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Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology

Print version ISSN 1518-7853On-line version ISSN 1984-7033

Crop Breed. Appl. Biotechnol. vol.19 no.3 Viçosa July/Sept. 2019  Epub Oct 31, 2019

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1984-70332019v19n3c53 

CULTIVAR RELEASE

IAC 1850: High yielding carioca common bean cultivar

Sérgio Augusto Morais Carbonell1  * 
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2964-972X

Alisson Fernando Chiorato1 

Luiza Maria Capanema Bezerra1 

João Guilherme Ribeiro Gonçalves1 

Daiana Alves da Silva1 

Jose Antonio de Fatima Esteves1 

Luciana Lasry Benchimol-Reis1 

Cassia Regina Limonta Carvalho1 

Vera Lúcia Nishijima Paes de Barros2 

Rogério Soares de Freitas3 

Marcelo Ticelli4 

Paulo Boller Gallo5 

1Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, 13.020-902, Campinas, SP, Brazil.

2Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Negócios, Pólo Regional de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico do Agronegócio, Sudoeste Paulista, 18.300-970, Capão Bonito, SP, Brazil

3 Instituto Agronômico, Centro APTA de Seringueira e Sistemas Agroflorestais, Zona rural, 15.500-000, Votuporanga, SP, Brazil

4Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Negócios Sudoeste Paulista, Pólo Regional de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico do Agronegócio, km 38, 18.300-970, Tatuí, SP, Brazil

5 Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Negócios Nordeste Paulista, Pólo Regional de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico do Agronegócio, 13.730-980, Mococa, SP, Brazil


Abstract

IAC 1850 is a common bean cultivar with a carioca (beige-colored with brown stripes) seed coat, average cycle of 88 days, semi-upright plant architecture, tolerance to seed coat darkening, 1000 seed weight of 280 grams, resistance to the main diseases in common bean, and a high average yield (2,857 kg ha-1) obtained in 36 experiments conducted in different regions in Brazil.

Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris L.; plant breeding; resistance to darkening; disease resistance.

INTRODUCTION

Common bean (dry edible bean or simply “beans”) is one of the most important legume crops in Brazil and throughout the world, it is considered a staple and low-cost protein source, consumed in several under-developed countries, an excellent source of fiber, iron and amino acids (CIAT 2016). Furthermore, beans strongly reinforce food and nutrition security among poor consumers, while according to Li et al. (2017) its consumption also reducing the risk of cardio-vascular disease and diabetes.

Common bean is grown in diverse regions of the world, but it is most highly concentrated in areas of tropical and subtropical climate (Singh et al. 1992). Although it is grown throughout Brazil and is considered a staple food for the population, yield is considered to be low. Mean yield of carioca bean in the three annual crop seasons, according to CONAB (2018), was 1,379 kg ha-1, whereas the crop has a yield potential of up to 4,500 kg ha-1 (Wutke et al. 2014). One of the common bean cultivars classified as “colored” by the Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento - Conab (National Food Supply Agency) is carioca (beige/cream-colored with brown stripes), which corresponds to approximately 65% of common bean production in Brazil in 2006 according to Silva and Wander (2013).

Factors responsible for low yield of common bean include the technologies used in growing the crop, such as inadequate use of machines and implements and the lack of use of recommended fertilizers, soil amendments, and irrigation; biotic factors such as pests, diseases, and weeds; and abiotic factors such as thermal variations, water deficit, and edaphic factors concerning the chemical composition, structure, compaction, low fertility, and acidity of the soil (Fageria et al. 2015).

Due to concentration of production in carioca bean, Brazilian farmers have had to bear price declines in periods in which product stocks increase and supply is excessive. For carioca bean production, sale of excess stocks on the international market is not an alternative because there is low demand for this type of common bean, unlike pinto beans (cream-colored with brown specks). Therefore, common bean breeding programs become extremely important to be able to exploit the variability of the species to reduce costs, create business opportunities, and stimulate consumption.

In the Common Bean Breeding Program at the Instituto Agronômico - IAC (PMGF-IAC), genetic studies guide definition of the methods used for crop breeding, which must be increasingly efficient to develop adapted cultivars that maintain yield under growing conditions in unfavorable locations. The breeder needs to consider various factors besides yield; genotypes need to meet criteria of agronomic interests and market demands, such as resistance to the main diseases of common bean, resistance to abiotic factors, shorter cooking time, resistance to seed coat darkening, and a high percentage of beans that remain whole after cooking (Carbonell et al. 2010).

The goal of breeding programs is to develop common bean cultivars that increase production, trade, and consumption, together with agronomic management of the crop considering low cost, environmental conservation, nutritional quality, and product technology. Thus, the cultivar IAC 1850 was developed by the PMGF-IAC to meet these requirements. It was registered in 2018 under number 38613 in the National Cultivar Registry of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA/RNC).

GENETIC ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT

The cultivar IAC 1850 originated in 2012 in a cross between the lines Seleção 940 x Seleção 847 as part of the PMGF-IAC for carioca common bean. The parents involved in this cross were progenies of selections involving several multiple crosses for improving characteristics of resistance to anthracnose and to fusarium wilt, upright plant architecture, stability in production in diverse environments, and high yield. In 2013, 15 F1 seeds were sown in a greenhouse to obtain 684 seeds of the F2 generation, which were conduct by pedigree breeding method. The F2 seedlings were inoculated with a mixture of races 65, 81 and 321 of the anthracnose (Coletotrichum lindemuthianum) pathogen under controlled laboratory conditions, and 32 F2:3 resistant seedlings were obtained in 2014. Also in 2014, the 32 F2:3 progenies were evaluated in the field for reaction to fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum) and 125 individual F2:4 plants were selected. The 125 progenies of the F2:4 generation were sown in five-meter rows in the research and development unit in the municipality of Capão Bonito-SP (UPD - IAC Capão Bonito), for evaluation of diverse agronomic characteristics. Four F2:5 plants of the progeny number 90 were selected and codified under the numbers Gen90-1A, Gen90-2A, Gen90-3A and Gen90-4A. The “Gen” abbreviation refers to the PMGF-IAC and the letter “A” corresponds to anthracnose resistance, as the progenies were subjected to anthracnose in the F2 generation.

In the 2015 dry crop season, the four F2:5 lines were sown in the research and development unit UPD-IAC Mococa in the municipality of Mococa-SP, using a randomized block statistical design with three replications. In the winter crop season of the same year, the four lines were sown with other lines of the PMGF-IAC at the Centro Avançado de Seringueira e Sistemas Agroflorestais - IAC, in the municipality of Votuporanga, SP, for evaluation of reaction to fusarium wilt, and the line Gen90-4A was selected. This line came to be designated as Gen90-4A-160. The number 160 corresponds to the field plot position of the Gen90-4A line. The Gen90-4A-160 line was sown in the 2015 rainy crop season on the Santa Elisa Farm of the Instituto Agronômico - IAC in the municipality of Campinas, SP. In this evaluation, the line had excellent agronomic performance and was recommended together with other lines to compose the Value of Cultivation and Use - VCU trials for the 2016/2017 biennial period.

YIELD CAPACITY

The VCU experiments were conducted in 36 environments over the years 2016 and 2017 in three sowing seasons and in municipalities of the states of São Paulo and Goiás (Table 1). The cultivars used as controls for the carioca group were IAC Milênio and BRS Perola. The line Gen90-4A-160 (IAC 1850) had excellent agronomic performance for yield (Table 1). In twelve environments per crop season in two years of evaluation, the line Gen90-4A-160 (IAC 1850) showed a mean yield of 2,975 kg ha-1, 2,607 kg ha-1, and 2,989 kg ha-1 in the rainy, dry, and winter crop seasons, respectively, compared to the mean yield values of the two controls per crop season of 2,566 kg ha-1, 2,252 kg ha-1, and 2,596 kg ha-1, respectively. In combined analysis of the three crop seasons, the mean yield of the line Gen90-4A-160 (IAC 1850) was 2,857 kg ha-1and the mean of the control cultivars was 2,463 kg ha-1.

Table 1 Bean seed yield (kg ha-1) in 2016/2017 VCU experiments grown in 36 environments in three crop seasons  

Location Season Year IAC 1850 (kg ha-1) Control (kg ha-1) Mean yield of the controls CV (%)
BRS Perola IAC Milênio
Capão Bonito - SP Rainy 2016 4717* 3925 4212 4069 14.39
Mococa - SP Rainy 2016 2979 2779 2312 2546 15.28
Campinas - SP Rainy 2016 2521 1725 2625 2175 24.10
Cristalina - GO Rainy 2016 1775 1888 1775 1832 24.35
Formosa - GO Rainy 2016 2683 2808 2250 2529 19.80
Santo Antonio de Goiás - GO Rainy 2016 3971 3746 3660 3703 14.11
Capão Bonito - SP Dry 2016 2250 2246 2195 2221 12.37
Mococa - SP Dry 2016 2638 2402 2398 2400 15.05
Campinas - SP Dry 2016 2825* 1254 2236 1745 18.29
Cristalina - GO Dry 2016 3021* 2296 2450 2373 12.85
Formosa - GO Dry 2016 3350 2500 3890 3195 17.42
Santo Antonio de Goiás - GO Dry 2016 3408* 2892 2990 2941 14.46
Ribeirão Preto - SP Winter 2016 1983 1703 1750 1727 11.92
Votuporanga - SP Winter 2016 2300 1739 1850 1795 9.70
Campinas - SP Winter 2016 2956* 2000 2120 2060 10.33
Cristalina - GO Winter 2016 4604* 2333 3500 2917 22.53
Santo Antonio de Goiás - GO Winter 2016 2654 2082 2565 2324 13.80
Formosa - GO Winter 2016 1733 1638 1687 1663 10.08
Capão Bonito - SP Rainy 2017 1254 1145 1210 1178 16.00
Mococa - SP Rainy 2017 2471 2188 2223 2206 15.23
Campinas - SP Rainy 2017 2963* 1996 2150 2073 16.10
Cristalina - GO Rainy 2017 4583* 3067 3285 3176 14.25
Formosa - GO Rainy 2017 3542 3217 3365 3291 10.09
Santo Antonio de Goiás - GO Rainy 2017 2242 2054 1990 2022 16.19
Capão Bonito - SP Dry 2017 1375 1245 1100 1173 15.45
Mococa - SP Dry 2017 1872 1650 1780 1715 22.40
Campinas - SP Dry 2017 4233 3890 3915 3903 21.00
Cristalina - GO Dry 2017 2042 1998 1640 1819 10.01
Formosa - GO Dry 2017 2558 2446 1890 2168 20.10
Santo Antonio de Goiás - GO Dry 2017 1713 1515 1240 1378 23.70
Ribeirão Preto - SP Winter 2017 2354 2243 2305 2274 14.60
Votuporanga - SP Winter 2017 2363 2150 2040 2095 19.80
Campinas - SP Winter 2017 3783 3670 3374 3522 17.80
Cristalina - GO Winter 2017 3196 3146 2980 3063 19.00
Santo Antonio de Goiás - GO Winter 2017 3364 3250 3205 3228 14.00
Formosa - GO Winter 2017 4583 4315 4650 4483 15.10
Mean of the rainy season (kg ha-1) 2975 2545 2588 2540 18.0
Mean of the dry season (kg ha-1) 2607 2195 2310 2252 19.7
Mean of the fall-winter season (kg ha-1) 2989 2522 2669 2596 15.2
Overall mean (kg ha-1) 2857 2421 2522 2463 17.5

* Dunnett test (p>0.05)

OTHER CHARACTERISTICS

The plant of the cultivar IAC 1850 has semi-upright plant architecture and type II indeterminate growth habit. Its mean cycle is 90 days from emergence to physiological maturity, in accordance with crop growing conditions, considered to be intermediate cycle. The cultivar IAC 1850 has carioca beans with a beige-colored seed coat with brown stripes. The mean 1000 seed weight is 280 grams, and it is resistant to early seed coat darkening.

Under natural growing conditions, the cultivar IAC 1850 is moderately resistant to anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum), to angular leaf spot (Phaeoisariopsis griseola), to fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum), to common bacterial blight (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli), and to bacterial wilt (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. Flaccumfaciens).

As shown in the mean test Dunnet (p>0.05) (Table 2), mean cooking time (30.9 min) and bean protein content (20%) of the cultivar IAC 1850 were similar to those of the controls. These results qualify the cultivar to be able to be well received by the consumer market.

Table 2 Technological and nutritional quality: mean values of cooking time by the Mattson cooker and protein percentage in common bean seeds grown in the 2016/2017 biennial period.  

Season IAC 1850 IAC Milênio BRS Pérola
Cooking Time (min) Protein Content (%) Cooking Time (min) Protein Content (%) Cooking Time (min) Protein Content (%)
Winter 2016 33.31 19 33.30 20 35.21 19
Winter 2017 36.71 20 32.40 19 32.27 19
Rainy 2016 29.30 21 30.35 19 35.25 20
Rainy 2017 30.31 18 32.50 21 30.03 21
Dry 2016 28.45 19 29.30 21 29.25 21
Dry 2017 27.35 20 28.40 20 31.11 19
Mean 30.90 20 31.04 20 32.19 20

TECHNICAL RECOMMENDATIONS AND SEED PRODUCTION

The cultivar IAC 1850 is recommended for cultivation in the rainy, dry, and winter crop seasons in the states of São Paulo e Goiás and in the rainy and dry seasons in the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, and Mato Grosso do Sul. A between-row spacing of 50 cm and 10 plants per linear meter, resulting in 200,000 plants per hectare.

IAC 1850 was registered in 2018 in the MAPA/RNC under number 38613 and has seed production available in the Núcleo de Produção de Sementes do Instituto Agronômico - IAC.

REFERENCES

Carbonell SAM, Chiorato AF, Gonçalves JGR, Perina EF and Carvalho CRL (2010) Tamanho de grão comercial em cultivares de feijoeiro. Ciência Rural 40: 2067-2073. [ Links ]

CIAT - International Center for Tropical Agriculture (2016) Beans. Available at: <Available at: https://ciat.cgiar.org/what-we-do/breeding-better-crops/beans />. Accessed on May 27, 2019. [ Links ]

CONAB - Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento (2018) Acompanhamento da safra brasileira de grãos Safra 2017/18. Available at: < Available at: https://www.conab.gov.br / >. Accessed on Dec 10, 2018. [ Links ]

Fageria N, Stone L, Santos AD and Carvalho M (2015) Nutrição mineral do feijoeiro. Embrapa, Brasília, 394p. [ Links ]

Li H, Li J, Shen Y, Wang J and Zhou D (2017) Legume consumption and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. Biomed Research Internacional 2017: 6. [ Links ]

Silva OF and Wander AE (2016) O feijão-comum no Brasil passado, presente e futuro. Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, Santo Antônio de Goiás, 63p (Documento 287). [ Links ]

Singh SP (1992) Common bean improvement in the tropics. Plant Breeding Reviews 10: 391. [ Links ]

Wutke EB, Carbonell SAM, Chiorato AF, Esteves JAF, Ito MF, Stein CP, Brunini O and Gallo PB (2014) Feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). In Aguiar ATE, Gonçalves C, Paterniani MEAGZ, Tucci MLS and Castro CEF (eds) CEF Boletim 200: Instruções agrícolas para as principais culturas econômicas. Instituto Agronômico, Campinas, 460p. [ Links ]

Received: April 16, 2019; Accepted: May 29, 2019

Creative Commons License This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License