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Zoologia (Curitiba)

Print version ISSN 1984-4670

Zoologia (Curitiba) vol.31 no.3 Curitiba May/June 2014

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-46702014000300009 

TAXONOMY AND NOMECLATURE

 

A new species of Neoseiulus (Acari: Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) with a key for the Brazilian species of the genus

 

 

Matheus dos Santos RochaI,*; Guilherme Liberato da SilvaII; Noeli Juarez FerlaIII

ILaboratório de Diversidade e Sistemática de Arachnida, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia, Universidade do Vale dos Sinos. 93022-000 São Leopoldo, RS, Brasil
IIDepartamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. 90050-170 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
IIILaboratório de Acarologia, Museu de Ciências Naturais, UNIVATES – Centro Universitário. 95900-000 Lajeado, RS, Brazil

 

 


ABSTRACT

Neoseiulus HUGHES, 1948 is currently one of the largest genus of Phytoseiidae Berlese. Neoseiulus demitei sp. nov., a new species of phytoseiid mite from Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, is illustrated and described based on specimens collected on Tibouchina sp. (Melastomataceae) plants. This new species differs from others by having most of propodossomal setae reaching the base of nearby setae and a constriction of ventrianal shield at level of preanal pores. Nevertheless, this new species is the first of the species subgroup kennetti described from Brazil. A key of Neoseiulus species reported in Brazil is also included.

Key words: Amblyseiinae; native environment; Neoseiulini; predator; Rio Grande do Sul


 

 

Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) is a large family of predatory mites. They are fast-moving, active predators, feeding mostly on mites but also on small insects, nematodes and fungi, and may feed on plants, including pollen and extrafloral exudates. Owing to their success in spider control, Phytoseiids are the best known and most studied group of predatory mites (GERSON et al. 2003). The Amblyseiinae is the largest subfamily, with approximately 1,500 nominal species (CHANT & MCMURTRY 2007). Species of Neoseiulus HUGHES, 1948 have been commercially reared to be used as biological control agents of several species of thrips and other small pest insects and mites in Europe and North America over the past 20 years (BEARD 2001).

Neoseiulus includes 389 described species (DEMITE et al. 2014) found in all zoogeographic regions, except Antarctica, in a wide variety habitats (CHANT & MCMURTRY 2003). Twenty species of Neoseiulus have been reported from Brazil. Of these, eight had already been found to occur in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (DEMITE et al. 2014.

In this article, a new species of barkeri species group, Neoseiulus demitei sp. nov., is described and illustrated from specimens collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A key to Brazilian Neoseiulus species is also included.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The mites were collected from leaves of Tibouchina sp. (Melastomataceae), observed under a binocular microscope, mounted on glass slides in Hoyer's medium and observed under a phase contrast microscope Leica® DM 750. Drawings were made using a camera Lucida apparatus and the lines were highlighted using Corel Draw X5®.

The classification system used is that of CHANT & MCMURTRY (2007). The setal nomenclature is that of ROWELL et al. (1978) and CHANT & YOSHIDA-SHAUL (1992) for the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the idiosoma, respectively. Measurements are given in micrometers (µm), holotype measurements are shown in bold type followed by their mean and range within parentheses.

 

TAXONOMY

Neoseiulus demitei sp.nov.
Figs 1-7

Adult female (n = 8). Idiosomal setal pattern (CHANT & YOSHIDA-SHAUL 1992): 10A:9B/JV-3:ZV. Dorsum (Fig. 1): dorsal shield smooth, with a few striae anterolaterally; 6 pairs of lyrifissures and 9 pairs of pores, 367 363 (355-370) long and 227 224 (215-230) wide. Setae j1 29 29 (28-32), j3 44 41 (38-44), j4 43 39 (35-43), j5 27 26 (24-27), j6 38 34 (32-38), J2 32 30 (2832), J5 12 11 (10-12), z2 34 34 (33-35), z4 57 54 (50-59), z5 33 31 (28-35), Z1 44 42 (39-45), Z4 55 51 (47-55), Z5 67 62 (57-67), s4 66 63 (60-66), S2 47 46 (43-50), S4 23 23 (19-26), S5 23 21 (1824), r3 50 48 (45-50), R1 31 30 (29-31). All setae smooth and sharp-tipped, except Z5 slightly serrate. Venter (Fig. 2): sternal shield smooth, with three pairs of setae and two pairs of lyrifissures, seta St4 set on distinct metasternal shields; distances between St1-St3 67 64 (61-67), St2-St2 67 66 (65-67). Genital shield smooth, distance between St5-St5 63 60 (56-63). and ZV2) and pre-anal pores posterolateral of JV2. Four pairs of Ventrianal shield pentagonal, with light striations, 125 126 (120-opisthogastric setae on unsclerotized cuticle (JV4, JV5, ZV1 and 130) long, 90 86 (80-91) wide at level of JV2 and 79 79 (75-82) ZV3). Ventral setae smooth. With one pair of metapodal plates. wide at level of anus, with three pairs of preanal setae (JV1, JV2, Peritreme almost reaching level of j1. Spermatheca (Fig. 3): calyx saccular, 16 15 (14-17) long, atrium narrower than base of calyx and bifurcate (invaginated) at junction with major duct. Chelicera (Fig. 4): Movable cheliceral digit 30 29 (27-31) long, with 2 teeth; fixed cheliceral digit 28 29 (28-30) long, with 6-8 teeth. Pilus dentilis not visible. Legs (Fig. 5): only the leg IV with setaceous macrosetae, with the following lengths: Sge IV 45 41 (38-45), Sti IV 32 31 (30-33), St IV 47 47 (43-50).

Adult male (n = 3). Dorsum: Dorsal shield pattern similar to female, 280 292 (280-300) long and 155 163 (155-170) wide. Setae j1 20 21 (20-22), j3 30 30, j4 22 22, j5 20 21 (20-22), j6 22 23 (22-25), J2 22 23 (22-24), J5 10 11 (10-13), z2 25 25 (25-26), z4 37 36 (35-37), z5 25 25, Z1 35 35 (35-36), Z4 37 36 (35-37), Z5 40 41 (40-42), s4 50 49 (48-50), S2 32 31 (30-32), S4 20 19 (17-22), S5 15 15 (15-16), r3 32 32 (30-33), R1 25 26 (25-27). Venter (Fig. 6): sternogenital shield smooth. Ventrianal shield triangular, with a few striae, 120 123 (120-125) long and 160 163 (160-163) wide at anterior corners, with five pairs of preanal setae, two pairs of small, rounded pores. Seta JV5 smooth. Peritreme almost reaching level of j1. Chelicera (Fig. 7): fixed digit 22 23 (20-25) long and movable digit 23 22 (21-24) long, spermatodactyl T-shaped, with shaft 25 23 (22-25) long. Legs: only leg IV with setaceous macrosetae, follows lengths: Sge IV 39 35 (30-39), Sti IV 24 25 (24-26) and St IV 37 37.

Type material. Holotype female, four paratypes female and paratype male, BRAZIL, Rio Grande do Sul: Forquetinha, from Tibouchina sp. (Melastomataceae), 06/XI/2012, deposited at the Departamento de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agrícola (Agricultural Entomology, Phytopathology and Zoology Department), Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" (ESALQ), Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. One paratype female, Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul Forquetinha, same collection data as holotype, deposited at Museum of Biological Diversity, the Ohio State University, 1315 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 432112, USA. Three paratype females, Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, Forquetinha, same collection data as holotype, deposited at Museu de Ciências Naturais (ZAUMCN), UNIVATES – Centro Universitário, Lajeado, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Etymology. The new species was named in honor of Dr Peterson Demite, a Brazilian Acarologist.

Remarks. The studied specimens belong to Neoseiulus barkeri species group and share with the other species in it the spermatheca with atrium forked for at least half of its length until the juncture with major duct; and belongs to the kennetti species subgroup by having the atrium without vacuolated area at junction with major duct (CHANT & MCMURTRY 2003). The spermatheca of this new species resembles the spermathecae of Neoseiulus inflatus (KUZNETSOV, 1984), Neoseiulus kennetti (SCHUSTER & PRITCHARD, 1963), Neoseiulus inornatus (SCHUSTER & PRITCHARD, 1963), and Neoseiulus kodryensis (KOLODOCHKA, 1980). Neoseiulus inflatus differs from this new species by having macrosetae only on St IV, Seta Z5 serrated, five teeth on fixed digit and one tooth on movable digit; from N. kennetti by having dorsal shield reticulated, macrosetae only on Ge IV and St IV, peritreme extending to level of seta j3, two teeth on fixed digit and without tooth on movable digit; from N. inornatus by having macrosetae only on Ge IV and St IV, setae Z4 and Z5 serrated and longer; N. kodryensis by having macrosetae St IV longer, setae Z4 and Z5 serrated and longer, three teeth on fixed digit and one tooth on movable digit. The new species differs from all species of the genus by having most propodossomal setae reaching the base of nearby setae and a constriction of ventrianal shield at level of preanal pores.

Key for females of Neoseiulus species of Brazil (based on CHANT & MCMURTRY 2003)

1. Spermatheca with atrium forked for at least half its length at juncture with major duct, or atrium appearing thickwalled, vacuolated ..................... barkeri species group..........2

1'. Spermatheca with atrium not deeply forked at juncture with major duct, not appearing thick-walled, vacuolated .......6

2. Spermatheca with atrium narrower than base of calyx, calyx never basally constricted or stalked ............................................................................................... kenetti species subgroup ..........3

2'. Spermatheca with atrium as wide as or wider than base of calyx, calyx sometimes basally constricted or stalked .....4

3. Most anterolateral setae on dorsal shield shorter than the length between their setae nearby; Setae Z5 with 27 µm; ventrianal shield not constricted at level JV2; macrosetae absent on St IV..................Neoseiulus gracilis (Muma, 1962)

3'. Most anterolateral setae on dorsal shield longer than the length between their setae nearby; setae Z5 with 55 µm; ventrianal shield constricted at level JV2; macrosetae present on Sge IV, Sti IV and St IV............................................................................................................Neoseiulus demitei sp. nov.

4. Calyx not markedly constricted or stalked at junction with atrium; atrium deeply forked at juncture with major duct but without vacuolated area...barkeri species subgroup..5

4'. Calyx stalked or narrowly constricted at juncture with atrium; stalk sometimes short and blending into atrium or slender; atrium with vacuolated area...womersleyi species subgroup.......Neoseiulus neoaurescens (Moraes & Mesa, 1988)

5. Setae Z5 serrated; peritreme not extending at level j1; macrosetae St IV (68 µm) Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes, 1948 5'.

5'.Setae Z5 smooth; peritreme extending forward to j1; macrosetae St IV (58 µm)...................................................................................Neoseiulus transversus Denmark & Muma, 1973

6. Female ventrianal shield large, square or rectangular, rounded posteriorly (L/W ratio = 1.0-1.3:1.0); dorsal shield with marked shoulder at level of seta r3...........................................................................................paspalivorus species group............7

6'. Female ventrianal shield pentagonal or with lateral margins slightly rounded; dorsal shield without marked shoulder at level of seta r3...............cucumeris species group...........10

7. Peritreme extending at level j1....................................................8

7'. Peritreme extending at level j3...................................................9

8. Setae r3 shorter than R1; Setae Z5 serrated....................................................................Neoseiulus baraki Athias-Henriot, 1966

8'. Setae r3 longer than R1; Setae Z5 smooth.............................................................................Neoseiulus mumai (Denmark, 1965)

9. Fixed digit with seven teeth; macrosetae on St IV (29); fourth pair of sternal setae free on cuticle.......................................................................................Neoseiulus benjamini (Schicha, 1981)

9'. Fixed digit with six teeth; macrosetae on St IV (15); fourth pair of sternal setae on metasternal plates..................................................................Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon, 1957)

10. Dorsal setae strongly barbed...........tunus species subgroup

10'. Dorsal setae not strongly barbed.............cucumeris species subgroup............................................................................................12

11. Only seta J5 smooth; macrosetae on leg IV setaceous; cervix of spermatheca fundibuliform...........................................................................Neoseiulus neotunus (Denmark & Muma, 1973)

11'. All j-J series smooth; macrosetae on leg IV are knobbed distally; cervix of spermatheca cup-shaped Neoseiulus tunus (De Leon, 1967)

12. Most setae on dorsal shield long (40-60), often much longer than bases of nearby setae.........................................................13

12'. Most setae on dorsal shield short, not reaching the bases of nearby setae................................................................................15

13. Only macrosetae on St IV..........................................................14

13'. Macrosetae on Sge IV, Sti IV and St IV................................19

14. Cervix of spermatheca elongate; peritreme extending at level j1............Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker, 1965)

14'. Cervix of spermatheca cup-shaped; peritreme extending at level j3..........Neoseiulus idaeus Denmark & Muma, 1973

15. Only setae Z5 strongly serrated and stout.........................................................Neoseiulus veigai Gondim Jr. & Moraes, 2001

15'. Setae Z5 serrated or smooth, not stout...............................16

16. Setae Z5 smooth; cervix of spermatheca wider than long.................Neoseiulus paraibensis (Moraes & McMurtry, 1983)

16'. Setae Z5 serrated; cervix of spermatheca longer than wide...............................................................................................................17

17. Only setae Z5 serrated.........................................................................................................Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954)

17'. Setae Z4 and Z5 serrated............................................................18

18. Macrosetae on Sge IV, Sti IV and St IV; ventrianal shield not constriction at level setae JV2..................................................................Neoseiulus recifensis Gondim Jr & Moraes, 2001

18'. Macrosetae only on St IV; ventrianal shield with constriction at level setae JV2....................................................... ...............................Neoseiulus melinis Lofego & Moraes, 2003

19. All dorsal setae serrated except j1 and j5 smooth; J2 relatively longer, reaching the base of Z4........................................................................Neoseiulus pluridentatus Lofego & Moraes, 2003

19'. Only setae Z4 or Z5 serrated; J2 not reaching the base of Z4..........................................................................................................20

20. Only setae Z5 serrated; cervix of spermatheca cup-shapped; macrosetae only on basitarsus IV and not knobbed..........................................................Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman, 1948)

20'. Setae Z4 and Z5 serrated; cervix of spermatheca trumpetshaped; macrosetae present on genu, tibia and basitarsus IV and knobbed distally.....Neoseiulus barreti Kreiter, 2005

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors thank Elisete M. de Freitas for plant identification; Gilberto J. de Moraes for technical support and for revising the manuscript, as well as anonymous referees for their constructive comments.

 

LITERATURE CITED

ATHIAS-HENRIOT, C. 1957. Phytoseiidae et Aceosejidae (Acarina, Gamasina) d'Algerie. 1. Genres Blattisocius Keegan, Iphiseius Berlese, Amblyseius Berlese, Phytoseius Ribaga, Phytoseiulus Evans. Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de l'Afrique du Nord 48: 319-352.         [ Links ]

BEARD, J.J. 2001. A review of Australian Neoseiulus Hughes and Typhlodromips de Leon (Acari: Phytoseiidae: Amblyseiinae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 15: 73-158.         [ Links ]

CHANT, D.A. & J.A. MCMURTRY. 2003. A review of the subfamily Amblyseiinae Muma (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Part I. Neoseiulini new tribe. International Journal of Acarology 29 (1): 3-46.         [ Links ]

CHANT, D.A. & J.A. MCMURTRY. 2007. Illustrated Keys and Diagnosis for the Genera and Subgenera of the Phytoseiidae of the World (Acari: Mesostigmata). Michigan, Indira Publishing House, 220p.         [ Links ]

CHANT, D.A. & E. YOSHIDA-SHAUL. 1992. Adult idiosomal setal patterns in the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Gamasida). International Journal of Acarology 18: 177-193.         [ Links ]

DEMITE, P.R.; G.J. DE MORAES; J.A. MCMURTRY; H.A. DENMARK & R.C. CASTILHO. 2014. Phytoseiidae Database. Available online at: www.lea.esalq.usp.br/phytoseiidae [Accessed: 05/X/2013]         [ Links ].

DENMARK, H.A. & M.H. MUMA. 1973. Phytoseiid mites of Brazil (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia 33: 235-276.         [ Links ]

DENMARK, H.A. 1965. Four new Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) from Florida. The Florida Entomologist 48: 89-95.         [ Links ]

GERSON, U.; R.L SMILEY & R. OCHOA. 2003. Mites (Acari) for pest control. Oxford, Blackwell Science, 539p.         [ Links ]

ROWELL, H.J.; D.A CHANT & R.I.C. HANSELL. 1978. The determination of setal homologies and setal patterns on the dorsal shield in the family Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata). The Canadian Entomologist 110: 859-876.         [ Links ]

 

 

Submitted: 03.X.2013;
Accepted: 12.III.2014
Editorial responsibility: Antonio D. Brescovit

 

 

* Corresponding author. E-mail: mrocha0602@gmail.com

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