On-line version ISSN 1984-7033
Crop Breed. Appl. Biotechnol. vol.12 no.1 Viçosa Mar. 2012
BRS 336: A high-quality fiber upland cotton cultivar for Brazilian savanna and semi-arid conditions
BRS 336: Cultivar de algodoeiro de alta qualidade de fibra para cultivo no cerrado e semi-árido do Brasil
Camilo de Lelis MorelloI; Murilo Barros PedrosaII; Nelson Dias SuassunaI, *; Fernando Mendes LamasIII; Luis Gonzaga ChitarraIV; João Luis Silva FilhoV; Francisco Pereira AndradeV; Paulo Augusto Vianna BarrosoII; José Lopes RibeiroVI; Vicente de Paulo Campos GodinhoVII; Marcelo Abreu LanzaVIII
IEmbrapa Algodão, Núcleo do Cerrado, C.P. 179, 75.375-000, Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil.* E-mail: email@example.com
IIFundação Bahia, BR 020/242, km 50,7, 47.850-000, Barreiras, BA, Brazil
IIIEmbrapa Agropecuária Oeste, C.P. 661, 79.804-970, Dourados, MS, Brazil
IVEmbrapa Algodão, Núcleo do Cerrado, Av. das Jacarandás, 2639, 78.550-003, Sinop, MT, Brazil
VEmbrapa Algodão, C.P. 147, 58.428-095, Campina Grande, PB, Brazil
VIEmbrapa Meio-Norte, Av. Duque de Caxias, 5650, 64.006-220, Teresina, PI, Brazil
VIIEmbrapa Rondônia, BR 364, km 5,5, C.P. 406, 76.815-800, Porto Velho, RO, Brazil
VIIIEpamig/FEGT, Rua Afonso Ratos, 1301, C.P. 311, 38.001-970, Uberaba, MG, Brazil
Cotton cultivar BRS 336 is a high-quality fiber upland cultivar and has wide adaptation to the Brazilian growing areas, with resistance to bacterial blight. BRS 336 exhibited fiber length higher than 32.0 mm in all field tests. Also, fiber strength exceeded all upland cotton currently grown in Brazil.
Key words: Gossypium hirsutum, disease resistance, fiber quality.
A cultivar de algodoeiro BRS 336 possui alta qualidade de fibra, adaptação às principais regiões produtoras de algodoeiro no Brasil e resistência à mancha angular. BRS 336 possui comprimento de fibra acima de 32,0 mm e resistência da fibra superior às demais cultivares em uso no Brasil.
Palavras-chave: Gossypium hirsutum, resistência às doenças, qualidade de fibra.
Cotton fiber is an economically important commodity in the world. Improving fiber quality in cotton cultivars is a major demand of the sector to confront competition with synthetic fibers, and to meet the necessities of the cotton industry and global market competition. The 'BRS 336' upland cotton cultivar (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (Reg. no. 27691) was developed by Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa) and partners (Fundo para o Desenvolvimento do Agronegócio do Algodão - FUNDEAGRO and Fundação Bahia) in 2011 as part of an ongoing effort to develop new cotton lines and cultivars with improved fiber quality and good yield potential adapted to major growing regions in Brazil (Freire et al. 2008).
GENETIC ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT
The cultivar BRS 336 was developed by hybridization following pedigree selection. It was originated from a tri-parental cross of cotton cultivars Chaco 520, BRS Itaúba, and Delta Opal [(Chaco 520 x BRS Itaúba) x Delta Opal], carried out in 2000 and 2001, respectively. Chaco 520 is an early plant with good fiber quality (30.6 mm 2.5 % SL and 31.4 gf tex-1 strength). BRS Itaúba (a selection of the Australian cultivar CS 50) also has a good fiber quality and resistance to the main diseases that occur in Brazil. Hybrid combinations with cultivar Delta Opal (a high-yielding cotton cultivar with pedigree DP 5816 x Sicala 33) are used for the improvement of seed cotton yield, lint yield, seed index and index of production and earliness (Morello et al. 2010). 'BRS 336' was derived from a single F3:4 progeny row following single plant selections based on apparent yield potential, HVI fiber properties, disease resistance, and overall plant conformation. The line obtained was treated subsequently as a pure line (CNPA BA 2005-3300 - F6), and was evaluated in Bahia State at two locations in the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 growing seasons. In the 2009/10 season, it was evaluated in 19 field trials in states of Bahia, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Maranhão Piauí, Paraíba, and Rondônia. Over all field tests 'BRS 336' had fiber length readings (UHML HVI) from 32.9 mm to 35.8 mm; micronaire (ìg inch-1) from 4.0 to 4.9 and strength from 32.0 to 37.0 gf tex-1.
'BRS 336' is a mid to late-season maturity, picker-type upland cotton cultivar with growth habits similar to those of 'Delta Opal' when grown at São Desidério, BA. Plants have trichomes on leaves and on the main stem. 'BRS 336' possesses normal-shaped leaves and bracts (7 to 12 lobes), glands and nectaries. The first reproductive branch is inserted generally on the fifth node, growing with oblique angle insertion. Flowers have cream-colored petals, anthers, and pollen. Full-size green bolls are longer than their width and are broader in the middle. The bolls possess four locks with five locks occurring occasionally. Open bolls are shattering resistant, but not storm proof, being suitable for picker harvesting. Lint and fuzz are white in color.
Plants are of medium height, reaching 115 to 125 cm tall, when 50 to 75 g ha-1 of the active ingredient of growth regulator (mepiquat chloride and chlormequat chloride) are applied. In altitude of 794 meters, the first flower appears at 60 to 65 days after emergence (DAE) and the first boll opens at about 110 to 120 DAE. In these environmental conditions and using harvest aid chemicals, the total harvest was attained at 170 to 180 DAE. 'BRS 336' has suitable resistance levels to the main diseases that occur in Brazil (Suassuna and Coutinho 2007). At high inoculum pressure, BRS 336 was resistant to bacterial blight [caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. malvacearum], moderately resistant to cotton blue disease [caused by Cotton leafroll dwarf virus- CLRDV], moderately susceptible to false mildew [caused by Ramularia areola] and ramulosis [caused by Colletotrichum gossypii var. cephalosporioides], and susceptible to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum - Meloidogyne incognita complex.
The new cultivar produced 1.4 % more seed cotton and 5.1 % less lint yield than 'Delta Opal', averaged across 19 performance trials in central, northeastern, southeastern, and northern Brazil in 2009/2010. Lower performance in lint yield is due to its low lint percentage, with a mean of 39.5 % (ranging from 38.2 to 43.5 %, measured in a roller gin) (Table 1). However, HVI measurements reveal desirable fiber attributes for an upland cotton cultivar, such as: micronaire (ìg inch-1) reading ranging from 4.0 to 4.9; fiber length (UHML) from 32.9 to 35.8 mm and fiber strength from 32.0 to 37.0 gf tex-1. Such fiber quality can be comparable with obsolete low-yielding high staple cultivar BRS Acácia (Acala type) and superior to high-yielding cultivar Delta Opal (Table 2). Cotton Incorporated classifies upland cotton with UHM fiber length of 28.2 to 32.0 mm as long and if > 32.0 mm as extra long (Cotton Incorporated and Textile World 2010).
SEED MAINTENANCE AND DISTRIBUTION
'BRS 336' is registered in Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA) under the number 27691. Foundation seed is produced by the Embrapa Transferência de Tecnologia (SNT). The Fundação Bahia, working in partnership with Embrapa, is responsible for certified seed production.
Research leading to the development of 'BRS 336' was supported in part by grants from FUNDEAGRO.
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Received 10 October 2011
Accepted 9 January 2012