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Rodriguésia

Print version ISSN 0370-6583On-line version ISSN 2175-7860

Rodriguésia vol.62 no.4 Rio de Janeiro Oct./Dec. 2011

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S2175-78602011000400015 

Original Papers

Time of exposure and oil dosage affecting biomass production of the Amazonian semi-aquatic grass Echinochloa polystachya

O tempo de exposição e a dosagem de óleo afetando a produção de biomassa do capim semi-aquático amazônico Echinochloa polystachya

Aline Lopes1  2 

Maria Teresa Fernandez Piedade1 

1Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Coordenação de Dinâmica Ambiental, Grupo Maua, Av. André Araujo 2936, 69060-001, Manaus, AM, Brazil.

Abstract

The effects of Urucu crude oil on growth and biomass production of Echinochloa polystachya were studied experimentally. Young plants contaminated with 5 oil doses (0 to 2.64 l.m-2) were monitored at 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days after exposure. A significant reduction was observed in leaf humidity and the ratio of live aerial/ total biomass related to the increase in oil dosage. Increased exposition time caused a reduction in the number of leaves, aerial biomass, proportion of live aerial/total biomass, total biomass, and an increase of dead aerial biomass. However, root biomass and leaf length were not affected by exposure to oil. The low tolerance of E. polystachya to Urucu crude oil has lead to the mortality of 90% of the plant population in 20 days at the 2.64 l treatment. The death of young individuals of E. polystachya by relatively low dosages of Urucu oil indicates that, in the case of an oil spill in the Amazon varzea, this species would be severely affected, endangering, consequently, the entire environment.

Key words: floodplains; aquatic macrophytes

Resumo

Os efeitos do petróleo cru de Urucu sobre o crescimento e a produção de biomassa da herbácea aquática amazônica Echinochloa polystachya foram estudados experimentalmente em casa de vegetação. Plantas jovens de E. polystachya foram contaminadas com 5 dosagens de petróleo (0 to 2,64 L.m-2) e avaliadas após 1, 5, 10, 15 e 20 dias da exposição. Ao término do experimento foi verificada uma significativa diminuição da proporção de biomassa aérea viva/total, da umidade das folhas e aumento do número de folhas com comprometimento fitossanitário, em resposta ao aumento da dosagem do petróleo. O aumento do tempo de exposição levou à diminuição do número de folhas, biomassa aérea, proporção de biomassa aérea viva/total, biomassa total e um aumento do número de folhas comprometidas e biomassa aérea morta. Contudo, a biomassa de raízes e o comprimento das folhas não foram afetados pela exposição ao petróleo. A baixa tolerância de E. polystachya ao petróleo de Urucu levou à mortalidade de 90% da população de mudas em 20 dias com o tratamento de 2,64 L.m-2. A perda de indivíduos jovens de E. polystachya em doses relativamente baixas do petróleo de Urucu indica que, no caso de um derramamento de óleo na várzea amazônica, esta espécie seria severamente afetada e, consequentemente, todo o ambiente.

Palavras-chave: áreas alagáveis; macrófitas aquáticas

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Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

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Received: April 05, 2011; Accepted: August 23, 2011

2 Author for correspondence: alopesmga@gmail.com

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