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Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology

On-line version ISSN 1984-7033

Crop Breed. Appl. Biotechnol. vol.12 no.4 Viçosa Dec. 2012 



BRSMG Madrepérola: common bean cultivar with late-darkening Carioca grain



José Eustáquio de Souza CarneiroI,*; Angela de Fatima Barbosa AbreuII; Magno Antonio Patto RamalhoIII; Trazilbo José de Paula JúniorIV; Maria José Del PelosoII; Leonardo Cunha MeloII; Helton Santos PereiraII; Israel Alexandre Pereira FilhoV; Maurício MartinsVI; Rogério Faria VieiraIV; Fábio Aurélio Dias MartinsIV; Maurício Antônio de Oliveira CoelhoIV; Pedro Crescêncio de Souza CarneiroI; José Aloísio Alves MoreiraV; João Bosco dos SantosIII; Luís Cláudio de FariaII; Joaquim Geraldo Cáprio da CostaII; Hudson TeixeiraIV

IUniversidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV), Departamento de Fitotecnia, 36.570-000, Viçosa, MG, Brazil
IIEmbrapa Arroz e Feijão, Rod. GO-462, km 12, Zona Rural, C.P. 179, 75.375-000, Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil
IIIUniversidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Depto de Biologia, Genética e Melhoramento de Plantas, C.P. 3037, 37.200-000, Lavras, MG, Brazil
IVEmpresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais (Epamig), Av. José Cândido da Silveira , 1647, União, 31.170-495, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
VEmbrapa Milho e Sorgo,  Rod. MG-424,  km 45, Sete Lagoas, C.P. 285, 35.701-970, Sete Lagoas,  MG, Brazil
VIUniversidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU), 38.400-902, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil




The cultivar BRSMG Madrepérola, recommended for cultivation in Minas Gerais, has the feature of maintaining a light grain color for a longer period than other Carioca grain cultivars. The yield potential is high and the resistance level good to the major anthracnose races in the region.

Key words: Breeding, Phaseolus vulgaris L., grain type, grain quality.




Common beans with carioca grain are preferred by consumers, representing approximately 79% of the beans consumed in Brazil. A large number of cultivars with this grain type are recommended and readily available, which differ mainly in terms of resistance to pathogens, plant architecture and cream hues of the grain (Incaper 2010).

Farmers will readily adopt a new bean cultivar with advantages over those in use, with regard to a good seed yield, resistance to the major regional pathogens, and of course, grains that meet the consumers demands, to ensure a good market price for the product. Consumers on the other hand are only interested in grain-related characteristics. In the case of carioca bean, this requirement is more pronounced, especially with regard to the beige hues and brown stripes of the grain tegument. These hues should be fair and persist as long as possible before darkening. Moreover, the beans must have good cooking qualities.

To meet the demand of this large proportion of the population that produces and consumes carioca beans, institutions working together to improve common bean in Minas Gerais (Embrapa Rice and Beans, Agricultural Research Company of Minas Gerais - Epamig, Federal University of Lavras - UFLA, and Federal University of Viçosa - UFV), have registered BRSMG Madrepérola, a new common bean cultivar with late-darkening carioca grain, suited for cultivation in the state of Minas Gerais.



BRSMG Madrepérola was obtained by hybridization, using the lines AN 512666-0 and AN 730031 as parents. The crosses were made in a greenhouse of Embrapa Rice and Beans, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, where the F1 to F5 generations were grown on an experimental field.

In 1996, this population was introduced in the UFV common bean breeding program, and the F6 generation was planted at an experimental station of the Plant Science Department in Coimbra, Minas Gerais. In this generation, plants were selected for carioca grain. The progenies of these plants were evaluated over two generations for yield, grain appearance and response to agents of anthracnose, angular leaf spot and rust. The best lines were assessed in intermediate tests and, finally, one of these lines, called VC-3, was included in the test cycle 2002/2004 of Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU), conducted by the partnership institutions UFLA, UFV, Embrapa Rice and Beans and Epamig, in Minas Gerais.

The VCU tests in which line VC-3 participated were conducted from the winter growing season of 2002 until the winter of 2004 in 43 environments of the state (Abreu et al. 2005). This line was evaluated along with 17 others and with the control cultivars BRSMG Talismã and Pérola. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications and plots consisting of four 4m rows. The following traits were evaluated: grain yield (kg ha-1); severity of angular leaf spot, on a 1-9 scale, where 1 - plant without disease symptoms to 9 - completely infected plant; plant architecture, on a 1-9 scale, where 1 - upright plants to 9 - completely prostrate plants; degree of lodging, on a 1-9 scale, where 1 - absence of lodging to 9 - all plants lodged; number of days to flowering; and number of days to maturity. The reaction to races 55, 65, 73, 81, 89, 95, and 453 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum was also evaluated in the laboratory, according to the methodology described by Rava et al. (1994), the cooking time (in min) in a 25-seed Mattson cooker (Proctor and Watts 1987); protein content based on the total nitrogen grain content determined by the microKjedahl method using the factor 6.25 to convert total N in protein (AOAC 1980); grain coat color using a colorimeter (Minolta CR-310), which evaluates the colors along three axes in a three-dimensional system, as described by Silva et al. (2008).



Agronomic characteristics

The growth habit of BRSMG Madrepérola is indeterminate, type III and prostrate. It is considered semi-early, compared to other cultivars of the group carioca (Abreu et al. 2005). In the winter growing season, the cycle from emergence to physiological maturity is completed in about 88 days and in the rainy and dry seasons within approximately 80 days.

Disease response

Under artificial inoculation, BRSMG Madrepérola showed resistance to common mosaic virus and to the pathotypes 55, 65, 73, 81, 89, 95 and 453 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causative agent of anthracnose and susceptibility to Curtobacterium wilt and to common bacterial blight. Under field conditions, the response to the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola, the causal agent of angular leaf spot, was intermediate, and the response to fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum) susceptible.

Grain yield

In 43 trials conducted in three growing seasons in the state of Minas Gerais by Abreu et al. (2005), cultivar BRSMG Madrepérola produced an average grain yield of 2308 kg ha-1, which is 6% above the average of the controls Pérola and BRSMG Talismã (Table 1), and almost 11% higher than the control mean in the winter growing season.

Industrial and technical grain quality

The grains of BRSMG Madrepérola are "Carioca" (light beige with light brown stripes), according to the consumer demands, have an average 100-grain weight of 24.5 g and maintain the color longer without darkening (around six months) than other carioca varieties on the market (Silva et al. 2008).

The nutritional and culinary qualities are excellent, with comparable protein content and cooking time to the most frequently indicated bean cultivars (Table 2) (Abreu et al. 2004, Melo et al. 2005, Abreu et al. 2007).




Cultivar BRSMG Madrepérola was registered by Embrapa, EPAMIG, UFLA, and UFV in the National Register of Cultivars (RNC) of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA) on Feb 8, 2011, under number 27607, and protected by the National Plant Variety Protection Service (SNPC) on Feb 13, 2012 (certificate Nr 20120045). EPAMIG is in charge of the seed production.



Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais, Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia and Coopertinga.



The authors thank the institutions Research Foundation of the state of Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG), National Council of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education (CAPES) for the financial support.



Abreu AFB, Ramalho MAP, Carneiro JES, Del Peloso MJ, Chagas JM, Pereira Filho IA, Faria LC, Melo LC, Gonçalves FMA, Paula Júnior TJ and Santos JB (2005) Valor de cultivo e uso para feijoeiro comum de grãos tipo carioca em Minas Gerais, no período de 2002 a 2004. In Congresso Nacional de Pesquisa de Feijão. Santo Antônio de Goiás: Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, 2005. v. 1. p. 589-592.         [ Links ]

Abreu AFB, Ramalho MAP, Carneiro JES, Del Peloso MJ, Paula Júnior TJ, Faria LC, Melo LC, Barros EG, Moreira MA, Pereira Filho IA, Martins M, Santos JB, Rava CA, Costa JGC and Sartorato ? (2007) A. BRSMG Majestoso: another common bean cultivar of carioca grain type for the state of Minas Gerais. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 7: 403-405.         [ Links ]

Abreu AFB, Ramalho MAP, Carneiro JES, Gonçalves FMA, Santos JB, Del Peloso MJ, Faria LC, Carneiro GES and Pereira Filho IA (2004) BRSMG Talismã: common bean cultivar with carioca grain type. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 4: 372-374.         [ Links ]

Association of Official Analytical Chemists – AOAC (1980) Official analysis. 13th ed.         [ Links ]

Incaper (2010) Cultivares. In Posse SCP, Souza EMR, Silva GM, Fasolo LM, Silva MB and Rocha MAM (eds.) Informações técnicas para o cultivo do feijoeiro-comum na região central-brasileira: 2009-2011. Incaper, Vitória, p. 105-109 (Documentos nº 191)        [ Links ]

Melo LC, Faria LC, Rava CA, Del Peloso MJ, Costa JGC, Diaz JLC, Faria JC, Silva HT, Sartorado A and Bassinello PZ (2005) BRS Horizonte: new bean variety of the carioca grain type. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 5: 473-474.         [ Links ]

Proctor JR and Watts BM (1987) Development of a modified Mattson bean cooker produce based on sensory panel cookability evaluation. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Tecnology 20: 9-14.         [ Links ]

Rava CA, Purchio AF and Sartorato A (1994) Caracterização de patótipos de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum que ocorrem em algumas regiões produtoras de feijoeiro comum. Fitopatologia Brasileira 19: 167-172.         [ Links ]

Silva GS, Ramalho MAP, Abreu AFB and Silva FB (2008) Genetic control of early grain darkening of carioca common bean. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 8: 299-304.         [ Links ]



Received 04 October 2011
Accepted 29 May 2012



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