical half and on IV covering only apex. All tarsi fully scopulate. Tibial apophysis of leg I with at least 14 spines on apex (Figs 4-5). Palpal tibia with blunt retrolateral tubercle (Fig. 3). Male palpal bulb with long and thickened embolus ending like a shell, formed by superior and inferior keels and with third accessory elongated keel (Figs 6-7).

Female (IBSP 151260). Coloration like the male, except by broader patch of creamy-pink setae on tip of each leg segment (Fig. 2). Total length 62.3. Carapace: 29.6 long, 25.0 wide. Fovea procurved. Clypeus narrow. Eye group rectangular 2.8 long, 3.9 wide. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior recurved. Eye sizes: AME 0.61, ALE 2.48, PME 2.15, PLE 3.11. Labium 3.50 long, 3.35 wide, with ca. 150 cuspules. Endites with ca. 200 cuspules each. Sternum moderately convex, 14.0 long, 11.1 wide, with posterior sigillae three times larger than anterior. Cheliceral furrow with 11 larger teeth and 61 smaller basal ones. Stridulatory apparatus with 25 bristles. STC I with 5 teeth, II with 6-7, III with 6-8, IV with 5-6. Measurements: palp: femur length 15.5, patella 9.3, tibia 11.2, tarsus 15.5, total 51.5. Legs - I: femur 21.0, patella 12.0, tibia 16.2, metatarsus 14.7, tarsus 9.0, total 72.9; II: 20.0, 11.1, 13.9, 13.9, 0.91, 68.0; III: 17.6, 10.0, 12.4, 15.9, 8.4, 76.7; IV: 21.0, 11.0, 16.0, 21.7, 9.6, 79.3. Spines: palp, tibia v1p-1-2p-1r-3ap; I: femur p0-0-1, tibia v1-2-1p-3ap; II: tibia v1-1-1r-1p-1p-3ap, metatarsus v0-0-3ap; III: tibia v1r-1-2-2-4ap, metatarsus v5-2-3ap; IV: tibia v1-2-1-3-1r-3ap, metatarsus d0-0-2, v2-1-1r-1-2-1-1-2-1r-2-1-2-2-1r-4ap. Scopulae on metatarsi I-II present throughout ventral portion, restricted to apical half of metatarsi III and only on apex of IV. All tarsi fully scopulate. Seminal receptacle with larger than longer base and with two apical lobes very evident and projected laterally (Figs 8-9).

Variation. Some males lack vertical leg stripes. Male palpal bulb with accessory keel varying from vestigial to very evident and projected, sometimes bifurcated (Figs 10-13).

Additional material examined. BRAZIL, Pará: 6 males, 1896, A.M. Moss (BMNH); 1 male, Misc Arachnidae leg. (OUMNH); (Ilha do Marajó, 0°35'49.89"S, 48°29'21.31"W), Instituto Agronômico leg., 1 male, 15.VI.1966 (IBSP 103788); São Caetano de Odivelas, 0°44'44.55"S, 48°1'50.73"W), 1 male, 20.I.2006, M. Leite leg. (MPEG 5238); Belém (1°27'22.93"S, 48°32' 28.44"W), 1 female, 24.VI.2004 (MPEG 5282); 1 female (IBSP 102600); 1 female, VII.1960, E. Lento leg. (IBSP 103541); 1 male, XI.1961, A.R. Hoge leg. (IBSP 103574); 1 juvenile, IX.1982, J.E. Baldim leg. (IBSP 104729); 1 male, XII.1990, P. Arvera leg. (IBSP 107255); 1 juvenile, IX.1982 (IBSP 107629); (Campus de Pesquisa of MPEG, 01°27'03.03"S, 48°26'40.2"W), 1 male, 21.XII.1983, M. Zanuto leg. (MPEG 5109); 1 female, 17.I.1986, W. França leg. (MPEG 5193); 1 male, 12.II.2010, R.P. Indicatti & N.F. Lo Man Hung leg. (MPEG 15619); Santarém (Comunidade de Cucurunã, 2°27'13.01"S, 54°47'22.74"W), 2 females 4 males, 27.XI-25.XII.2009, all collected by A.P. Silva (FIT 435, FIT 186, 188; IBSP 117837, IBSP 151260); 1 female, A.M. Moss (BMNH 1896.12.13.1), Belterra (2°30'39.66"S, 54°49'56.90"W) 1 male, 14.V.2010 (FIT 393); 1 male, 6.IV.2010 (FIT 432); 2 females, 29.XII.2010, R.G. Nogueira leg. (FIT 433, 434); 1 male, 27.XII.2010, J.F. de Lemos leg. (FIT 436); 24 X.2009, A.D. Brescovit leg. (IBSP 151505); (Mata do Butantan, 2°37'32.14"S, 54°56'7.78"W), 26.X.2009, M.M.G. Fernandes et al. leg. (IBSP 151506); (Área de Preservação Ambiental Aramanaí, 2°37' 57.96"S, 54°57'44.16"W), 27.X.2011, R.S. Souza & H.R.S. Falcão leg. (IBSP 151507); (Floresta Nacional Tapajós, 3°17'3.94"S, 54°58'42.03"W), 6 male, X.2011, A.D. Brescovit et al. leg. (IBSP 161722, 161723, 161724, 161725, 161726, 161727); 1 male, 29.X.2010, A.P.S. Silva leg. (IBSP 160969); Altamira (3°12'10. 71"S, 52°13'19.58"W), 4 males, 12.XI.2005, C.O. Araújo leg. (MPEG 5222); (Castelo dos Sonhos, 08°13.054'S, 55°00.956'W), 6 males, 13-15.XI.2005, all collected by C.O. Araújo (MPEG 5231, 5232; 5237, 5225, 5227, 5073); Marituba (1°20'56.32"S, 48°20'50.97"W), 1 male, 19.X.2000, F.A.S. Filho leg. (MPEG 5143); (Riacho Doce, 1°22'12.53"S, 48°18'4.40"O), 1 female, 6.XI.2005, R.A. Souza leg. (MPEG 5101); Tucuruí (3°45'18.00"S, 49°41'20.87"W), 2 males, 15.II.1986, I.E. Mehandro leg. (IBSP 107470, 107623); 1 female, XII.1983, L.E. Mehandro leg. (IBSP 107624); 1 male, 5.XII.1985 (IBSP 107626); 1 female (IBSP 107627); 1 female, 22.I.1985 (IBSP 107628); (Canoal, 3°38'30.22"S, 49°44'52.79"W), 1 female, 11.VII.1991 (IBSP 107476); (Vila Brabo, 3°38'30.23"S, 49°44'52.76"W), 1 female, I.1985, Operação Resgate Faunístico Curupira leg. (IBSP 104847); (Usina Hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, 3°49'9.29"S, 49°39'8.54"W), 4 females 1 male, 1984-1996, Equipe Butantan leg. (IBSP 107713, 107022, 107023, 107691, 107778); (Jacundá, 4°26'18.26"S, 49° 5'7.69"W), 2 males, 2.I.1985, Operação Resgate Faunístico Curupira leg. (IBSP 104833); Breu Branco (4°0'34.58"S, 49°28'17.52"W), 1 female, XII.1984, Operação Resgate Faunístico Curupira leg. (IBSP 104836); Marabá (5°22'41.37"S, 49°6'33.69"W), 1 female, 6.XII.1975, Projeto Rondon leg. (IBSP 104157); Marabá (Serra Norte, Pojuca, 5°57'48.56"S, 50°24' 1.74"W), 1 male, 20.III.1986, F. Paiva leg. (MPEG 3939); Marabá (Serra Norte, N1, Igarapé Azul, 6°1'32.62"S 50°18'8.66"W), 1 male, 16.II.1983, R.B. Neto leg. (MPEG 4261); Jacareacanga (6°16'42.06"S, 57°39'6.40"W), 1 male, XI.1988, R. Geyer leg. (IBSP 107268); Redenção (8°3'42.05"S, 50°2'51.83"W), 1 male, 1996, Renato leg. (IBSP 107682); 4 females, VII.1999, P. Gnaspini leg. (IBSP 107945-107948); Redenção (Serra do Kukoinhokren, Aldeia Indígena, 7°46'0.58"S, 51°57'0.21"W), 1 female, VIII.1999, P. Gnaspini leg. (IBSP 102001); 1 male, 21.I.2000, E. Mariano Neto leg. (IBSP 108351); (Serra do Cachimbo, 9°20'57.12"S, 54°58'46.22"W), 1 male, 11.I.2000, I.M.S. Morais leg. (IBSP 108048). Mato Grosso: Barra do Garças (Fazenda Sentapua, 15°53'38.71"S, 52°15'26.54"W), 1 male, 13.X.1975, P. Ferraz Junior leg. (IBSP 104160C). Rondônia: Porto Velho (Nova Mutum Paraná, BR 364, 9°21'09.62"S, 64°39'20.90"W), 1 male, 14.XI.2011, C.A.R. Souza leg. (MZSP 44486); 1 male, 24.XI.2011, R.P. Indicatti leg. (MZSP 44482); (Abunã, 9°38'17.58"S, 65°27'00.91"W), 1 male, 16.XI.2011, M.C. Silveira leg. (MZSP 44485); 1 male, 21.XI.2011, D.F. Candiani leg. (MZSP 44484); 1 female, 23.XI.2011, D.F. Candiani leg. (MZSP 44483).

Distribution. BRAZIL: states of Rondônia, Roraima, Pará and Mato Grosso (Fig. 63).

Natural history. The species is mainly nocturnal but in reproductive periods males can be found during the day, walking in the forest litter and crossing roads as other species of the genus (PÉREZ-MILES et al. 2005, GONZALEZ-FILHO et al. 2012). Females and juveniles dwell in tubular burrows, located under rocks, fallen trunks, inside living trees and in ravines and on the ground level. The burrow of a female in Rondônia was 18 cm wide and about 100 cm deep, with the entrance followed by a gradual decline, leading to a horizontal large chamber.

In captivity this species is regularly bred, with females producing eggsacs containing around 2,000 young. The young spiders are slow to grow at first, but growth increases with age, females maturing around three years and males around two and a half years depending on the captive husbandry (Ray Gabriel pers. obs.).

Acanthoscurria juruenicola Mello-Leitão, 1923

Figs 14-21, 61

Acanthoscurria juruenicola Mello-Leitão, 1923: 294 (female holotype, BRAZIL, Mato Grosso: (Rio Juruena), M. Ribeiro leg., deposited in MNRJ 39, examined); Schiapelli & Gerschman de Pikelin, 1964: 413, pl. III, fig. 3; Lucas et al., 1981: 151, figs 1-5; Bertani, 2000: 30, figs 29-30; Platnick, 2014.

Acanthoscurria xinguensis Timotheo da Costa, 1960: 2, figs 1-4 (Male holotype, BRAZIL, Mato Grosso: (Alto Xingu), XI.1958, R. Arlé leg., deposited in MNRJ 2326, examined); Platnick, 2014. Syn. nov.

Diagnosis. Acanthoscurria juruenicola resembles A. geniculata, A. simoensi and A. chacoana by the structure of sexual organs. It can be distinguished from A. simoensi and A. chacoana by the presence of an accessory keel on male palpal bulb (Figs 18-19), and by the almost square basal membrane of female seminal receptacles (Figs 20-21); and from A. geniculata by darker brown color, without a large patch of creamy-pink setae on leg tip (Fig. 14), short and projected accessory keel on male palpal bulb (Figs 18-19) and seminal receptacle with small and oval lobes, more conspicuous in dorsal view (Figs 20-21).

Description. Male (IBSP 107658). Coloration: general aspect chestnut-brown, carapace dark bordered by straight band of short creamy-pink setae; dorsal view of femora, abdomen and chelicerae dark, covered with chestnut-brown setae; two very distinct longitudinal bands of light short setae on patella and tibia of all legs; apex of femora, patella, tibia and metatarsus with small creamy-pink setae. Total length 56.5. Carapace 28.7 long, 25.0 wide. Fovea procurved. Clypeus narrow. Eye group rectangular 2.2 long, 3.1 wide. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior recurved. Eye sizes: AME 0.70, ALE 2.67, PME 1.85, PLE 2.35. Labium 2.91 long, 3.50 wide, with more than 150 cuspules. Endites with more than 250 cuspules each. Sternum moderately convex, 12.1 long, 10.1 wide, with posterior sigillae three times larger than anterior. Cheliceral furrow with 12 larger teeth and 63 smaller basal ones. Stridulatory apparatus with around 34 bristles. STC I with 8 teeth, II with 8, III with 7 and IV with 8. Measurements: palp - femur length 15.0, patella 8.6, tibia 13.0, cymbium 7.7, total 44.3. Legs - I: femur 23.8, patella 13.2, tibia 19.0, metatarsus 19.0, tarsus 12.1, total 87.1; II: 22.3, 12.1, 16.5, 17.0, 11.0, 78.9; III: 20.0, 11.0, 15.1, 20.0, 11.1, 77.2; IV: 23.0, 11.3, 19.4, 26.5, 11.4, 91.6. Spines: palp - femur p0-0-1, tibia p1-2-1. I: femur p0-0-1, patella v0-0-2, tibia v1-1-1r-1p-1-1-2-2-5ap; II: femur p0-0-1, patella r0-1-0, tibia v2-2-1-2-1r-2-4ap; III: femur d0-0-2, patella r0-1-0-0, tibia v2-3-2-0-2-4ap, metatarsus d1-2-2, v1-1-1-0-5ap; IV: femur r0-0-1, patella r0-1-0-0, tibia v3-1-1-2-2-3ap, metatarsus d0-0-2, v2-1-1-1-3-1-1-2-1r-1-4ap. Scopulae on metatarsi I and II throughout ventral portion, restricted to distal half on metatarsus III and only at apex of IV. All tarsi fully scopulate. Tibial apophysis of leg I with at least 11 spines on apex (Figs 16-17). Palpal tibia with blunt retrolateral tubercle (Fig. 15). Male palpal bulb with long and thickened embolus ending like a shell with well developed superior and inferior keels and a third accessory one between them (Figs 18-19).

Female (IBSP 104305). Coloration: as in male (Fig. 14). Total length 56.6. Carapace: 29.6 long, 25.1 wide. Fovea procurved. Clypeus narrow. Eye group rectangular 2.6 long, 3.7 wide. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior recurved. Eye sizes: AME 0.77, ALE 2.64, PME 1.87, PLE 2.95. Labium 5.28 long, 4.23 wide, with more than 130 cuspules. Endites with more than 250 cuspules each. Sternum moderately convex, 27.0 long, 18.9 wide, with posterior sigillae three times larger than anterior. Cheliceral furrow with 11 larger teeth and 123 smaller basal ones. Stridulatory apparatus with 32 bristles. STC I with 9 teeth, II with 6, III with 7, IV with 4. Measurements: palp - femur length 14.7, patella 8.9, tibia 10.5, tarsus 9.9, total 44.0. Legs - I: femur 19.4, patella 12.3, tibia 15.1, metatarsus 13.0, tarsus 8.2, total 68.0; II: 18.0, 11.1, 13.9, 12.5, 8.4, 63.9; III: 16.0, 10.0, 10.8, 13.9, 7.7, 58.4; IV: 19.4, 10.1, 14.1, 20.0, 8.2, 71.8. Spines - palp: femur p0-01, tibia v0-0-1-2p-0-3ap; leg I: femur p0-0-1, tibia v0-0-0-2-3-0-3ap, metatarsus v0-0-0-3ap; II: patella p0-1-0, tibia v0-2-1r-1r-3ap, metatarsus v0-1-1-0-0-3ap; III: femur d0-0-0-2-1-2-0, patella r0-1-0, tibia v0-1-2-3-2-1-2-3ap, metatarsus d1-2-2,v1-2-2-0-1-5ap; IV: femur d0-0-1-1, patella r0-1-0, tibia v0-1-0-1r-1-1-1-1r-3-2-2ap, metatarsus v2-1-1-1-1-1-2-1p-1-2-2-2-5-3ap. Scopulae on metatarsi I-II present throughout ventral portion, restricted to apical half of metatarsi III and only on apex of IV. All tarsi fully scopulate. Seminal receptacle with trapezoid base and two small subapical lobes (Figs 20-21).

Additional material examined. BRAZIL, Pará: Jacundazinho (4°27'54.90"S, 49°20'12.05"W), 1 female (IBSP 109881). Mato Grosso: 1 female, 19.IX.1977, E.F. de Mendonça leg. (IBSP 104280); 1 female (IBSP 107588); 1 female, F. Palinges leg. (IBSP 108766); Alta Floresta (9°56'23.07"S, 56°13'47.05"W), (Zoológico de Alta Floresta), 4 females, 7 males, 5.III.1979 (IBSP 104400; 104401; 104404); 3 females, 31.VIII.1979 (IBSP 104463); 2 females, 2 males, 4.XII.1979 (IBSP 104503); 1 female, 1 male, 10.VIII.1979 (IBSP 104550; 104655); 1 female, XI.1981 (IBSP 104690); 4 females, 1 male, 10.I.1979 (IBSP 104905); 1 female, II.1984, L. Lirchares leg. (IBSP 107108); 9 males, XI.1993, G. Brisolla leg. (IBSP 107245, 107250, 107654, 107658, 107665, 107666, 107673, 107679, 107680); 2 males, II.1996, M.A. Francisco leg. (IBSP 107577, 107579); 3 males, 27.II.1978, E.B. Fernandes leg. (IBSP 104305A); 1 female, 4.VII.1978, E.B. Fernandes leg. (IBSP 104305B); 3 males, 17.I.1980, (IBSP 104474A-104474C, 104474E); 1 female, 13.XI.1979, L. Fernandes leg. (IBSP 104474D); Aripuanã (10°9'52.66"S, 59°27'17.93"W), 1 male, 29.I.1979 (IBSP 104462); 2 males, 1.II.1979 (IBSP 104304A); 1 male, 17.I.1978, A. Quindos leg. (IBSP 104304B); Sinop (11°52'31.51"S, 55°30'39.40"W), 1 male, III.1983 (IBSP 107103); 1 male, VIII.1983 (IBSP 107106); 1 female, VII.1983 (IBSP 107104); 1 female, I.1984 (IBSP 107107); 1 juvenile, III.1984 (IBSP 107109); 1 female, XII.1984 (IBSP 107113); 3 females, IV.1985 (IBSP 107115-107117); 2 males, I.1986 (IBSP 104898); 1 female, X.1986 (IBSP 107244), all collected by A. Pazzim Filho; 3 females, 6-9.III.1977, A.C. Martins (IBSP 104233A, 104233B, 104233D, 2 female, 6-9.III.1977, A.C. Martins leg. (IBSP 104233C); Santa Carmem (11°52'31.51"S, 55°30'39.40"W), 1 male, X.1984, M.A. Marcucio leg. (IBSP 107112); Araguaiana (15°43'27.73"S, 51°49'11.61"W), 1 male, XII.1988, M. Medeiros leg. (IBSP 107119); Cláudia (11°30'11.40"S, 54°51'53.00"W), 3 females, M. Calleffo leg. (IBSP 107572, 107684, 107685); Xingú (12°0'52.28"S, 53°23'9.10"W), 1 male (IBSP 102491); Sorriso (12°33'40.95"S, 55°42'17.37"W), 1 female, V.1993, G. Brisolla leg. (IBSP 107337); Barracão Queimado (13°5'15"S, 59°53'45"W), 1 male, 8.III.1963, P. Vilela leg. (IBSP 103648); Cáceres (16°4'16"S, 57°40'44" W), 1 female, 01.V.1964, W. Burchel leg. (BMNH); Canarana (13°32'21.79"S, 52°9' 49.28"W), 1 female, 3.V.1984, C.R. Medina leg. (IBSP 104910); Nova Xavantina (14°39'10.82"S, 52°20'46.16"W), 1 male, XII.1989, G.P. Goerax leg. (IBSP 107100); Chapada dos Guimarães (Rio Manso, Usina Hidrelétrica de Manso, Furnas, 14°52'9.31"S, 55°47'28.04"W), 74 females, 2000 (IBSP 108982-109027, 109047-109056, 109059-109061, 109064, 109066, 109068, 109070, 109073-109075, 109077, 109078, 109086, 109106, 109117); 9 juveniles, 2000 (IBSP 109057, 109058, 109062, 109063, 109067, 109071, 109072, 109079, 109080); 2 males, 2000, (IBSP 109065, 109076); 12 females, 6.VIII.2001 (IBSP 109151, 109152, 109157, 109160-109165, 109168, 109171, 109175); 7 juveniles, 6.VIII.2001 (IBSP 109153, 109154, 109159, 109166, 109170, 109173, 109174); 2 juveniles, 6.VIII.2001 (IBSP 109155); 3 juveniles, 6.VIII.2001, all collected by the Equipe Resgate Fauna (IBSP 109156); Cuiabá (15°35' 58.40"S, 56°5'39.70"W), 1 female, I.1989, R. Bertani leg. (IBSP 107101); São José dos Quatro Marcos (15°38'11.35"S, 58°10'3.48"W), 2 males, IX.1986, C. Dall'Aglio leg. (IBSP 107659, 107660); Barra do Garças (Rio Mupare, 15°52'21.50"S, 52°15'32.99"W), 1 female, 20.XII.1979, P. Ferraz Júnior leg. (IBSP 104160A); 2 males, 13.X.1975, P. Ferraz Junior leg. (IBSP 104160B, 104160C). Rondônia: Guajará-Mirim (10°47'27.47"S, 65°19'55.06"W), 1 male, 21.I.2001, M.C. Carvalho leg. (IBSP 111271); 1 female, 4.VIII.1995, J.R. Simões leg. (IBSP 109759); Pimenta Bueno (11°40'2.26"S, 61°11'45.24"W), 5 males, XI.1992, E.L. Almeida leg. (IBSP 107636, 107670, 107674, 107783; MPEG 7342).

Distribution. BRAZIL: states of Roraima, Pará, Rondônia and Mato Grosso (Fig. 62).

Synonymy. The examination of the holotype of A. xinguensis, specimens of A. juruenicola from Instituto Butantan and the specimen of A. juruenicola described by LUCAS et al. (1981) allowed us to consider A. xinguensis as a junior synonym of A. juruenicola, as all specimens shared the same morphology of male palpal bulb, tibial apophysis, blunt tubercle on palpal tibia and color.

Natural history. TIMOTHEO-DA-COSTA (1960: 1) states that three males and one large female were collected in an expedition to Alto Xingú, Mato Grosso, by the naturalist R. Arlé. An eggsac was also collected, approximately 5.5 cm wide and 1.5 cm high, containing about 3,944 young at various stages of development (TIMOTHEO-DA-COSTA 1960, figs 5-10). These spiders are aggressive, bite and easily throw urticating setae when disturbed. They can also display defensive behavior by raising the anterior legs, palps and opening the chelicerae, thus exposing the red ventral setae; at this moment the spiders open the fangs, releasing poison droplets in some cases, and make false attacks (mainly males), like A. suina (PÉREZ-MILES et al. 2005) and A. gomesiana Mello-Leitão, 1923 (GONZALEZ-FILHO et al. 2012).

Acanthoscurria simoensi Vol, 2000

Figs 22-28, 60

Acanthoscurria simoensi Vol, 2000: 8, pl. I-III (male holotype, FRENCH GUYANA, 2000, H. Simoens leg., deposited in MNHN AR 4785, not located); Platnick, 2014.

Diagnosis. Acanthoscurria simoensi resembles A. geniculata and A. juruenicola by the structure of sexual organs, but differs by the male palpal bulb without an accessory keel and with a longer and smaller embolus, with the PS and PI projected (Figs 25-26), and by the female seminal receptacles with rectangular bases and two lobes projected apically and fused basally (Figs 27-28).

Description. Male (IBSP 107927). Coloration: general aspect brown, carapace bordered with short orange setae, dorsal side of abdomen, chelicerae and legs with orange setae. Two longitudinal bands of orange setae on patella and tibia, short rings of same color on tip of femur, patella and tibia. Total length 45.2. Carapace 25.2 long, 21.8 wide. Fovea procurved. Clypeus narrow. Eye group rectangular 2.2 long, 3.1 wide. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior recurved. Eye sizes: AME 0.60, ALE 2.00, PME 1.55, PLE 2.25. Labium 3.2 long, 2.8 wide, with more than 90 cuspules. Endites with more than 210 cuspules each. Sternum moderately convex, 10.5 long, 9.3 wide, with posterior sigillae two times larger than anterior. Cheliceral furrow with 11 larger teeth and 65 smaller ones. Stridulatory organ with around 9 bristles. STC I with 4 teeth, II with 6, III with 6 and IV with 7. Measurements - palp: femur length 12.3, patella 7.9, tibia 14.4, cymbium 8.9, total 43.5. Legs - I: femur 22.3, patella 11.1, tibia 19.7, metatarsus 19.9, tarsus 10.5, total 83.5; II: 21.3, 10.1, 17.0, 18.9, 11.0, 78.30; III: 17.2, 9.0, 14.6, 20.0, 10.0, 70.8; IV: 17.5, 8.6, 19.2, 24.5, 10.0, 79.8. Spines: palp: femur v0-0-1, patella p0-1-0; leg I: femur p0-0-1, patella v0-1p-0-1ap, tibia v5-1-2-1-2-1-3-2-1-5ap, metatarsus v1-0-0-3ap; II: femur p0-0-0-1-1, patella v0-0-2-0, tibia v3-2-0-3-2-1-2-6ap, metatarsus v1p-1r-1p-1r-3ap; III: femur p0-1-1, patella d0-1r-1p-0, tibia v1-1-2-2-3-2-3ap, metatarsus v1p-1-1-1-2-2-1-2-1-2-3ap; IV: femur d0-0-1, tibia v2-1-3-2-1-1-2-4ap, metatarsus v1-1p-1-2-2-2-2-1r-2-2-1-1-1-3-1-6ap. Scopulae on half of metatarsi I, one-third of II and III and absent on metarsi IV. All tarsi fully scopulate. Tibial apophysis of leg I with at least 8 spines on apex (Figs 23-24). Male palpal bulb with long and projected embolus ending like a shell, with smaller PI and PS, without third accessory keel (Figs 25-26). Palpal tibia with blunt retrolateral tubercle (Fig. 22).

Female (IBSP 110696). Coloration as in male. Total length 56.9. Carapace 26.9 long, 22.6 wide. Fovea procurved. Clypeus narrow. Eye group rectangular 3.2 long, 4.1 wide. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior recurved. Eye sizes: AME 0.60, ALE 2.85, PME 1.90, PLE 2.95. Labium 4.50 long, 3.10 wide, with more than 90 cuspules. Endites with more than 190 each. Sternum moderately convex, 12.8 long, 9.2 wide, with posterior sigillae two times larger than anterior. Cheliceral furrow with 9 larger teeth and 82 smaller basal ones. Stridulatory organ apparatus with 10 bristles. STC I with 5 teeth, II with 8, III with 7 and IV with 6. Measurements - palp: femur length 15.5, patella 8.0, tibia 10.2, tarsus 10.0, total 43.7. Legs - I: femur 19.2, patella 11.1, tibia 15.2, metatarsus 13.1, tarsus 8.7, total 67.3; II: 18.3, 10.3, 12.8, 13.0, 9.0, 63.4; III: 16.2, 9.9, 10.9, 14.2, 7.3, 58.5; IV: 18.5, 10.1, 14.5, 21.0, 8.8, 72.9. Spines: palp: femur: p0-0-1, tibia v2-0-2-2-2-2-4ap; leg I: femur p0-0-1, patella p0-1-0, tibia v1-1p-1-2-0-3ap, metatarsus v2-0-0-3ap; II: femur p0-0-1, patella p0-1-0, tibia v2-1p-2-1r-2-1p-3ap, metatarsus v1-1-0-3ap; III: femur p0-0-1, patella d0-2-0, tibia v1-2-1-2-2-2-3ap, metatarsus v3-1p-4-1r-1p-2-4ap; IV: tibia v2-2-3-1r-2ap, metatarsus v1-1-1-1-2-3-1-2-1-1r-3-2-5ap. Scopulae on metatarsi I and II throughout all segment, III on distal half, absent on IV. All tarsi fully scopulate. Seminal receptacle with the base twice longer than wide and apical lobes near to each other (Figs 27-28).

Additional material examined. BRAZIL, Amazonas: Balbina (Usina Hidrelétrica de Balbina, 1°55'53.31"S, 59°28'10.86"W), 6 females, XII.1987-II.1988 (IBSP 107271, 107500, 107688, 107690, 107692); 2 males, II.1988, (IBSP 107689), all collected by Equipe Butantan; Manaus (3°6'0"S, 60°1'0" W), (Campus INPA), 1 male, II.1974, Manoel leg. (INPA 4858); (Conjunto Campos Sales), 1 female, 26.VI.2012, M. Douglas leg. (INPA).

Distribution. Known from French Guyana and firstly recorded from Brazil, Amazonas state (Fig. 60, star).

Acanthoscurria theraphosoides (Doleschall, 1871)

Figs 29-37, 60

Acanthopalpus theraphosoides Doleschall, in Ausserer, 1871: 208, pl. I, figs 12-13 (male holotype, BRAZIL, J. Natterer leg., deposited in NHMW 146, examined).

Acanthoscurria theraphosoides: Simon, 1892 (1): 158; Mello-Leitão, 1917: 74, figs 1-2; Platnick, 2014.

Acanthoscurria ferina Simon, 1892: 282 (male holotype and female allotype, BRAZIL, Amazonas: Tefé, deposited in MNHN 1056, examined); Schiapelli & Gerschman de Pikelin, 1964: 410, pl. II, figs 9-14; Platnick, 2014. Syn. nov.

Acanthoscurria brocklehursti F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1896: 739, pl. XXXIV, fig. 18 (female holotype, BRAZIL, Pará, 1896, Brocklehurst leg., deposited in BMNH 1896.12.13.2, examined); Platnick, 2014. Syn. nov.

Diagnosis. Acanthoscurria theraphosoides resembles A. insubtilis by the structure of sexual organs and body length (36.2-39.2 mm), but it is distinguished by the ventral side of abdomen with same coloration of dorsum (Figs 29-30, compare to Fig. 40); by SAG of male palpal bulb projected like a hump, with a thinner and curved embolus (Figs 34-35) and female seminal receptacle with straighter basis and joined heart-shaped lobes (Figs 36-37).

Description. Male (IBSP 107151). Coloration: carapace, abdomen and legs dark brown, patella to tarsus covered with grayish setae, carapace bordered with small creamy setae; abdomen, chelicerae and legs with pale red setae, two longitudinal bands of creamy setae on patella, small rings of cream setae on tip of patella, tibia and metatarsus (Fig. 29). Total length 36.2. Carapace 19.7 long, 16.1 wide. Fovea procurved. Clypeus narrow. Eye group rectangular 3.5 long, 2.3 wide. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior recurved. Eye sizes: AME 0.36, ALE 0.50, PME 1.35, PLE 1.99. Labium 2.52 long, 2.84 wide, with more than 130 cuspules. Endites with more than 210 cuspules each. Sternum moderately convex, 9.7 long, 7.0 wide, with posterior sigillae two times larger than anterior. Cheliceral furrow with 11 larger teeth and 57 smaller basal ones. Stridulatory apparatus with around 12 bristles. STC I with 6 teeth, II with 7, III with 5 and IV with 6. Measurements - palp: femur length 10.2, patella 6.2, tibia 8.1, cymbium 6.8, total 31.3. Legs - I: femur 16.2, patella 9.1, tibia 14.3, metatarsus 12.1, tarsus 7.1, total 59.3; II: 15.8, 8.0, 11.3, 11.2, 7.8, 54.1; III: 14.2, 7.2, 10.2, 13.1, 7.5, 52.2; IV: 16.8, 8.1, 14.1, 20.2, 7.0, 66.2. Spines: palp: femur p0-0-1, tibia d0-0-5, v1-1-1r-3-3-1r-2r; leg I: femur p0-0-1, tibia v2-1p-1-1-2-0-8ap, metatarsus v0-0-2ap; II: femur p0-0-1, tibia v2-1p-1-1-1p-1p-6ap, metatarsus v1-0-0-3ap; III: femur d0-0-2, patella r0-1-0, tibia v1-1r-2-1-3-2-3ap, metatarsus v1p-1-2-2-0-2-3ap; IV: femur r0-0-1, patella r0-1-0, tibia v1r-2-1-2-2-4ap, metatarsus v1-1-2-3-1-2-1p-2-1p-4ap. Scopulae on metatarsus I only at distal half, II throughout distal 3/4, III only distal half, absent on IV. All tarsi fully scopulate. Tibial apophysis of leg I with at least six spines on apex (Figs 32-33). Palpal tibia with finger like tubercle (Fig. 31). Male palpal bulb with well marked SGA, like a hump, and embolus curved and straight, with PS and PI not so evident (Figs 34-35).

Female (IBSP 107696). Coloration as in male (Fig. 30). Total length 39.17. Carapace 19.03 long, 15.39 wide. Fovea procurved. Clypeus narrow. Eye group rectangular 2.01 long, 2.87 wide. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior recurved. Eye sizes: AME 0.38, ALE 1.68, PME 1.45, PLE 2.05. Labium 2.53 long, 2.34 wide, with more than 130 cuspules. Endites with more than 200 cuspules each. Sternum moderately convex, 8.37 long, 6.67 wide, with posterior sigillae two times larger than anterior. Cheliceral furrow with 11 larger teeth and 51 smaller basal ones. Stridulatory apparatus with 17 bristles. STC I with 6-8 teeth, II and III with 6-7 and IV with 6. Palp: femur length 9.80, patella 6.24, tibia 7.00, tarsus 6.61, total 29.65. Legs - I: femur 12.79, patella 7.78, tibia 9.76, metatarsus 7.75, tarsus 5.02, total 43.12; II: 11.30, 7.22, 8.73, 7.98, 5.92, 41.15; III: 10.20, 6.38, 7.68, 9.56, 5.24, 39.06; IV: 12.10, 7.02, 10.48, 12.99, 6.06, 48.65. Spines - palp: femur: p0-0-1, tibia v0-0-1p-1-3ap; I: femur p0-0-1, patella p0-1-0, tibia v0-2-2-1ap, metatarsus v0-0-1ap; II: femur p0-0-1, patella p0-1-0, tibia v1-2-2-0-1p-2ap, metatarsus v1-1-0-3ap; III: femur p0-0-1, patella d2-2-2-0, tibia d2-2-1-2, v1-2-3ap, metatarsus d1p-2-2, v2-2-0-4ap; IV: femur r0-0-1, tibia d1p-2-2, v0-2-2ap, metatarsus d1p-2-2, v3-2-1-2-1-1-1-1-4ap. Scopulae on metatarsus I throughout ventral portion, II on distal third, III restricted to distal half and IV on distal third. All tarsi fully scopulate. Seminal receptacle with straight base (Figs 36-37).

Additional material examined. FRENCH GUYANA: Sinnamary (5°22'54.53"N, 52°57'43.90"W): 3 females, (IBSP 103391, 113837, 115292); 1 juvenile (IBSP 113841); 2 males, (IBSP 113840, 113842), all collected by Expedição Instituto Butantan; BRAZIL: 1 male identified as A. ferina, W. Bücherl leg., (OUMNH); Pará: 14 females, 2 immature males identified as A. brocklehursti, Reverend A. Miles Moss leg. (BMNH, dried collection); Almeirim (Jari, 00°41'25.93745"S, 52°49'9.21553"W), 2 males, 27.III.2005 (MPEG 7248, 7222); 5 males, 28.II.2005 (MPEG 7246, 7286); 2 males, 28.II.2005 (MPEG 7297, 7307); 2 males, 27.III.2005 (MPEG 7309, 7245); 6 males, 28.I.2005 (MPEG 7221); 3 males, 11.I.2005 (MPEG 7227); 1 male, 07.III.2005 (MPEG 7238); 1 male, 1.II.2005 (MPEG 7240); 3 males, 1 female, 11.II.2005 (MPEG 7243); 4 males, 1 female, 28.II.2005 (MPEG 7247); 2 males, 1.II.2005 (MPEG 7257); 4 males, 7.III.2005 (MPEG 7282, 7285, 7288); 4 males, 28.II.2005 (MPEG 7284, 7287); 24 males, 28.II.2005 (MPEG 7224, 7231, 7232, 7242, 7274, 7281, 7290, 7291); 12 males, 27.III.2005 (MPEG 7230, 7241, 7249, 7252, 7323, 7326); 8 males, 28.II.2005 (MPEG 7233, 7254, 7256, 7279); 1 male, 1 female, 7.III.2005 (MPEG 7259); 10 males, 7.III.2005 (MPEG 7260, 7293, 7296, 7299, 7317); 1 female, 3 juveniles, 28.II.2005 (MPEG 7273); 5 males, 7.III.2005 (MPEG 7237, 7275, 7295, 7318, 7329); 2 females, 17-23.VIII.2004 (MPEG 7276, 7301); 2 males, 1 female, 11.II.2005 (MPEG 7292); 9 males, 11.II.2005 (MPEG 7225, 7229, 7289); 3 males, 28.II.2005 (MPEG 7235, 7236, 7302); 3 males, 7.III.2005 (MPEG 7239, 7244, 7250); 2 males, 1.II.2005 (MPEG 7255, 7280); 2 females, 28.II.2005, (MPEG 7258, 7303); 2 males, 11.II.2005 (MPEG 7278); 4 males, 28.II.2005 (MPEG 7226, 7300); 1 female, 28 August-3.IX.2004 (MPEG 7298); 1 male, 28.VIII.2004 (MPEG 7308), 2 males, 27.III.2005 (MPEG 7311, 7313); 4 males, 11.II.2005 (MPEG 7294, 7312, 7316, 7324); 8 males, 3.IV.2005 (MPEG 7310, 7314, 7315, 7319, 7321, 7325, 7331, 7333); 2 males, 3.IV.2005 (MPEG 7322, 7332); 6 males, 27.III.2005 (MPEG 7304, 7305, 7306, 7327, 7328, 7330); 5 males, 28.II.2005 (MPEG 7228); 4 males, 11.II.2005 (MPEG 7253); 1 male, 1 February (MPEG 7277); 6 males, 1 female, 28.II.2005 (MPEG 7283), all collected by T. Gardner & M.A. Ribeiro; 1 male, 2 juveniles, 28.II.2005, Junior leg. (MPEG 7234); Belém (00°49'58.65601"S, 52°39'29.69148"W), 1 male, 18.I.1998, C. Silva leg. (MPEG 5183); 1 male (IBSP 107148); (Icoaraci, 00°49' 58.42602"S, 52°35'39.63868"W), 1 female, 31.VII.1977, A. Moy leg. (MPEG 2210); 1 male, 4.IV.1976, R.F. da Silva leg. (MPEG 5129); (Ilha do Mosqueiro, 00°49'58.42602"S, 52°35'39.63868"W), 1 female, 19-25.IV.1998, B. Mascarenhas et al. leg. (MPEG 5391); (Campus de Pesquisa MPEG, 01°27'03.03"S, 48°26'40.2"W), 1 male, 17.I.1986, W. França leg. (MPEG 5194); 1 female, 12.II.2010, R.P. Indicatti & N.F. Lo Man Hung leg. (MPEG 15613); 1 male, 10.II.2010, R.P. Indicatti leg. (MPEG 15614); 1 female (MPEG 5394); 1 female, 2.IV.2004, R.J. Morais leg. (MPEG 5128); 1 female, 10.XII.2004 (MPEG 5296); 1 male, 23.XI.2004, L.T. Miglio leg. (MPEG 4705); 1 female, 13.VI.1991, B. Mascarenhas leg. (MPEG 5110); (Porto de Palha, Depósito de Arroz, 00°49'58.42602"S, 52°35'39.63868"W), 1 male, L.C.Q. de Oliveira leg. (MPEG 5160); (Reduto, 00°49'58.65601"S, 52°39'29.69148"W), 1 male, 10.I.2006, R. Fonseca leg. (MPEG 4740); (Conjunto Ariri, Rodovia do 40, 01°1'32.45885"S, 52°54'17.27678"), 1 male, 5.XII.1995, A. Barros leg. (MPEG 5159); (Guamá, Campus da Universidade Federal do Pará, 1°27'41.71"S, 48°27'36.21"W), 1 male, C. Bertim leg. (IBSP 108373); Melgaço (Estação Científica Ferreira Penna, Floresta Nacional Caxiuanã, 01°1'32.45885"S, 52°54'17.27678"W), 1 male, 7-13.II.2002, T. Gardner & M.A. Ribeiro Júnior leg. (MPEG 198); Ananindeua (BR 316, Km 16, 1°21'55.22"S, 48°20'5.17"W), 1 male, 10.XI.1976, R.F. da Silva leg. (IBSP 111218); Tomé-Açu (Rio Acará-Mirim, 2°24'49.75"S, 48°8'58.50"W), 1 female, 1 juvenile, 7.IX.1952, A.R. Hoge leg. (IBSP 103393, 103114); Tucuruí (3°44'21.81"S, 49°39'58.91"W), 1 female (IBSP 107696). Amazonas: Manicoré (5°48'32.00"S, 61°17'60.00"W), 2 females, 7.II.1972, M. Cerminante leg. (IBSP 101857, 103392); (Três Casas, Rio Madeira, 6°4'50.59"S, 61°45'16.22"W), 1 female, 4.XII.1941 (IBSP 103394); Humaitá (7°30'22.00"S, 63°1'15.00"W), 1 female, 24.VIII.1972 (IBSP 103395), all collected by A.R. Hoge; 1 male, XI.1982, C. Dall'Aglio leg. (IBSP 107080). Rondônia: Porto Velho (01°27' 03.03"S, 48°26'40.2"W), 1 female, III.1983, I. Stranieri leg. (IBSP 107323); 1 male, XII.1982, R. Redorat leg. (IBSP 147445); 9 males, II.1982, I. Stranieri leg. (IBSP 104099); (Abunã, 9°38'17.58"S, 65°27'00.91"W), 1 male, 21.XI.2011, R.P. Indicatti leg. (MZSP 44328); Candeias do Jamari (Usina Hidrelétrica de Samuel, 8°45'4.58"S, 63°27'28.49"W), 3 males, II.1989 (IBSP 107129, 107130, 104745); 1 male, XII.1988 (IBSP 107131); 1 female, V.1989 (IBSP 107151), all collected by Equipe Resgate de Fauna.

Distribution. FRENCH GUYANA: department of Sinnamary and BRAZIL: states of Amazonas, Pará and Rondônia (Fig. 60, triangle).

Synonymy. Acanthoscurria ferina and A. brocklehursti are herein considered junior synonyms of A. theraphosoides. The synonymies were established through the examination of the male holotype of A. theraphosoides, male holotype and female allotype of A. ferina, female holotype of A. brocklehursti and descriptions and illustrations given by SCHIAPELLI & GERSCHMAN DE PIKELIN (1964) of the male holotype and female allotype of A. ferina, corroborated by the study of several specimens from the different collections examined. The specimens examined present the same morphology of sexual organs, male palpal bulb and tibial apophysis and female seminal receptacles. They also share the same color pattern.

Natural history. This species can dig tubular burrows located under fallen trunks and in ravines. The tubular burrows have a circular shape, 3-4 cm wide and 10 to 20 cm deep. Males were collected walking in the forest litter and on roads near the forest and urban areas in Abunã, Porto Velho, Rondônia.

Acanthoscurria insubtilis Simon, 1892

Figs 38-48, 60

Acanthoscurria insubtilis Simon, 1892: 282 (male holotype, BOLIVIA, Cochabamba: San Mateo, G. Garlepp leg., deposited in MNHN AR 4784, examined). Schiapelli & Gerschman de Pikelin, 1964: 412, pl. II, figs 1-8; Bertani, 2000: 30, figs 27-28; Platnick, 2014.

Diagnosis. Acanthoscurria insubtilis resembles A. theraphosoides by the structure of sexual organs and body length (33.3-42.2 mm), but it can be distinguished by a dark patch on ventral side of abdomen (Fig. 40), male palpal bulb with SGA not pronounced and less curved embolus; PS projected and fused to embolus (Figs 45-46). Female seminal receptacles divergent, originating from a wide U-shaped base (Figs 47-48).

Description. Male (IBSP 107648). Coloration brown in ethanol, but carapace, abdomen and legs brown with pink setae on carapace, when alive (Fig. 38). Total length 33.3. Carapace 16.2 long, 14.9 wide. Fovea procurved. Clypeus narrow. Eye group rectangular 2.1 long, 3.1 wide. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior recurved. Eye sizes: AME 0.50, ALE 1.50, PME 1.25, PLE 2.00. Labium 2.40 long, 2.10 wide, with more than 120 cuspules. Endites with more than 260 cuspules. Sternum moderately convex, 8.7 long, 6.3 wide, with posterior sigillae two times larger than anterior. Cheliceral furrow with 13 larger teeth and 88 smaller basal ones. Stridulatory apparatus with around 18 bristles. STC I with 7 teeth, II with 6, III with 4 and IV with 3. Measurements - palp: femur length 9.8, patella 5.2, tibia 9.7, cymbium 4.8, total 29.5. Legs - I: femur 16.7, patella 8.5, tibia 13.4, metatarsus 13.1, tarsus 8.1, total 60.3; II: 15.2, 7.9, 12.2, 12.1, 7.9, 55.3; III: 14.1, 7.0, 10.2, 13.5, 8.0, 52.8; IV: 14.9, 7.5, 14.0, 18.2, 8.5, 63.1. Spines - palp: femur p0-0-1, patella p0-0-1, tibia v0-0-2-6; leg I: femur p0-0-1, tibia v4-1-1-3-2-1-1p-1-5ap, metatarsus v0-0-1ap; II: femur p0-0-1, tibia v1-2-2-1-1p-2p-5ap, metatarsus v1-1-1-0-4ap; III: femur d0-0-1, patella r0-1-0, tibia v0-0-1-2-3-2-3ap, metatarsus v1p-1-3-2-2-3ap; IV: tibia v0-0-3-2-3-1-3ap, metatarsus v1-1-2-1-1-1-2-1r-2-1-1-3-4ap. Scopulae on metatarsus I covering distal 3/4, II throughout distal half, III only on apex, absent on IV. All tarsi fully scopulate. Tibial apophysis of leg I with at least eight spines on apex (Figs 43-44). Palpal tibia with finger like tubercle (Fig. 42). Male palpal bulb with SGA less pronounced and embolus poorly curved, PI projected until end of embolus (Figs 45-46).

Female (IBSP 107145). Coloration: as in male, except carapace light brown and abdomen light pinkish-brown (Fig. 39). Total length 42.2. Carapace 17.5 long, 14.9 wide. Fovea procurved. Clypeus narrow. Eye group rectangular 1.5 long, 2.2 wide. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior recurved. Eye sizes: AME 0.25, ALE 1.55, PME 1.20, PLE 1.81. Labium 2.85 long, 2.20 wide, with more than 80 cuspules. Endites with more than 220 cuspules. Sternum moderately convex, 8.1 long, 6.5 wide, with posterior sigillae two times larger than anterior. Cheliceral furrow with 13 larger teeth and 57 smaller basal ones. Stridulatory apparatus with 12 bristles. STC I with 5 teeth, II with 6, III with 7 and IV with 6. Palp: femur length 9.9, patella 6.0, tibia 7.0, tarsus 6.0, total 28.9. Legs: I: femur 12.9, patella 7.4, tibia 10.0, metatarsus 7.5, tarsus 4.2, total 42.0; II: 11.1, 6.9, 7.5., 7.3, 4.8, 37.6; III: 10.9, 6.0, 9.0, 8.3, 5.0, 39.4; IV: 13.0, 6.8, 10.0, 13.9, 5.3, 49.0. Spines: palp: femur: p0-0-1, tibia v1-2-2-3ap; I: femur p0-0-1, tibia v1-1-2-3ap, metatarsus v1-0-0-3ap; II: femur p0-0-1, tibia v0-0-1p-3ap, metatarsus v1-1-0-3ap; III: femur p0-0-1, tibia v1-1p-2-2-2-3ap, metatarsus v2-1-1-3-1-1r-1r-4ap; IV: femur p0-0-1,tibia v1-2-1-1-3-2-2ap, metatarsus v2-1-3-2-2-1-1-1-2-1-3-3ap. Scopulae on metatarsus I on distal 3/4, II throughout ventral portion, III restricted to apical half and IV on apical third. All tarsi fully scopulate. Seminal receptacle with two very evident lobes, distant from each other (Figs 47-48).

Variation. The carapace color of live females and juveniles can be light brown to dark brown and the abdomen light pinkish-brown to dark pinkish-brown (Figs 39-41).

Additional material examined. BRAZIL, Acre: Senador Guiomard (Reserva Extrativista de Catuaba, 10°9'3"S, 67°44'9"W), 1 male, 2002, E.F. Morato leg. (IBSP 114706). Amazonas: Japurá (1°49'26"S, 66°36'15"W), 1 juvenile, XI.1952, A.R. Hoge leg. (IBSP 103116). Mato Grosso: 1 male, 16.X.1963, S.C. Neves leg. (IBSP 103656); Cuiabá (15°35'45"S, 56°5'49"W), 1 male, 19.XI.1988, A. Lucia leg. (IBSP 110724); 1 male, 3.X.1982, S. Silva leg. (IBSP 110725); 1 male, Fernando leg. (IBSP 112364); Santo Antônio de Leverger (15°51'57"S, 56°4'37"W), 1 male, III.1982, C. Roloff leg. (IBSP 104713); Poconé (16°15'25"S, 56°37'22"W), 1 male (IBSP 107435); Pouso Alegre (Transpantaneira, 11°43'53.07"S, 57°20'16.30"W), 1 female, 25.X.2007, K. Anjos leg. (IBSP 100608); Nova Mutum (13°50'40.29"S, 56°4'5.71"W), 5 females, 6-15.VII.2001, R.K. Ribeiro leg. (IBSP 111795). Rondônia: 1 male (IBSP 111942); Monte Negro (10°15'51"S, 63°20'2"W), 1 male (IBSP 110147); Porto Velho (acesso a cachoeira do Teotônio, 8°45'43"S, 63°54'14"W), 1 male, XII.1996, G. Puorto et al. leg. (IBSP 107092); Porto Velho (8°45'43"S, 63°54'14"W), 1 male, V.1985, I. Stranieri leg. (IBSP 107133); (Campus da Universidade Federal de Rondônia, 8°45'43"S, 63°54'14"W), 1 female, 2007 (IBSP 115291); 1 female, 1 juvenile, 2007 (IBSP 115294); 1 male, 2007 (IBSP 115311); 3 males, 2007 (IBSP 115293, 115295, 115296), all collected by L.S.P. Trigueiro; (Caiçara, 9°29'17.31"S, 64°49'12.02"W), 1 male, 13.XI.2011, D.F. Candiani leg. (MZSP 44488); 1 male, 14.XI.2011, R.P. Indicatti leg. (MZSP 44489); 1 male, 21.IV.2012, R.P. Indicatti leg. (MZSP 56455); 1 male, 29.IX.2012, R.P. Indicatti leg. (MZSP 56456); (Mutum, 9°36'00.52"S, 65°05'08.91"W), 1 female, 17.XI.2011, R.P. Indicatti leg. (MZSP 44493); 1 female, 18.XI.2011, D.F. Candiani leg. (MZSP 45200); 1 female, 22.V.2013, A.A. Nogueira leg. (MZSP 55776); (Abunã, 9°38'17.58"S, 65°27'00.91"W), 1 female, 19.XI.2011, R.P. Indicatti leg. (MZSP 44718); Candeias do Jamari (Usina Hidrelétrica de Samuel, 8°45'43"S, 63°54'14"W), 6 females, January-May 1989 (IBSP 107140, 107145, 107252, 107434, 107648, 113836,); 6 males, January-May 1989, (IBSP 107170, 107489, 107526, 107639, 107643, 113838), all collected by Equipe Resgate de Fauna; Mato Grosso do Sul: Corumbá (19°0'32"S, 57°39'10"W), 1 male, 19.II.1981, P. Mix leg. (IBSP 111171); Agachi (20°16'00"S, 56°13'0"W), 1 female, 15.IX.1952, C. Moraes leg. (IBSP 103015); (Base de Estudos do Pantanal, Universidade Federal Mato Grosso do Sul, 1 male, 27 novembro 1993, J. Raizer leg. (IBSP 119737). BOLIVIA. Beni: San Ramón (13°16'2"S, 64°37'2"W), 1 male, 05.VII.2003, D.J. Mann leg. (OUMNH 2004-005).

Distribution. BOLIVIA: department of Cochabamba and firstly recorded for BRAZIL: states of Amazonas, Acre, Rondônia, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul (Fig. 62).

Remarks. SIMON (1892) cited that A. insubtilis was collected by G. Garlepp in Bolivia. LOURENÇO & LEGUIN (2011) confirmed that G. Garlepp collected numerous arachnids in the region of San Mateo, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Based on the examination of the holotype, the description of SCHIAPELLI & GERSCHMAN DE PIKELIN (1964) and comparison with specimens from several collections, we confirmed the presence of this species in the Brazilian Amazonian region.

Natural history. The species is mainly nocturnal but sometimes it can be found during the day. It digs tubular burrows under rocks, fallen trunks, both in ravines and ground level. The tubular burrows are 3-4 cm wide and 10-20 cm deep. A female of A. insubtilis was observed, during the night, digging a burrow with her palps and legs I-II (Fig. 41), as in some other Theraphosidae (PÉREZ-MILES et al. 2005, INDICATTI et al. 2008) and the majority of other mygalomorphs (COYLE 1971, LUCAS et al. 2005, 2008). Males were collected walking in the forest litter.

Acanthoscurria tarda Pocock, 1903

Figs 49-51, 60

Acanthoscurria tarda Pocock, 1903: 87 (female holotype, BRAZIL, Amazonas: Tefé, Dr. Bach leg., deposited in BMNH 1898, examined); Platnick, 2014.

Diagnosis. The female of A. tarda can be distinguished from other Amazonian species of the genus by the two lobes of the seminal receptacle more projected and with a narrower base (Figs 50-51). The seminal receptacle of A. tarda resembles that of A. natalensis (see LUCAS et al. 2011: figs 7-8) in its trapezoid shape, but can be distinguished by a shallower groove in the medioapical area of the base of the spermatheca, alongside the larger seminal receptacles (Figs 50-51).

Description. Female (BMNH 1898-2-12-5). Coloration: dark brown (Fig. 49). Total length 62.0. Carapace 26.0 long, 23.0 wide. Fovea procurved. Clypeus narrow. Eye group rectangular 2.2 long, 3.9 wide. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior recurved. Eye sizes: AME 1.0, ALE 0.7, PME 1.2, PLE 4.1. Labium 3.0 long, 4.6 wide, with more than 100 cuspules. Endites with more than 200 cuspules each. Sternum moderately convex, 11.4 long, 10.9 wide, with posterior sigillae three times larger than anterior. Stridulatory apparatus with 15 visible bristles. Palp: femur length 14.1, patella 7.6, tibia 9.7, tarsus 9.6, total 41.0. Legs: I: femur 18.1, patella 10.7, tibia 13.4, metatarsus 11.5, tarsus 8.6, total 62.3; II: 16.1, 9.3, 11.2, 11.2, 8.6, 56.4; III: 14.4, 8.4, 9.8, 12.6, 8.1, 53.3; IV: 17.5, 8.5, 12.7, 17.7, 8.7, 65.1. Spines - palp: femur: p0-0-1, patella v0-1-1-0, tibia v0-1p-1-2p-4ap, d0-0-2-1-0; I: femur p0-0-1, tibia v1-2-1-1-3ap, d0-1-0, metatarsus v0-1-2ap; II: femur p0-0-1, tibia v2-1-1p-1-3ap, p1-1-0, metatarsus v2-1p-0-3ap; III: femur p0-0-2ap, tibia v0-2-2ap, d2-2-2ap, metatarsus v1-1-1-1-1-3ap, p2-1r-1r-1r-2ap; IV: tibia v0-2-1-2ap, d2-2-2ap, metatarsus v1-3-2-2-2-1p-2-2-3-2ap, d0-1p-2ap. Scopulae on metatarsi I-II throughout ventral portion, III restricted to apical half and IV to apical third. All tarsi fully scopulate. Seminal receptacle with two very evident lobes and narrower base (Figs 50-51). Male. Unknown.

Distribution. Known only from the type locality, Tefé, state of Amazonas, Brazil (Fig. 60, gray circle).

Remarks. The present redescription was based on the holotype, the only available specimen, too fragile to be manipulated and to allow examination of all characters (Figs 49-51).

Acanthoscurria belterrensis sp. nov.

Figs 52-60

Type material. Male holotype, BRAZIL, Pará: Belterra (3°14'35.52"S, 54°59'23.14"W), (Floresta Nacional Tapajós), 20.II.2010, S.C.B. Sousa leg. (IBSP 161719). Paratypes: 3 males, with same data of holotype, J.F. Lemos leg. (IBSP 161713; 161715; 161717); 1 male, with same data of holotype, H.R. Batista leg. (FIT 719); 1 female, with same data of holotype, J.F. Lemos leg. (FIT 720); 1 female, with same data of holotype, A.P.S. Silva leg. (IBSP 161718).

Diagnosis. Acanthoscurria belterrensis sp. nov. resembles A. gomesiana Mello-Leitão, 1923 by the general color and structure of sexual organs (see GONZALEZ-FILHO et al. 2012: figs 2 A-F). The male can be distinguished by the less curved embolus and the very projected PS and PI, giving a triangular aspect to the apex of embolus (Figs 56-57) and female seminal receptacle presenting a larger and narrow basis (Figs 58-59).

Description. Male (IBSP 161719). Coloration: general aspect chestnut-brown, carapace dark bordered by a band of short creamy-pink setae; dorsal surface of femora, abdomen and chelicerae dark covered with chestnut-brown setae. Two longitudinal bands of light short setae on patella and tibia of all legs; femora, patella, tibia and metatarsus with small cream-pink setae forming very narrow apical band (Fig. 52). Total length 36.6. Carapace 19.0 long, 16.2 wide. Fovea procurved. Clypeus narrow. Eye group rectangular 2.5 long, 1.9 wide. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior recurved. Eye sizes: AME 0.35, ALE 1.66, PME 1.35, PLE 1.88. Labium 3.8 long, 2.37 wide, with more than 60 cuspules. Endites with more than 200 cuspules each. Sternum moderately convex, 9.9 long, 7.2 wide, with posterior sigillae six times larger than anterior. Cheliceral furrow with 12 larger teeth and 74 smaller basal ones. Stridulatory apparatus with around 17 bristles. STC I with 8 teeth, II with 6, III with 4 and IV with 6. Measurements: palp: femur length 10.9, patella 6.2, tibia 9.8, cymbium 4.0, total 30.9. Legs - I: femur 17.1, patella 9.1, tibia 15.0, metatarsus 13.6, tarsus 7.6, total 62.4; II: 16.6, 8.1, 14.0, 13.4, 8.0, 60.1; III: 14.8, 6.2, 11.8, 15.9, 7.0, 55.7; IV: 17.2, 7.6, 16.1, 21.9, 6.4, 69.2. Spines - palp: femur p0-0-1, tibia p0-1-3-2-1; leg I: femur p0-0-1, tibia v2r-1-1-2-2-2-1-2-1r-6ap; II: femur p0-0-1, patella r0-1-0, tibia v2-2-1p-2-1-2-1p-4ap, metatarsus v1-1-1p-1-4ap; III: femur d0-0-2, tibia v1-1r-2-2-1r-1p-2-3ap, metatarsus v1p-1-3-2-2-3-4ap; IV: tibia v1-1r-1p-2-1-2-1r-2-3ap, metatarsus v2-1-2-1-2-2-1p-2-3-2-4ap. Scopulae on metatarsus I throughout ventral portion, II on distal 2/3, III only apical and absent on IV. All tarsi fully scopulate. Tibial apophysis of leg I with at least 6 spines on apex (Figs 54-55). Palpal tibia with blunt tubercle (Fig. 53). Male palpal bulb with long and thickened embolus ending like a shell, with well developed superior and inferior keels (Figs 56-57).

Female (IBSP 161718). Coloration as in male, two longitudinal bands of setae on patella and tibia of all legs wider. Total length 41.0. Carapace 19.9 long, 15.2 wide. Fovea procurved. Clypeus narrow. Eye group rectangular 1.8 long, 2.9 wide. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior recurved. Eye sizes: AME 0.41, ALE 1.75, PME 1.45, PLE 2.05. Labium 2.50 long, 2.25 wide, with more than 85 cuspules. Endites with more than 240 cuspules each. Sternum moderately convex, 8.9 long, 7.6 wide, with posterior sigillae three times larger than anterior. Cheliceral furrow with 12 larger teeth and 76 smaller basal ones. Stridulatory apparatus with 19 bristles. STC I with 6 teeth, II with 5, III with 3 and IV with 4. Measurements: palp: femur length 9.5, patella 6.1, tibia 7.9, tarsus 6.5, total 30.0. Legs - I: femur 14.0, patella 8.0, tibia 11.5, metatarsus 9.0, tarsus 6.0, total 48.5; II: 12.5, 7.8, 9.6, 9.0, 5.2, 44.1; III: 11.1, 6.9, 8.5, 10.9, 5.0, 42.4; IV: 14.5, 7.4, 11.2, 15.6, 6.0, 54.7. Spines - palp: femur: p0-1-0, tibia v0-1-2-2-3ap; leg I: femur p0-0-1, tibia v0-1-1-3ap, metatarsus v1-0-0-3ap; II: femur p0-0-1, tibia v1-1-0-1p-3ap, metatarsus v2-1r-0-3ap; III: femur d0-0-1-0, patella r0-1-0-0, tibia v1r-1p-2-1p-1r-2-3ap, metatarsus d0-0-1, p1-3-1-2-2-4ap; IV: tibia v2-2-2-2-2ap, metatarsus v1-1-1-1-1p-2-2-4-2-3-2-1r-4ap. Scopulae on distal half of metatarsi I-II, III only on apex and absent on IV. All tarsi fully scopulate. Seminal receptacle with a square base and two small apical lobes (Figs 58-59).

Distribution: Known only from the type locality, Belterra, Pará, Brazil (Fig. 60, square).

Natural history. Acanthoscurria belterrensis sp. nov. was collected only in the Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, on the border of the city of Belterra, Pará. All specimens were collected in 100 l herpetological pitfall traps in an ecological study to capture snakes in the area during February 2010.

Etymology. The species is named after the type locality, Belterra, in the state of Pará.

Identification key to Brazilian Amazonian Acanthoscurria species

Males

Male of A. tarda is unknown.

1. Male palpal bulb with embolus ending like a shell (Figs 6-7), palpal tibia with a blunt tubercle and twice as long as broad (Fig. 3) 2

1'. Male palpal bulb with embolus of different aspect, finger-like tubercle on the palpal tibia (Fig. 42) 5

2. Male palpal bulb with an accessory keel, sometimes vestigial (Figs 6-7, 10-13), between PS and PI keels 3

2'. Male palpal bulb without an accessory keel 4

3. Spiders of dark coloration (almost black), with the distal end of each segment broadly tipped with short creamy-pink setae, long bright-red setae on abdomen (Figs 1-2) and accessory keel elongated (Figs 6-7) A. geniculata

3'. Body brown, with two very distinct longitudinal bands of light short setae on patella and tibia of all legs. Apex of femora, patella, tibia and metatarsus with small creamy-pink setae (Fig. 14) and accessory keel of palpal bulb shortened (Figs 18-19) A. juruenicola

4. Palpal bulb with short and curved embolus, PS and PI projected and triangular (Figs 56-57) A. belterrensis sp. nov.

4'. Male palpal bulb with straighter, longer and projected embolus (Figs 25-26) A. simoensi

5. SGA projected like a hump with a short and curved embolus (Figs 34-35) A. theraphosoides

5'. SGA less projected, with a less curved embolus, the PI projected until the tip of the embolus (Figs 45-46), and the ventral side of abdomen with a black patch (Fig. 40) A. insubtilis

Females

1. Base of seminal receptacles square or trapezoid with two apical lobes (Figs 8-9) 2

1'. Base of seminal receptacles not as above 6

2. Seminal receptacles with lobes totally enveloped by basal membrane (Figs 58-59) A. belterrensis sp. nov.

2'. Seminal receptacles with evident lobes 3

3. Base of seminal receptacles long and rectangular with two apical lobes near each other (Figs 27-28) A. simoensi

3'. Base of seminal receptacles square 4

4. Lobes of seminal receptacles more projected and with a narrower base (Figs 50-51) A. tarda

4'. Seminal receptacles not as above 5

5. Body dark, almost black, with the distal end of each segment broadly covered with short creamy-pink setae, long bright-red setae on abdomen (Fig. 2) and seminal receptacles with evident apical lobes (Figs 8-9) A. geniculata

5'. Body brown, with two very distinct longitudinal bands of light short setae on patella and tibia of all legs. Apex of femora, patella, tibia and metatarsi with small creamy-pink setae, with less evident lobes on seminal receptacles (Figs 20-21) A. juruenicola

6. Seminal receptacles with U-shaped base and apical lobes distant from each other (Figs 47-48), ventral side of abdomen with a black patch (Fig. 40) A. insubtilis

6'. Seminal receptacles heart-shaped, with a single narrow base, and apical lobes close to each other (Figs 36-37) A. theraphosoides

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank Cristina A. Rheims, Carol O'Connell, Alexandre Martorano, Gabriel Mejdalani and two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions on the manuscript; curators for allowing access to museum collections, arranging loans and allowing examination of material; Jason Dunlop who kindly took and sent us photos of the type specimen of A. geniculata; Nancy F. Lo Man Hung and David F. Candiani for helping with MPEG material; Energia Sustentável do Brasil (ESBR) and Arcadis Logos S.A. for support during field work for collecting specimens from Abunã, Caiçara, Mutum, Nova Mutum Paraná (all localities near Usina Hidrelétrica de Jirau), Porto Velho, Rondônia. This study was supported by funds from the INCTTox PROGRAM of CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico) to FSP (grant 370966/2009-0, ATP) and ADB (grant 2009/12017-0, PQ) and FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, grant 2011/50689-0 to ADB and SML, 2012/18287-1 to RPI).

 

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Submitted: 30.VIII.2013
Accepted: 16.I.2014
Editorial responsibility: Gabriel L.F. Mejdalani

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