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Rodriguésia

Print version ISSN 0370-6583On-line version ISSN 2175-7860

Rodriguésia vol.69 no.2 Rio de Janeiro Apr./June 2018

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2175-7860201869204 

Original Papers

An illustrated guide of ferns and lycophytes from Carambeí, PR, Brazil

Cássio Michelon1 

Frederico Fregolente Faracco Mazziero1  2 

Bianca Kalinowski Canestraro1 

Mathias Erich Engels1 

1Universidade Federal do Paraná, Depto. Botânica, C.P. 19031, 81531-980, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

Abstract

We present a list of species of ferns and lycophytes from Carambeí, a municipality located in Paraná state, southern Brazil. This area, locally known as “Campos Gerais”, presents an intricate mosaic of forests and savannah with several canyons and humid valleys that harbors a rich and unique vegetation in Southern Brazil. In total, we found 129 species (119 ferns and 10 lycophytes), distributed in 18 families and 59 genera, and 20% (26 spp.) of which are endemic to Brazil. The most expressive families were Polypodiaceae (19 spp.), Pteridaceae (18 spp.) and Thelypteridaceae (15 spp.). The most representative genera were Asplenium (8 spp. - 6.2%) and Amauropelta (8 spp - 6.2%). Terrestrial herbs, epiphytes and lithophytes are the most common guild of life forms, successively. The richest environments were woody forest (61% of the species) and herbaceous-shrubby (12%). Arachniodes denticulata, Phlegmariurus flexibilis and P. Heterocarpon are the second record in the “Campos Gerais” region. We also provide photographic plates with diagnostic characters for most of the species.

Key words: Campos Gerais; diversity; floristic; pteridophytes; species richness

Resumo

É apresentada uma listagem de espécies de samambaias e licófitas para o município de Carambeí, localizado no estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil. Essa área, localmente conhecida como Campos Gerais, apresenta um complexo mosaico de florestas e Cerrado com diversos canyons e vales úmidos e comporta uma vegetação rica e singular no Sul do Brasil. No total, foram registradas 129 espécies (119 samambaias e 10 licófitas), distribuídas em 18 famílias e 59 gêneros, sendo 20% (26 spp.) endêmicas do Brasil. As famílias mais expressivas são Polypodiaceae (19 spp.), Pteridaceae (18 spp.) e Thelypteridaceae (15 spp.). Os gêneros mais representativos foram Asplenium (8 spp. - 6,2%) e Amauropelta (8 spp. - 6,2%). As guildas de formas de vida mais comuns são ervas terrícolas, epífitas e rupícolas, sucessivamente. Os ambientes mais ricos foram os florestais (61% das espécies) e os herbáceo-arbustivos (12%). Arachniodes denticulata, Phlegmariurus flexibilis e P. heterocarpon foram registradas pela segunda vez para a região dos Campos Gerais. São fornecidas pranchas fotográficas com caracteres diagnósticos para a maioria das espécies.

Palavras-chave: Campos Gerais; diversidade; florística; pteridófitas; riqueza de espécies

Introduction

Ferns and lycophytes are an important component of the vascular flora in tropical forests, representing 10% to 14% of the diversity in these environments, often being the dominant groups in the understory (Gentry 1990; Costa 2004; Moran 2008). In Brazil, these groups are represented by 1,318 species, 503 (38%) of which are endemic (Prado et al. 2015). The Atlantic Forest is the most diverse domain in Brazil harboring 883 species and the Ombrophilous Forest is the type of vegetation with greatest diversity with 90% of the species in this domain (Prado et al. 2015). This diversity is reflected in several studies carried out in these areas, such as, Mynssen & Windisch (2004) for Rio de Janeiro state, Salino & Almeida (2008) and Mazziero et al. (2015) for São Paulo state and Matos et al. (2010) for Bahia state.

In the state of Paraná, the areas of Atlantic Rain Forests in the coastal region are responsible for a high richness of ferns and lycophytes (Prado et al. 2015), which is strongly related with the great diversity of available environments in mountainous areas (Moran 1995). In contrast, in the inland of Paraná, the relief of the “Campos Gerais” region is not mountainous, but it presents a unique arrange of geomorphologic characteristics (Maack 1981). Recent studies carried out in these areas (Schwartsburd and Labiak 2007; Michelon & Labiak 2013) have shown the importance of inland regions to the diversity of ferns and lycophytes as well. Nevertheless, few studies have been performed in the inland portion of Paraná, for example Sakagami (2006), Schwartsburd & Labiak (2007), Michelon & Labiak (2013), Lautert et al. (2015) and, new species of ferns from this region have been recently described (Schwartsburd et al. 2007; Schwartsburd & Labiak 2008; Christenhusz et al. 2009). Therefore, floristics studies and plant collections are still crucial considering the distinct mosaic and the high diversity of plants in these areas. It is important to mention that most of these studied areas are conservation units with minor human impacts. Recent data show that there is left no more than 12% of Atlantic Forest remnants in Paraná state, and with very few inland forested areas (Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica & INPE 2016). The inland portions of the state suffered a severe deforestation due to agriculture and livestock activities.

This study aims to contribute to the knowledge of the diversity of these groups in the “Campos Gerais” region, providing a list of species, as well as data about geographic distribution, phytophysiognomy and guild of life forms. We also provide photographic records with diagnosis characters for most of the species.

Materials and Methods

Study area

Carambeí is located in Paraná state, southern Brazil (24°57’04”S, 50°06’37”W). Its territory is about 650 km2 occupying the “Campos Gerais” region in the Paraná’s First and Second Plateaus (Maack 1981; Cordeiro Santos et al. 2009; Labiak 2014a). The altitude ranges from 780 m a.s.l., in the proximities of the Tibagi river, to 1,100 m a.s.l., at the top of the Devonian Steep.

In the Paraná’s First Plateau predominates the Araucaria forest and small patches of intensively disturbed grasslands. In the Second Plateau, associated with capon forests, the grasslands dominate the landscape. Also, Cerrado relicts (Brazilian savannah) can be found in the São João river canyon (Maack 1981).

Field work

Collections were performed during March 2013. All possible habitats were explored. In this expedition, the specimens were collected and herborized following the usual methods for the studied groups (Fidalgo & Bononi 1984) and were deposited in the UPCB herbarium.

Taxonomic treatment

Classification system followed PPG I (2016). Species’ authors and abbreviations followed IPNI (2017). Identifications were made by comparison with collections at UPCB, specialists and specific literature. The guilds of life forms were based on Paciencia (2008).

Geographical distribution

Geographical distribution data were obtained from Prado et al. (2015), floras and review papers. The geographic patterns adopted were: Pantropic, Neotropic, South America, Brazil and Southern/Southeastern Brazil.

Vegetation

Regarding the environments in which the species were found, we considered three situations:

Aquatic vegetation:

Alagados reservoir (Fig. 1a): floating vegetation in the Pitanguí hydroelectric power plant reservoir.

Figure 1 Aquatic and woody vegetation – a. Alagados’ reservoir; b. secondary forest border; c. capon forest understory; d,e. gallery forest understory; f. riparian forest understory. 

Woody vegetation: arboreal vegetation, mid to large size, primitive (primary forests) or secondary (disturbed forests and capoeirões), divided into:

Secondary forests (Fig. 1b,c): secondary vegetation from initial to medium regeneration stage.

Gallery forests (Fig. 1d,e): forests growing on geological fissures, composed by primary vegetation, usually with rocky streams inside.

Riparian forests (Figs. 1f; 2a): forests that grow along the major rivers in the area (Jotuva, Pitanguí, São João, Tamanduá and Tibagi rivers).

Figure 2 Figure 2 – Woody and herbaceous-shrubby vegetation – a. riparian forest; b. riparian slabstone environment; c. dry grasslands; d. litholic grasslands; e. human disturbed environment; f. waterfall amidst grasslands. 

Riparian slabstone environments (Fig. 2b): midsize vegetation growing alongside stony rivers amid grasslands areas, usually in the expansions of the rock-forming slabstone.

Swamp areas: midsize woody vegetation in areas of poorly drained soil, usually amid grasslands, however, without undergoing periodic flooding.

Herbaceous and shrubby vegetation: small vegetation, herbaceous and/or shrubby, primitive (grasslands) or secondary (capoeirinhas), divided into:

Dry grasslands (Fig. 2c): including areas of campo limpo, where the herbaceous vegetation predominates amongst rare woody species, and campo sujo, where the shrubby and woody species are commonly found. Remnants of Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah) are also included in this category.

Litholic grasslands (Fig. 2d): herbaceous and shrubby vegetation occurring in areas of rocky fields with sandstone outcrops.

Human disturbed environment (Fig. 2e): characterized by intensively modified and mostly herbaceous vegetation, such as urbanized areas and roadsides slopes.

Wet grasslands: mainly herbaceous vegetation in areas of poor water drainage (Fig. 2f).

Results

In the present work we found 129 species (119 ferns and 10 lycophytes), distributed in 18 families and 59 genera (Tab. 1 - see supplementary material at <https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6142595.v1>). The richest families were Polypodiaceae (19 species - 14.7%), Pteridaceae (18 spp. - 13.9%), Thelypteridaceae (15 spp. - 11.6%), Dryopteridaceae (13 spp. - 10%) and Hymenophyllaceae (12 spp. - 9.3%), which together comprise almost 60% of the total richness. The most expressive genera were Asplenium (8 species - 6.2%), Amauropelta (8 species - 6.2%) and, Doryopteris, Hymenophyllum and Pecluma (6 species - 4.6% each) (Tab. 1).

Table 1 List of ferns and lycophytes recorded in Carambeí municipality, southern Brazil. The life forms are represented by: T = terrestrial herb, E = epiphyte, L = lithophyte, C = climbing, A = terrestrial arborescent, H = hemiepiphyte, Q = aquatic; vegetation: SF = secondary forest, DE = human disturbed environment, LG = litholic grassland, GF = gallery forest, RF = riparian forest, SW = swamp areas, RS = riparian slabstone environment, DG = dry grassland, WG = wet grassland, RE = Alagados reservoir; geographical distribution: NEO = Neotropical, SAM = South American, PAN = Pantropical, BRA = Brazilian, SSE = southern/southeastern Brazilian. Voucher (voucher material at UPCB herbarium: # - Michelon, C. collector number, * Canestraro B.K. collector number, ! Engels, M.E. collector number). 

FAMILY(nº of species) Life form Vegetation Distribution Voucher
Species
ANEMIACEAE (3)
Anemia phyllitidis (L.) Sw. T SF, DE NEO 1865#
Anemia tomentosa (Sav.) Sw. T DE, LG NEO 1868#
Anemia sp. T DE - 1869#
ASPLENIACEAE (8)
Asplenium claussenii Hieron. T, E SF, GF NEO 612*
Asplenium gastonis Fée T, E SF, GF SAM 575*
Asplenium inaequilaterale Willd. T RF PAN 1831#
Asplenium incurvatum Fée T GF BRA 1857#
Asplenium jucundum Fée E SF, GF NEO 1811#
Asplenium pseudonitidum Raddi T GF SSE 1848#
Asplenium raddianum Gaudich. E GF SAM 1816#
Asplenium scandicinum Kaulf. E SF SAM 1810#
ATHYRIACEAE (2)
Deparia petersenii (Kunze) M.Kato T DE PAN 614*
Diplazium cristatum (Desr.) Alston T SF SAM 1852#
BLECHNACEAE (9)
Blechnum asplenioides Sw. T LG SAM 1828#
Blechnum austrobrasilianum de la Sota T DE SAM 599*
Blechnum occidentale L. T DE NEO 1827#
Blechnum polypodioides Raddi T DE, LG, CF NEO 1842#
Blechnum sp. T DE - 1854#
Lomariocycas schomburgkii (Klotzsch) Gasper & A.R.Sm. T SW, RS NEO 1795#
Lomaridium acutum (Desv.) Gasper & V.A.O.Dittrich T, E, L, C GF, RF NEO 569*
Neoblechnum brasiliense (Desv.) V.A.O. Dittrich T DE, SF NEO 586*
Parablechnum cordatum (Desv.) Gasper & Salino T LG, SW, RS SAM 1793#
CYATHEACEAE (6)
Alsophila setosa Kaulf. A SF, RF SAM 1809#
Cyathea atrovirens (Langsd. & Fisch.) Domin A DG, SF, SW, RS SAM 1790#
Cyathea corcovadensis (Raddi) Domin A DG, WG, SW BRA 1794#
Cyathea delgadii Sternb. A DG NEO 1823#
Cyathea phalerata Mart. A SF, GF BRA 1785#
Cyathea villosa Willd. L LG NEO 1861#
DENNSTAEDTIACEAE (4)
Dennstaedtia globulifera (Poir.) Hieron. T SF NEO 560*
Dennstaedtia obtusifolia (Willd.) T.Moore T SF NEO 598*
Hypolepis stolonifera Fée var. stolonifera T SF BRA 573*
Pteridium arachnoideum (Kaulf.) Maxon T SF, RS, DE NEO 565*
DICKSONIACEAE (2)
Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. A RF NEO 593*
Lophosoria quadripinnata (J.F.Gmel) C. Chr. T RF NEO 1819#
DRYOPTERIDACEAE (13)
Arachniodes denticulata (Sw.) Ching T, L RF NEO 1824#
Ctenitis anniesii (Rosenst.) Copel. T SW BRA 1875#
Ctenitis distans (Brack) Ching T SF BRA 581*
Ctenitis submarginalis (Langsd. & Fisch.) Ching T SF NEO 608*
Elaphoglossum burchellii (Baker) C.Chr. T RF, GF, RS NEO 1843#
Elaphoglossum lingua (C.Presl) Brack. E GF BRA 1815#
Elaphoglossum macrophyllum (Mett. ex Kuhn) Christ T, L GF BRA 1838#
Elaphoglossum pachydermum (Fée) T.Moore T, L RF, GF BRA 1805#
Elaphoglossum paulistanum Rosenst. T, L GF BRA 1787#
Lastreopsis amplissima (C.Presl) Tindale T, L GF SAM 1813#
Megalastrum connexum (Kaulf.) A.R.Sm. & R.C.Moran T SF, GF SAM 585*
Polystichum platylepis Fée T SF, GF SSE 611*
Ruhmora adiantiformis (G.Forst.) Ching T, E SW PAN 1796#
GLEICHENIACEAE (4)
Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrad.) Underw. T, L DG, RS, DE NEO 557*
Dicranopteris nervosa (Kaulf.) Maxon T, L DG, DE SAM 1820#
Sticherus lanuginosus (Fée) Nakai T, L DG, DE NEO 595*
Sticherus pruinosus (Mart.) Ching T DG, DE SAM 564*
HYMENOPHYLLACEAE (12)
Abrodictyum rigidum (Sw.) Ebihara & Dubuisson L GF NEO 1807#
Crepidomanes pyxidiferum (L.) Dubuisson & Ebihara E SF, GF PAN 604*
Didymoglossum hymenoides (Hedw.) Desv. E SF NEO 923!
Hymenophyllum elegans Spreng. L GF NEO 1856#
Hymenophyllum fragile (Hedw.) C.V.Morton L GF NEO 1801#
Hymenophyllum hirsutum (L.) Sw. L GF NEO 1844#
Hymenophyllum polyanthos (Sw.) Sw. E RF PAN 1798#
Hymenophyllum pulchellum Schltdl. & Cham. L GF NEO 1804#
Hymenophyllum rufum Fée L GF SSE 1803#
Polyphlebium angustatum (Carmich.) Ebihara & Dubuisson E SF, GF NEO 1808#
Trichomanes anadromum Rosenst. E GF NEO 1784#
Trichomanes pilosum Raddi L GF, LG SAM 1847#
LINDSAEACEAE (1)
Lindsaea botrychioides A.St.-Hil. T GF BRA 1840#
LOMARIOPSIDACEAE (1)
Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C.Presl E RF PAN 1841#
LYCOPODIACEAE (6)
Lycopodium clavatum L. T WG PAN 1822#
Palhinhaea cernua (L.) Franco & Vasc. T WG PAN 576*
Phlegmariurus flexibilis (Fée) B.Øllg. E GF BRA 1814#
Phlegmariurus heterocarpon (Fée) B.Øllg. E RF SAM 1855#
Phlegmariurus reflexus (Lam.) B.Øllg. T DE NEO 570*
Pseudolycopodiella meridionallis (Underw. & Lloyd) Holub T, L WG NEO 1821#
POLYPODIACEAE (19)
Campyloneurum angustifolium (Sw.) Fée E SF, RF NEO 603*
Campyloneurum nitidum (Kaulf.) C.Presl T, E, L SF, RF SAM 613*
Cochlidium serrulatum (Sw.) L.E.Bishop L LG PAN 1829#
Microgramma squamulosa (Kaulf.) de la Sota T, E SF, RF, DE SAM 556*
Microgramma vacciniifolia (Langsd. & Fisch.) Copel. E RF NEO 1825#
Pecluma paradiseae (Langsd. & Fisch.) M.G.Price T, E RF BRA 1789#
Pecluma pectinatiformis (Lindm.) M.G.Price E SF, RF, GF SAM 1817#
Pecluma recurvata (Kaulf.) M.G.Price E SF, GF BRA 567*
Pecluma sicca (Lindm.) M.G.Price E SF, RF SAM 602*
Pecluma singeri (de la Sota) M.G.Price T, H SF SAM 1818#
Pecluma truncorum (Lindm.) M.G.Price E SF, GF BRA 1812#
Phlebodium pseudoaureum (Cav.) Lellinger E SF NEO 922!
Pleopeltis hirsutissima (Raddi) de la Sota T, E, L SF, RF, DE SAM 611*
Pleopeltis macrocarpa (Bory ex Willd.) Kaulf. E RF NEO 1834#
Pleopeltis minima (Bory) J.Prado & R.Y.Hirai E SF SAM 1853#
Pleopeltis pleopeltifolia (Raddi) Alston E SF, RF SAM 555*
Serpocaulon catharinae (Langsd. & Fisch.) A.R.Sm. E, L SF, RF BRA 558*
Serpocaulon latipes (Langsd. & Fisch.) A.R.Sm. T SF, RF BRA 1873#
Serpocaulon vacillans (Link) A.R.Sm. T SF, SW SAM 1872#
PTERIDACEAE (18)
Adiantopsis chlorophylla (Sw.) Fée T DG, WG, DE NEO 578*
Adiantopsis regularis Moore T GF SAM 1799#
Adiantum pseudotinctum Hieron. T SF SAM 566*
Adiantum raddianum C.Presl T SF, RF NEO 592*
Doryopteris crenulans (Desv.) Link T DG, DE SAM 574*
Doryopteris concolor (Langsd. & Fisch.) Kuhn T, L SF PAN 562*
Doryopteris lomariacea Klotzsch T WG SAM 1800#
Doryopteris majestosa Yesilyurt T SF SAM 564*
Doryopteris ornithopus (Hook. & Baker) J.Sm. L LG BRA 1832#
Doryopteris pentagona Pic.Serm. T, E SF, RF SAM 561*
Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link T DE NEO 1835#
Pityrogramma chaerophylla (Desv.) Domin T SF NEO 589*
Pityrogramma trifoliata (L.) R.M.Tryon T SW NEO 1833#
Pteris deflexa Link T SF NEO 582*
Pteris lechleri Mett. T SF SAM 588*
Pteris vittata L. T DE PAN 1830#
Tryonia areniticola (Schwartsb. & Labiak) Schuettp., J.Prado & A.T.Cochran L LG, GF BRA 1802#
Vittaria lineata (L.) Sm. E SF, RF NEO 1836#
SALVINIACEAE (2)
Azolla filiculoides Lam. Q RE PAN 1018!
Salvinia auriculata Aubl. Q RE NEO 1851#
SELAGINELLACEAE (4)
Selaginella decomposita Spring L LG BRA 1791#
Selaginella flexuosa Spring L LG, GF NEO 1792#
Selaginella marginata (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Spring T GF, SW, RS NEO 577*
Selaginella sulcata (Desv. ex Poir.) Spring T SF, WG SAM 587*
THELYPTERIDACEAE (15)
Amauropelta amambayensis (Ponce) Salino & T.E.Almeida T SF, DE SSE 609*
Amauropelta araucariensis (Ponce) Salino & T.E.Almeida T SF SSE 580*
Amauropelta decurtata (Link) Salino & T.E.Almeida T DE SAM 1862#
Amauropelta opposita (Vahl) Pic.Serm. T DE NEO 1850#
Amauropelta pachyrhachis (Kunze ex Mett.) Salino & T.E.Almeida T DE NEO 1849#
Amauropelta raddii (Rosenst.) Salino & T.E.Almeida L GF SSE 1788#
Amauropelta rivularioides (Fée) Salino & T.E.Almeida T DG, WG, SW, RS, DE SAM 597*
Amauropelta sp. T DE - 1782#
Christella conspersa (Schrad.) Á .Löve & D.Löve T DE NEO 1871#
Christella dentata (Forssk.) Brownsey & Jermy T DE PAN 607*
Christella hispidula (Decne.) Holttum T SF PAN 572*
Cyclossorus interruptus (Willd.) H.Ito T SW PAN 1797#
Goniopteris burkartii C.Chr. ex Abbiatti T RF SAM 600*
Goniopteris riograndensis (Lindm.) Ching T RF SAM 605*
Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaudich.) Ching T DE PAN 583*

Regarding life forms (Tab. 1), 63 species (48.9%) are terrestrial herbs, 23 epiphytes (17.9%), 14 lithophytes (10.9%), six terrestrial arborescents (4.6%), two aquatics (1.5%) and 21 generalists (16.3%). Considering accidental, facultative and mandatory epiphytes, 33 species were recorded (25.5%). Pecluma singeri (de la Sota) M.G.Price was the only species growing as hemiepiphyte, however it is also considered a terrestrial herb.

In regard to the vegetation type (Tab. 1), 79 species (61.2%) were growing in woody forests, 32 (24.8%) in herbaceous-shrubby environments, 16 (12.4%) in both vegetation formation and two (1.5%) in aquatic vegetation. The richest phytophysiognomies with non-overlapping species were the secondary forests with 19 species (14.7%), followed by gallery forests (18 spp. - 13.9%), human disturbed environments (15 spp. - 11.6%), riparian forests (12 spp. - 9.3), litholic grassland (5 spp. - 3.8%), swamp areas and wet grassland (4 spp. - 3.1% each), alagados reservoir (2 spp. - 1.5%) and dry grassland with one species (0.7%). Riparian slabstone environment was the only phytophysiognomy without exclusive species. One the other hand, 49 species (37.9%) were found in two or more phytophysiognomies, highlighting that the vast majority of species of ferns and lycophytes in “Campos Gerais” are not restricted to one type of environment.

Concerning the geographical distribution of the species (Tab. 1), most of them were Neotropical (48 species - 37.3%), followed by South American species (36 spp. - 27.9%), endemic to Brazil (20 spp. - 15.5%), Pantropical (16 spp. - 12.4%) and 6 (4.6%) are endemic to southern/southeastern Brazil.

Discussion

It was found in Carambeí 29% of the total species cited for the Paraná state, which presents 444 species of ferns and lycophytes (Labiak 2014b). The number of species is consistent with other studies conducted in the “Campos Gerais” region (Schwartsburd and Labiak 2007; Michelon & Labiak 2013), as well as the most representative families and genera (Tab. 2). The richest fern families found in Carambeí agree with several studies performed in the Atlantic Rain Forest, which constantly cite the following as the most diverse families, regardless of the order, Polypodiaceae, Thelypteridaceae, Pteridaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Aspleniaceae, Blechnaceae and Hymenophyllaceae (see Salino 1996; Salino & Joly 2001; Mynssen & Windisch 2004; Salino et al. 2005; Nóbrega & Prado 2008; Gasper & Savegnani 2010; Matos et al. 2010; Lautert et al. 2015; Mazziero & Nonato 2015; Mazziero et al. 2015). It is also true for other Brazilian biomes; Prado et al. (2015) suggest that these families are the most diverse in Brazil and as well as Tryon & Tryon (1982) in the Neotropics. Among the three families of lycophytes cited for Brazil (Prado et al. 2015), we recorded two in Carambeí (Lycopodiaceae and Selaginellaceae). These families are the most diverse in Brazil (Prado et al. 2015) and are frequently cited as the richest in several studies (e.g., Salino & Almeida 2008; Mazziero et al. 2015).

Table 2 Comparison between ferns and lycophytes floras in the "Campos Gerais" region. The comparison areas are represented by Guartelá = Guartelá State Park (Michelon and Labiak 2013), Vila Velha = Vila Velha State Park (Schwartsburd and Labiak 2007), Klabin = Klabin Ecological Park (Sakagami 2006). Families = the three richest families, Genera = the most representative genera, Epiphytes = number of species, Endemism = percentage of species endemic to Brazil. 

Richness Families Genera Epiphytes Endemism
This study 129 Polypodiaceae
Pteridaceae
Thelypteridaceae
Asplenium
Amauropelta
Doryopteris
Hymenophyllum
Pecluma
33 20%
Guartelá 164 Polypodiaceae
Pteridaceae
Dryopteridaceae
Asplenium Amauropelta
Phlegmariurus
Pecluma
Elaphoglossum
54 25%
Vila Velha 152 Polypodiaceae
Pteridaceae
Dryopteridaceae
Asplenium
Pecluma
Amauropelta
30 18%
Klabin 121 Pteridaceae Polypodiaceae
Blechnaceae
Asplenium
Blechnum
Amauropelta
Doryopteris Pecluma
24 13%

Among the genera, Asplenium and Amauropelta were the richest followed by Doryopteris, Hymenophyllum and Pecluma, all of them have shown an expressive richness in the “Campos Gerais” (Tab. 2) (Schwartsburd & Labiak 2007; Michelon & Labiak 2013). The combination of those genera as the most expressive shows a tendency for the ferns’ diversity in Paraná’s Second Plateau vegetation (Tab. 2). In the Atlantic rain forest, Asplenium and Amauropelta usually figure as the richest genera, however this is not true for Doryopteris, Hymenophyllum and Pecluma. Blechnum, as traditionally treated, also appears as one of the most relevant genus in “Campos Gerais”, however, a recent taxonomic revision suggest their segregation in several genera (Gasper et al. 2016). Thus, now at least six genera are found in “Campos Gerais”: Austroblechnum, Blechnum, Lomariocycas, Lomaridium, Neoblechnum and Parablechnum. The same way Thelypteris, now, is divided in at least five genera in “Campos Gerais”: Amauropelta, Christella, Cyclossorus, Goniopteris and Steiropteris (Almeida et al. 2015; Salino et al. 2015).

Two possible hybrids were found in study area. The first one belongs to genus Anemia (Anemia sp. in Tab. 1) and the second belongs to genus Blechnum (Blechnum sp. in Tab. 1). In the first case, the specimen was found growing in a slope among Anemia tomentosa (Sav.) Sw. (subgenus Captophyllum) and Anemia phyllitidis (L.) Sw. (subgenus Anemia) and presents morphological characters of both possible parental species. It’s probably product of hybridization, a common process in the genus Anemia, but rare between subgenera (Mickel 1962, 1982). The second case of hybridizations is Blechnum sp. which presents intermediate characters between the monomorphic species of Blechnum found in this study, such as B. austrobrasilianum and B. polypodioides. Hybridization is also common in Blechnum (Moran 1995b), and well documented in the “Campos Gerais” region (Michelon and Labiak 2013).

Terrestrial and epiphyte species are the most diverse guilds of life forms in ferns and lycophytes in Brazil (Prado et al. 2015), which agrees with our result for Carambeí. These guilds of life forms are cited in studies through Brazil independently of the biome (Mynssen & Windisch 2004; Salino et al. 2005; Xavier & Barros 2005; Nóbrega & Prado 2008; Zuquim et al. 2008; Gasper & Sevegnani 2010; Matos et al. 2010; Fernandes et al. 2012; Souza et al. 2012; Salino et al. 2013; Mazziero & Nonato 2015; Mazziero et al. 2015) the same way in Carambeí and other studies carried out in the inlands of Paraná (Tab. 2) (Schwartsburd & Labiak 2007; Michelon & Labiak 2013; Lautert et al. 2015). Epiphytes were the second guild in number of species in Carambeí and in the other inland regions of Paraná (Tab. 2) (Schwartsburd & Labiak 2007; Michelon & Labiak 2013; Lautert et al. 2015) as well in other areas of Atlantic Rain Forest domain (Salino 1996; Salino & Joly 2001; Mynssen & Windisch 2004; Nóbrega & Prado 2008; Gasper & Savegnani 2010; Matos et al. 2010; Mazziero & Nonato 2015; Mazziero et al. 2015; Lautert et al. 2015).

The preponderance of woody forests as the preferential vegetation type for ferns and lycophytes is in agreement with Prado et al. (2015) that suggest the Ombrophilous Forests are the most diverse vegetation type, especially in the Atlantic Rain Forest domain, which is corroborated by several studies in these areas, for example Salino & Almeida (2008), Matos et al. (2010), Souza et al. (2012) and Mazziero et al. (2015). Secondary forests areas are the most relevant phytophysiognomies by harboring a high richness of exclusive and overlapping species. This could be related to the well preserved state of these areas and also to the fact that secondary forests provide great diversity of niches for these species. Moreover, human disturbed environments also showed high richness of exclusive and overlapping species and it is probably related to the species’s preference to open and disturbed areas, for instance: Amauropelta, Dicranopteris, Pteridium and Sticherus (Salino & Semir 2002; 2004; Melthreter et al. 2010). An interesting fact of Carambeí ferns and lycophytes flora is the low number of species in swamp areas (Tab. 1). Generally these areas shelter a high number of species compared with other phytophysiognomies in the inlands as seen in some studies in São Paulo state by Salino (1996), Salino & Joly (2001), Nóbrega & Prado (2008) and Mazziero & Nonato (2015).

Species with wide geographical distribution are generally well represented in Brazilian surveys (Athayde-Filho et al. 2003; Costa & Pietrobom 2007, 2010; Melo & Salino 2007; Salino & Almeida 2008; Zuquim et al. 2008; Gasper & Savegnani 2010; Matos et al. 2010; Fernandes et al. 2012; Macedo et al. 2013; Mazziero et al. 2015) as observed in this study and in other areas of inland of Paraná (Tab. 2) (Schwartsburd & Labiak 2007; Michelon & Labiak 2013). We found four exotics and sub-spontaneous species in Brazil (Deparia petersenii, Macrothelypteris torresiana, Pteris vittata and Christella dentata). They have a broad geographic distribution (Prado et al. 2015) and generally occur in disturbed places in the studied areas (Salino & Almeida 2008; Mazziero et al. 2015). In the other hand, some species could be interpreted as rare in this region of Paraná, it is the case of Arachniodes denticulata, Cyathea villosa, Phlegmariurus flexibilis and Phlegmariurus heterocarpon, all with few records in “Campos Gerais”. Tryonia areniticola is endemic to the sandstones outcrops in Paraná and São Paulo states (Schwartsburd & Labiak 2008) and Dicksonia sellowiana is an endangered species in Brazil (Santiago et al. 2013).

Our study shows the importance of preserving the remnants of vegetation in Carambeí municipality, included in the “Campos Gerais”, even for the small ones, given the relevant number of species as well as by the presence of endangered and rare species of ferns and lycophytes.

Editora de área: Dra. Lana Sylvestre

See supplementary material at <https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6142595.v1>

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to reviewers and PhD. Fabiana R. Nonato for help in reviewing the English. We also thank PhD. Lana S. Sylvestre by the determination of Asplenium jucundum.

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Received: November 24, 2016; Accepted: August 11, 2017

2 Author for correspondence: fredericobio2@gmail.com

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