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Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology

On-line version ISSN 1984-7033

Crop Breed. Appl. Biotechnol. vol.12 no.4 Viçosa Dec. 2012 



Common bean cultivar BRS Ametista with large Carioca grains and disease resistance



Leonardo Cunha MeloI,*; Joaquim Geraldo Cáprio da CostaI; Helton Santos PereiraI; Maria José Del PelosoI; Adriane WendlandI; Luís Cláudio de FariaI; Adriano Stephan NascenteI; José Luis Cabrera DíazI; Hélio Wilson Lemos de CarvalhoII; Antônio Félix da CostaIII; Válter Martins de AlmeidaIV; Carlos Lázaro Pereira de MeloV;Ângela de Fátima Barbosa AbreuI; Mariana Cruzick de Sousa MagaldiI; Sheila Cristina Prucoli PosseVI; Benedito Fernandes de Souza FilhoVII; Juarez Fernandes SouzaVIII; Cléber Moraes GuimarãesI; Jaison Pereira de OliveiraI

IEmbrapa Arroz e Feijão, Rod. GO 462, km 12, C.P. 179, 75.375-000, Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil
IIEmbrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros, Avenida beira Mar, 3250, Bairro Jardins, C.P. 44, 49.025-040, Aracaju, SE, Brazil
IIIInstituto Agronômico de Pernambuco, Avenida General San Martin, 1371, Bairro Bongi, 50.761-000, Recife, PE, Brazil
IVEmpresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Mato Grosso, Rua Jari Gomes, 454, C.P. 225, 78.068-690, Cuiabá, MT, Brazil
VEmbrapa Agropecuária Oeste, Rod. BR 163, km 253, 6, C.P. 449, 79.804-790, Dourados, MS, Brazil
VIInstituto Capixaba de Pesquisa, Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural, Rua Afonso Sarlo, 160, Bairro Bento Ferreira, 29.052-010, Vitória, ES, Brazil
VIIEmpresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Alameda São Boaventura, 770, Fonseca, 24.120-191, Niterói, RJ, Brazil
VIIIFundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Gonçalves Dias, 570, Bairro Menino Deus, 90.130-060, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil




BRS Ametista is a common bean cultivar with Carioca grain and yields similar to cultivar Pérola, but with larger grain size, resistance to anthracnose and Fusarium wilt. It is recommended for 18 states in all regions of Brazil and can be planted on over 95% of the area used for common bean in the country.

Key words: Phaseolus vulgaris, grain size, Fusarium wilt.




Common bean is a socially and economically important crop in Brazil and is grown in almost all states of the nation. In the last 10 years, the acreage of common bean in Brazil decreased by 13.3%. On the other hand, the production increased by 19%, owing to the significant increase in average productivity (73%). Despite the increased production, the domestic supply is still insufficient, since consumption increased by 10.94%, in only the period between 2004 and 2010 (CONAB 2011). Thus, new cultivars should continuously be developed in common bean breeding programs to meet the needs of producers and consumers.

In Brazil, common beans are separated in several market groups, according to their grain types; the Carioca group (79%) and black (17%) account for almost all of the Brazilian production (Del Peloso and Melo 2005), i.e., the Carioca group is the most important. Efforts of the Brazilian agricultural research corporation Embrapa have focused primarily on developing cultivars with Carioca grain that meet different needs of the supply chain of common bean. The main traits prioritized in breeding programs are the following: suitability for direct mechanical harvesting (BRS Horizonte (Melo et al. 2005), BRS Cometa (Faria et al. 2008) and BRS Estilo (Melo et al. 2010), disease resistance (BRS Pontal (Del Peloso et al. 2004) and BRS Notável (Pereira et al. 2012), delayed grain darkening after harvest(BRS Requinte (Faria et al. 2004)), earliness(BRS Cometa and BRS Notável), grain yield (BRS Pontal, BRS Estilo and BRS Notável). In addition to the agronomic traits, other characteristics are highly relevant as well for the acceptance of new cultivars, e.g., the market quality of the grain, primarily related to size, shape and color of the beans, mainly for the market group Carioca.

The current marketing standard for the Carioca grain demands beans with light background, large and not shiny. For meeting these criteria, the grains of cultivar Pérola became standard on the Brazilian market since over 10 years. Consequently, to ensure a good acceptance on the market, a new cultivar should have grains with the same or a better commercial quality than the standard.



The BRS Ametista was originated from a hybridization between the lines PR9115957 / LR720982CP at Embrapa Rice and Beans, in 1993. After crossing, the F1 generation was grown in a greenhouse for plant propagation in that year. The other selection steps were all performed in Santo Antônio de Goiás. The F2 population was sown in the field in 1994 and selected for large Carioca grains. Also in 1994 and 1995, the F3 and F4 generations, respectively, were selected for plant architecture and for large Carioca grains and in 1995, plants in the F5 generation were selected for rust resistance and grain type, resulting in F5:6 families. These F5:6 families were selected for resistance to anthracnose, rust and angular leaf spot, in 1996. In 1997, families of the F5:7 generation were selected for resistance to bacterial blight, plant architecture, grain yield, and large Carioca grain. In the F5:8 generation, in 1998, lines were selected for yield and plant architecture. In the F5:9 generation, in 2000, plants were selected for grain yield and plant architecture, leading to the selection of line LM 200204188.

In 2001, this line was assessed in a Preliminary Test of Carioca beans in a randomized block design with three replications and plots consisting of two 4-m rows, in which over 109 lines and four controls were tested at four sites (Santo Antônio de Goiás (GO) and Seropédica (RJ), Ponta Grossa (PR) and Lavras (MG). In 2003, this line was assessed in an Intermediate Test with over 24 lines and five controls, in blocks with three replications and four 4-m rows, in seven environments: in Santo Antônio de Goiás (GO) in the rainy season, Ponta Grossa (PR) in the rainy and dry season, Lavras (MG) in the winter, Sete Lagoas (MG) in the dry season, Simão Dias (SE) in the rainy season and Seropédica (RJ) in the winter. A pooled data analysis of yield and other agronomic traits indicated line LM 200204188, then named CNFC 10470, to be included in the Test of Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU). In 2004, the plants were multiplied to obtain enough seeds for VCU tests. In 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010, line CNFC 10470 was evaluated in 129 VCU tests, along with the controls (Pérola, Iapar 81, BRS Pontal, BRS 9435 Cometa, and IAC Alvorada), in a randomized block design with four replications and plots of four 4-mrows, using the respective recommended technologies for the different environments and cropping systems.



In 128 VCU tests conducted from 2005 to 2010, in the winter growing season in Tocantins and Mato Grosso, in the rainy season in Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco and Bahia, in the dry growing season in Mato Grosso do Sul, in the rainy and dry seasons in Santa Catarina, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul, and in the rainy, dry and winter growing seasons in Goiás, São Paulo and the Federal District, the mean grain yield of BRS Ametista (CNFC 10 470) was equal to that of the controls (Pérola, Iapar 81, BRS Pontal, BRS 9435 Cometa, BRS Estilo, IAC Alvorada, IAC Carioca, IPR Tangará, SCS Guará and BRS Requinte) (Table 1).



The overall mean yield was 2,124 kg ha-1, versus 2,144 kg ha-1of the controls and 2,164 kg ha-1of cultivar Pérola. Two controls were used in each comparison, one of which was always Pérola in all tests. The second control was preferentially IAPAR 81. Otherwise, one of the other above-mentioned cultivars was used, according to the constitution of the tests.

Considering the data for each growing season and state, BRS Ametista reached a superiority of 38.1% over the controls in the winter in Tocantins and 37.5% superiority in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in the dry growing season. BRS Ametista had the highest overall relative yield (Table 1) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, with a superiority of 22.4% compared to the controls, indicating a high suitability of the cultivar for the growing conditions and the soil and climate of this state. In the state of Paraná, which produces approximately 27% of the national common bean output, and consequently the state with the highest common bean production in Brazil (FEIJÃO 2011), BRS Ametista had a mean yield of 2,226 kg ha-1 and 1,774 kg ha-1, in the rainy and dry growing seasons, respectively, reaching the productivity of the controls when considering the overall average of the two growing seasons in Paraná.

The production potential of BRS Ametista, averaging the five tests in which this cultivar had the highest yields, was 4,265 kg ha-1. This result shows that the cultivar has a high genetic potential and that if the environment is favorable and growing conditions are good, high yields can be achieved.



With regard to the characteristics of technological and industrial grain quality, BRS Ametista has a regular grain color and size and an average 100-grain weight of 30 grams, with larger grains than those of controls Pérola and IAPAR 81 (Table 2). This trait was decisive for the decision to release this line, since light-colored and larger grains are desired by consumers (Carbonell et al. 2008). The average cooking time of BRS Ametista is 26 min, slightly shorter than that of the controls (on average 28 min). Regarding the protein percentage, the average content of BRS Ametista was slightly higher (around 23%) than the 21% of the controls.

Artificially inoculated BRS Ametista is resistant to common-mosaic virus and the pathotypes 65, 73, 81, 89, and 453 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose. In field trials, it was moderately resistant to anthracnose, fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, and rust. However, it was susceptible to angular leaf spot, curtobacterium wilt and golden mosaic virus (Table 3).

BRS Ametista has a normal cycle (85-94 days from emergence to physiological maturity), similar to Pérola, BRS Estilo (Melo et al. 2010) and IAC Alvorada (Carbonell et al. 2008). The plants are shrubby, with indeterminate growth habit type III. The plant architecture of BRS Ametista is semi-erect, quite similar to Pérola, adapted only to indirect mechanical harvesting. The flowers are white and at physiological maturity the pods turn yellow. At harvest maturity, the pods are evenly sandy yellow. The Carioca grains (beige with brown stripes) have an elliptical flat shape, are not shiny and larger than those of Pérola and BRS Estilo (Melo et al. 2010), according to the current consumer preference on the market.



BRS Ametista was registered by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply, on March 02, 2011, under number 27807and protection in september 21, 2012, under number 20120174. Embrapa Products and Markets will be in charge of the basic seed production.



The common bean cultivar BRS Ametista has a normal cycle, good yield potential, yield stability, light-colored grains larger than those of Pérola and moderate resistance to anthracnose, fusarium wilt and common bacterial blight.

BRS Ametista is well-suited for planting in the following states and growing seasons: rainy, dry and winter in Goias, Distrito Federal, Bahia, and Sao Paulo; winter and dry in Mato Grosso, rainy and dry in Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul; winter in Tocantins; dry in Mato Grosso do Sul; and rainy in Maranhão, Pernambuco, Sergipe, Alagoas, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceará, Paraíba, and Piauí.



The following partner institutions were involved in testing the cultivar: Embrapa Arroz e Feijão; Embrapa Transferência de Tecnologia; Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros; Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste; Embrapa Semi-árido; Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Mato Grosso; Instituto Agronômico de Pernambucano; Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Rio Grande do Sul; Emater – GO; Instituto Agronômico de Campinas; Universidade do Centro-Oeste; Fundação de Ensino Superior de Rio Verde; Embrapa Cerrados; Instituto Capixaba de Pesquisa, Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural, Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Estado do Rio de Janeiro; Embrapa Milho e Sorgo;Universidade Federal de Lavras; Universidade Federal de Viçosa; Universidade Federal de Uberlândia; Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais; Embrapa Trigo; Instituto Federal Goiano; Instituto Luterano de Ensino Superior/Universidade Luterana do Brasil; Embrapa Soja; Universidade Estadual Paulista; Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul; Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul; Universidade Estadual de Goiás; Universidade Federal do Tocantins.



Carbonell SAM, Chiorato AF, Ito MF, Perina EF, Gonçalves JGR, Souza OS, Gallo PB, Ticeli M, Colombo CA and Azevedo Filho JA (2008) IAC Alvorada and IAC Diplomata: New common bean cultivars. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 8: 163-166.         [ Links ]

CONAB. Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento.2010. Available at <> Accessed June 2011.         [ Links ]

Del Peloso MJ and Melo LC (2005) Potencial de rendimento da cultura do feijoeiro comum. Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, Santo Antônio de Goiás, 131p.         [ Links ]

Del Peloso MJ, Melo LC, Faria LC, Costa JGC, Rava CA, Carneiro GES, Soares DM, Díaz JLC, Abreu AFB, Faria JC, Sartorato A, Silva HT, Bassinello PZ and Zimmermann FJP (2004) BRS Pontal: new common bean cultivar with Carioca grain type. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 4: 369-371.         [ Links ]

Faria LC, Costa JGC, Rava CA, Del Peloso MJ, Melo LC, Carneiro GES, Soares DM, Díaz JLC, Abreu AFB, Faria JC, Sartorato A, Silva HT, Bassinello PZ and Zimmermann FJP (2004) BRS Requinte: new common bean Carioca cultivar with delayed grain darkness. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 4: 366-368.         [ Links ]

Faria LC, Del Peloso MJ, Melo LC, Costa JGC, Rava CA, Carneiro GES, Díaz JLC, Faria JC, Silva HT, Sartorato A, Bassinello PZ and Trovo JBF (2008) BRS Cometa: a carioca common bean cultivar with erect growth habit. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 8: 167-169.         [ Links ]

FEIJÃO: dados conjunturais do feijão (área, produção e rendimento) - Brasil - 1985 a 2009. Available at <> Accessed January 7, 2011.         [ Links ]

Melo LC, Del Peloso, MJ, Pereira HS, Faria LC, Costa JGC, Díaz JLC, Rava, CA, Wendland A and Abreu AFB (2010) BRS Estilo: Common bean cultivar with Carioca grain, upright growth and high yield potential. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 10: 377-379.         [ Links ]

Melo LC, Faria LC, Rava, CA, Del Peloso MJ, Costa JGC, Diaz JLC; Faria JC, Silva HT, Sartorato A, Bassinelo PZ and Zimmermann FJP (2005) BRS Horizonte: new bean variety of the carioca grain type. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 5: 473-474.         [ Links ]

Pereira HS, Wendland A, Melo LC, Del Peloso MJ, Faria LC, Costa JGC, Nascente AS, Díaz JLC, Carvalho HWL, Almeida WM, Melo CLP, Costa AF, Posse SCP, Souza JF, Abreu AFB, Magaldi, MCS, Guimarães CM and Oliveira JP (2012) BRS Estilo: Common bean cultivar with Carioca grain, upright growth and high yield potential. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 12: 220-223.         [ Links ]



Received 16 June 2012
Accepted 3 September 2012



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