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Rodriguésia

Print version ISSN 0370-6583On-line version ISSN 2175-7860

Rodriguésia vol.70  Rio de Janeiro  2019  Epub Aug 08, 2019

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2175-7860201970041 

Original Paper

Epilithic diatom flora in Cali River hydrographical basin, Colombia

Carla Giselda Heinrich1  4 

Martha L Palacios-Peñaranda2 

Enrique Peña-Salamanca3 

Marilia Schuch1 

Eduardo A. Lobo1 

1University of Santa Cruz do Sul - UNISC, Limnology Laboratory, Dep. Biology and Pharmacy, Av. Independência 2293, 96815-900, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil.

2Universidad Autónoma de Occidente, School of Environmental Sciences, Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

3Universidad del Valle-Cali, Dep. Biology, Cali, Meléndez, Colombia.

Abstract

This research aimed to study the composition of epilithic diatom flora found in samples collected in Cali River hydrographical basin, Colombia. Quarterly excursions (March, June, September and December of 2012 and March of 2013) were performed in six sampling sites to collect samples for identification of diatom organisms (Class Bacillariophyceae). The results indicated the occurrence of 82 taxa distributed in 26 families and 38 genera. 32 of these are new occurrences in Colombia. The most representative families were Gomphonemataceae, Naviculaceae and Bacillariaceae. The genera richest in species were Navicula, Gomphonema and Nitzschia. Eight species occurred in all sampling sites: Achnanthidium minutissimum, Cocconeis lineata, Cymbella affinis, Gomphonema pumilum var. rigidum, Melosira varians, Navicula symmetrica, Reimeria sinuata and Rhoicosphenia abbreviata. The results indicated 13 species considered dominant and characterize the flora of epilithic diatoms in Cali River hydrographical basin, Colombia.

Key words: dominant species ecology; freshwater diatoms; new occurrences; taxonomy

Resumo

A presente pesquisa objetivou o estudo da composição da flora de diatomáceas epilíticas encontradas em amostras coletadas na bacia hidrográfica do Rio Cali, Colômbia. Excursões trimestrais (março, junho, setembro e dezembro de 2012 e março de 2013) foram realizadas em seis sítios de amostragem para coletar amostras para a identificação dos organismos do grupo das diatomáceas (Classe Bacillariophyceae). Os resultados indicaram a ocorrência de 83 táxons, distribuídos em 26 famílias e 38 gêneros. 32 desses táxons são novas ocorrências na Colômbia. As famílias mais representativas foram Gomphonemataceae, Naviculaceae e Bacillariaceae. Os gêneros com maior riqueza de espécies foram Navicula, Gomphonema e Nitzschia. Oito espécies tiveram ocorrência em todos os sítios de amostragem: Achnanthidium minutissimum, Cocconeis lineata, Cymbella affinis, Gomphonema pumilum var. rigidum, Melosira varians, Navicula symmetrica, Reimeria sinuata e Rhoicosphenia abbreviata. Os resultados indicaram 13 espécies consideradas dominantes, e caracterizam a flora diatomológica da bacia hidrográfica do Rio Cali, Colômbia.

Palavras-chave: ecologia das espécies dominantes; diatomáceas de água doce; novas ocorrências; taxonomia

Introduction

Diatoms are unicellular microscopic organisms that are predominantly free-living but, sometimes are filamentous and gathered in colonies, surrounded by a layer of mucilage (Joly 1979). Currently, diatoms are represented by approximately 100,000 species distributed in 250 genera and have a wide geographical distribution, occurring along rivers, estuaries, lakes, and marine environments and on a variety of substrates, including natural and artificial substrates (Hoek et al. 1995).

These organisms are one of the main dominant groups of periphytic algae in lotic systems and have been widely used as efficient indicators of water quality, because they respond quickly to environmental changes, especially organic pollution and eutrophication, with a broad spectrum of tolerances to conditions ranging, from oligotrophic to eutrophic. (Álvarez-Blanco et al . 2013; Lobo et al. 2002, 2004, 2010, 2014, 2016a, b; Hermany et al. 2006; Salomoni et al. 2006, 2011; Salomoni & Torgan 2008; Schneck et al. 2007). Additionally, diatoms are one of the key groups of organisms recommended by the Water Framework Directive introduced in the European Union in 2000 (European Union 2000) for the identification of ecological quality gradients in rivers.

Colombia contains the highest biological diversity in the world after Brazil (Mittermeier et al. 1997); however, most published diatom studies are focused on their ecologies (Martínez & Donato 2003; Díaz-Quirós & Rivera-Rondón 2004; Ramírez & Plata-Dias 2008; Montoya-Moreno et al. 2008; Castro-Roal & Pinilla-Agudelo 2014). Recent taxonomic studies of diatoms include the research of (Montoya-Moreno et al . 2012), (Vouilloud et al. 2013; Sala et al. 2013; Vouilloud et al . 2010), which focused mainly on specific genera; comprehensive works capable of reflecting the whole diatom community are lacking.

In this context, the present research aimed to study the composition of the epilithic diatom flora in the hydrographical basin of the Cali, Colombia, a typical river of the Colombian Andean system.

Material and Methods

Study area

The Cali River hydrographical basin is located to the northwest of the municipality of Santiago de Cali, Colombia, and extends from the Farallones de Cali National Nature Park in the western Cordillera to the mouth of the Cauca River, with a total surface area of 21, 497 hectares and with five drainage areas (CVC 2007) (Fig. 1).

Figure 1 Map of the study area showing the location of the Cali River hydrographical basin, Colombia, and the sampling sites (st. 1- st. 6). 

Data collection

Quarterly excursions (March, June, September and December of 2012 and March of 2013) were performed in six sampling sites along the Cali River hydrographical basin, to collect samples for the identification of diatoms (class Bacillariophyceae): st.1 and st. 2 (Felidia River); st. 3 (Pichindé River); and st. 4, st. 5 and st. 6 (Cali River). For qualitative and quantitative analysis, diatom samples were scrubbed from the upper surface of three to five submerged stones with a diameter of 10 to 20 cm, using a toothbrush and were fixed with formalin following the method described by Kobayasi & Mayama (1982). The samples were cleaned with sulfuric and hydrochloric acids and mounted on permanent slides with Pleurax ® . Observations, measurements and photographs were performed using an Olympus BX-40 light microscope equipped with a digital camera.

Taxa classification followed the system proposed by Round et al . (1990) and modified by Medlin & Kaczmarska (2004). For species identification, the following taxonomic references were used: Blanco et al . (2010), Hofmann et al . (2013), John (1983), Krammer & Lange-Bertalot (1988, 1991a,b), Metzeltin et al . (2005), Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot (1998), Müller-Melchers (1957), Krammer (2000) and Rumrich et al . (2000). For taxonomic nomenclature, Algae Base was used (<http://www.algaebase.org>). Dominant species were determined following the criterion of Lobo and Leighton (1986). The permanent slides are stored in the DIAT-UNISC Herbarium at the University of Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil.

Results and Discussion

The epilithic diatom flora in the Cali River hydrographical basin included 82 taxa (78 to the species level and 4 to spp.) distributed among 26 families and 38 genera. The most representative families were Gomphonemataceae (13 taxa), Naviculaceae (9 taxa) and Bacillariaceae (7 taxa). The genera richest in species were Navicula, Gomphonema and Nitzschia. Eight species occurred in all sampling sites: Achnanthidium minutissimum, Cocconeis lineata, Cymbella affinis, Gomphonema pumilum var. rigidum, Melosira varians, Navicula symmetrica, Reimeria sinuata and Rhoicosphenia abbreviata . Table 1 shows the species identified highlighting in bold the 32 new occurrences for the country. Two genera are new records for Colombia, namely, Fallacia and Simonsenia. Light microscopy photographs of all species identified are shown in (Figs. 2-14).

Table 1 Species identified in the Cali River basin, Colombia, highlighting in bold the 32 new occurrences for the country. 

Achnanthidium minutissimum (Kützing) Czarnecki
Actinocyclus subtilis (W.Gregory) Ralfs
Adlafia bryophila (J.B. Petersen) Gerd Moser et al.
Adlafia minuscula (Grunow) Lange-Bertalot
Amphipleura lindheimeri Grunow
Amphora meridionalis Levkov
Aulacoseira tenella (Nygaard) Simonsen
Caloneis bacillum (Grunow) Cleve
Cocconeis lineata Ehrenberg
Cocconeis placentula var.euglypta (Ehrenberg) Grunow
Cocconeis pseudolineata (Geitler) Lange-Bertalot
Coscinodiscus asteromphalus Ehrenberg
Coscinodiscus devius A. Schmidt
Coscinodiscus janischii A. Schmidt
Coscinodiscus kurzii Grunow
Cymbella affinis Kützing
Cymbella sp.
Cymbella tropica Krammer
Cymbella tumida (Brébison) Van Heurck
Diadesmis arcuata Lange-Bertalot
Encyonema minutum Kützing (Hilse) D.G. Mann
Encyonema silesiacum (Bleish) D.G. Mann
Encyonema silesiacum var.altensis Krammer
Encyonopsis minuta Krammer & E.Reichardt
Encyonopsis subminuta Krammer & E.Reichardt
Eunotia major var.gigantea Frenguelli
Fallacia insociabilis (Krasske) D.G.Mann
Fragilaria arcus (Ehrenberg) Cleve
Fragilaria recapitellata Lange-Bertalot & Nergui
Fragilaria rumpens (Kützing) G.W.F. Carlson
Fragilaria vaucheriae (Kützing) J.B. Petersen
Frustulia sp.
Frustulia vulgaris (Thwaites) De Toni
Gomphonema acuminatum Ehrenberg
Gomphonema capitatum Ehrenberg
Gomphonema minutum (C. Agardh) C. Agardh
Gomphonema parvulum (Kützing) Kützing
Gomphonema pumilum var.rigidum E. Reichardt & Lange-Bertalot
Gomphonema subclavatum (Grunow) Grunow
Gomphonema subclavatum var.compactum (Grunow) Grunow
Gyrosigma obtusatum (Sullivant & Wormley) C.S. Boyer
Halamphora montana (Krasske) Levkov
Halamphora normanii (Rabenhorst) Levkov
Humidophila contenta (Grunow) R.L. Lowe et al.
Luticola cf. aequatorialis (Heiden) Lange-Bertalot & Ohtsuka
Luticola goeppertiana (Bleisch) D.G. Mann
Luticola sp.
Melosira varians C. Agardh
Navicula capitatoradiata H. Germain
Navicula cf. notha J.H. Wallace
Navicula cryptotenella Lange-Bertalot
Navicula gregaria Donkin
Navicula lohmanni Lange-Bertalot & U.Rumrich
Navicula rostellata Kützing
Navicula symmetrica Patrick
Navicula trivialis Lange-Bertalot
Neidium cf. ampliatum (Ehrenberg) Krammer
Nitzschia amphibia Grunow
Nitzschia cf. brevissima Grunow
Nitzschia dissipata (Kützing) Rabenhorst
Nitzschia linearis W. Smith
Nitzschia palea (Kützing) W. Smith
Nitzschia recta Hantzsch ex Rabenhost
Nupela cf.lesothensis (Schoeman) Lange-Bertalot
Nupela sp.
Orthoseira roeseana (Rabenhorst) O'Meara
Pinnularia borealis var.sublinearis Krammer
Pinnularia parvulissima Krammer
Planothidium frequentissimum (Lange-Bertalot) Lange-Bertalot
Platessa hustedtii (Krasske) Lange-Bertalot
Reimeria sinuata (Gregory) Kociolek & Stoermer
Rhoicosphenia abbreviata (Agardh) Lange-Bertalot
Rhopalodia cf. operculata (C.Agardh) Håkanasson
Rhopalodia gibba (Ehrenberg) Otto Müller
Rhopalodia gibberula Ehrenberg O. Müller
Rhopalodia parallela (Grunow) O. Müller
Sellaphora pupula (Kützing) Mereschkovsky
Simonsenia delognei (Grunow) Lange-Bertalot
Surirella angusta Kützing
Surirella cf. angusta Kützing
Tabellaria flocculosa (Roth) Kützing
Ulnaria ulna (Nitzsch) Compère

Figure 2 a-d. Composition of the epilithic diatom flora of the Cali River basin, Colombia - a. Aulacoseira tenella; b. Coscinodiscus asteromphalus; c. Coscinodiscus devius; d. Coscinodiscus janischii.  

Figures 3 a-b. Composition of the epilithic diatom flora of the Cali River basin, Colombia - a. Coscinodiscus kurzii; b. Actinocyclus subtilis. Scales: 30 µm.  

Figure 4 a-e. Composition of the epilithic diatom flora of the Cali River basin, Colombia - a. Melosira varians; b. Orthoseira roeseana; c. Fragilaria arcus; d. Fragilaria recapitellata; e. Fragilaria rumpens. Scales: 10 µm.  

Figure 5 a-e. Composition of the epilithic diatom flora of the Cali River basin, Colombia - a. Fragilaria vaucheriae; b. Ulnaria ulna; c. Eunotia major var. gigantea; d.Cymbella sp.; e. Cymbella affinis. Scales: 10 µm.  

Figure 6 a-e. Composition of the epilithic diatom flora of the Cali River basin, Colombia - a. Cymbella tropica; b. Cymbella tumida; c. Encyonema minutum; d. Encyonema silesiacum; e. Encyonema silesiacum var. altensis. Scales: 10 µm.  

Figure 7 a-g. Composition of the epilithic diatom flora of the Cali River basin, Colombia - a. Encyonopsis minuta; b. Encyonopsis subminuta; c. Gomphonema acuminatum; d. Gomphonema capitatum; e. Gomphonema minutum; f. Gomphonema parvulum; g. Gomphonema pumilum var. rigidum. Scales: 10 µm.  

Figure 8 a-e. Composition of the epilithic diatom flora of the Cali River basin, Colombia – a. Gomphonema subclavatum; b. Gomphonema subclavatum var. compactum; c. Reimeria sinuata; d. Rhoicosphenia abbreviata; e. Cocconeis lineata. Scales: 10 µm. 

Figure 9 a-h. Composition of the epilithic diatom flora of the Cali River basin, Colombia - a. Cocconeis euglypta; b. Cocconeis pseudolineata; c. Achnanthidium minutissimum; d. Planothidium frequentissimum; e. Platessa hustedtii; f. Nupela cf. lesothensis; g. Humidophila contenta; h. Luticola aequatorialis. Scales: 10 µm.  

Figure 10 a-f. Composition of the epilithic diatom flora of the Cali River basin, Colombia - a. Luticola goeppertiana; b. Luticola sp.; c. Amphipleura lindheimeri; d. Frustulia sp.; e. Frustulia vulgaris; f. Neidium cf. ampliatum. Scales: 10 µm.  

Figure 11 a-l. Composition of the epilithic diatom flora of the Cali River basin, Colombia - a. Adlafia bryophila; b. Adlafia minuscula; c. Fallacia insociabilis; d. Sellaphora pupula; e. Pinnularia borealis var. sublinearis; f. Pinnularia parvulissima; g. Navicula capitatoradiata; h. Navicula cryptotenella; i. Navicula gregaria; j. Navicula lohmannii; k. Navicula notha; l. Navicula rostellata. Scales: 10 µm.  

Figure 12 a-g. Composition of the epilithic diatom flora of the Cali River basin, Colombia - a. Navicula symmetrica; b. Navicula trivialis; c. Gyrosigma obtusatum; d. Amphora meridionalis; e. Halamphora montana; f. Halamphora normanii; g. Nitzschia amphibia. Scales: 10 µm.  

Figure 13 a-f. Composition of the epilithic diatom flora of the Cali River basin, Colombia - a. Nitzschia cf. brevissima; b. Nitzschia dissipata; c. Nitzschia linearis; d. Nitzschia palea; e. Nitzschia recta; f. Simonsenia delognei. Scales: 10 µm.  

Figure 14 a-g. Composition of the epilithic diatom flora of the Cali River basin, Colombia - a. Rhopalodia gibba; b. Rhopalodia cf. operculata; c. Rhopalodia gibberula; d. Rhopalodia parallela; e. Surirella angusta; f. Surirella cf. angusta; g. Tabellaria flocculosa. Scales: 10 µm.  

It is important to note that one species belonging to genus Actinocyclus Ehrenberg was identified, A. subtilis (W.Gregory) Ralfs, and 4 species belonging to genus Coscinodiscus Ehrenberg, namely, C. asteromphalus Ehrenberg, C. devius A. Schmidt, C. janischii A. Schmidt and C. kurzii Grunow, were identified. Species belonging to these genera are normally described in floristic surveys carried out in marine environments (Lozano-Duque et al . 2010; Talgatti et al . 2010; Souza-Mosimann & Laudares-Silva 2005; Fernandes et al . 2001; Müller-Melchers 1957) and in estuarine zones (Procopiak et al . 2006; Jonh 1983).

However, Montoya-Moreno et al . (2013) working with diatom flora in continental environments of Colombia, based on bibliographic searches and museum collections, cited a record of one taxon belonging to genus Actinocyclus ( Actinocyclus normanii (Gregory ex Greville) Husted) identified in phytoplankton samples from the lagoon complex Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Magdalena, and two taxa belonging to genus Coscinodiscus. Moreover, Wetzel (2011), working with diatom samples from the Negro River, Amazonia, Brazil, described the occurrence of species belonging to these genera, namely, A. normanii, A. normanii f. subsalsa (Juhl.-Dannf), C. asteromphalus Ehrenberg and Coscinodiscus sp.

The species Surirella angusta (Fig. 14e) is very similar to a new species described in Colombia by Sala et al . (2013), Surirella antioquiensis S.E. Sala, J.J. Ramírez, Plata-Díaz & Vouilloud , based on morphometric characteristics observed under light microscopy (LM), examination; however, the correct taxonomical circumscription will only be possible by using scanning electron Microscope (SEM).

For systematic classification of the species, the following abbreviations will be used: A=areolas, D=diameter, L=length, MH=mantle height, W=width, Str=striae and Fib=fibulae. Ecological data and the world distribution of the taxa considered dominant, i.e ., those with a relative frequency of over 50% of the total samples, are included.

Bacillariophyta

Coscinodiscophytina Medlin & Kaczmarska

Coscinodiscophyceae Round & Crawford, emend Medlin & Kaczmarska

Aulacoseiraceae R.M. Crowford

Aulacoseira Thwaites

Aulacoseira tenella (Nygaard) Simonsen, 1979. Fig. 2a

Valve dimensions D: 6.8 mm

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1609.

Reference: Saúl Blanco Lanza et al . Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 116, pl. 3, figs. 15-24.

Coscinodiscaceae Kützing

Coscinodiscus Ehrenberg

Coscinodiscus asteromphalus Ehrenberg, 1844. Fig. 2b

Valve dimensions: D: 127.4 mm; A: 4 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1609, EL 1617; Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1611.

Reference: John, Bibliotheca Phycologica. 1983. p. 218, pl. 7, fig. 2.

Coscinodiscus devius A. Schmidt, 1886. Fig. 2c

Valve dimensions: D: 70 mm; A: 3-4 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1609.

Reference: John, Bibliotheca Phycologica. 1983. p. 220, pl. 8, figs. 4,6.

Coscinodiscus janischii A. Schmidt, 1878. sFig. 2d

Valve dimensions: D: 138 mm; A: 3-4 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1609.

Reference: John, Bibliotheca Phycologica. 1983. p. 220, pl. 8, fig. 8.

Coscinodiscus kurzii Grunow, 1888. Fig. 3a

Valve dimensions: D: 124.1-147.2 mm; A: 4 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1609, Jardín Botánico, 8.II.2011, EL1619.

Reference: Müller-Melchers, Bol. Inst. Oceanogr. 1957. p. 128, pl. 2, fig. 7.

Actinocyclus subtilis (W.Gregory) Ralfs. Fig. 3b

Valve dimensions: D: 105-126.3 mm; A: 9 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1609, Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1618.

Reference: John, Bibliotheca Phycologica. 1983. p. 224, pl. 10, figs. 2,4.

Melosiraceae Kützing

Melosira C. Agardh

Melosira varians C. Agardh, 1827. Fig. 4a

Valve dimensions: D: 12.93-21.47 mm Mantle Height: 7.2-15.11 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611; 8.IV.2011, EL1612; Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613, EL1616, 8.IV.2011, EL1626; Lomas de la Cajita, EL1614, EL1618, 8.IV.2011, EL1625; Antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615, EL1623; Después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1617, 8.IV.2011, EL1621; Jardín Botánico, 8.II.2011, EL1620, 8.IV.2011, EL1622.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 246, pl. 2, figs. 7-12.

Ecology and Distribution: Cosmopolitan taxon. Found in alkaline waters, with moderate oxygen saturation (>50%), α-mesosaprobic, abundant in eutrophic environments (Taylor et al . 2007; Van Dam et al . 1994). Lobo et al. (2015) cites this species with a medium tolerance to eutrophication.

Orthoseiraceae Crawford

Orthoseira Thwaites

Orthoseira roeseana (Rabenhorst) O’ Meara, 1876. Fig. 4b

Valve dimensions: D: 17 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1617.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 246, pl. 2, figs. 1-4.

Bacillariophytina Medlin & Kaczmarska

Bacillariophyceae Round

Fragilariaceae Greville

Fragilaria Lyngbye

Fragilaria arcus (Ehrenberg) Cleve, 1898. Fig. 4c

Valve dimensions: L: 30.3-91 mm; W: 4.9-7.4 mm; Str: 12-14 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611, 8.IV.2011, EL1612; Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613, EL1616, 8.IV.2011, EL1626; Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1614, EL1625; antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615, EL1623; después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1617.

References: Saúl Blanco Lanza et al. Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 146, pl. 18, figs. 10-16. Rumrich, Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich Iconogr. Diatomol., v.9. 2000. p. 250, pl. 5, figs. 4-6.

Ecology and Distribution: Europe: Austria, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Romania, Western European mountains. North America: United States of America. Southwest Asia: Iraq. Asia: Turkey (Asia). (<http://www.algaebase.org>).

Present in alkaline waters, tolerant to small concentrations of nitrogen. It is a species that has preference for β-mesosaprobic sites, and can occur from oligotrophic to mesotrophic environments. (Van Dam et al . 1994).

Fragilaria recapitellata Lange-Bertalot & Nergui, 2009. Fig. 4d

Valve dimensions: L: 17-26 mm; W: 5.1-6.3 mm; Str: 11-13 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611.

Reference: Krammer & Lange-Bertalot, p. 448, pl. 109, figs. 26-28. 1991a. Reference complementary: Metzeltin et al . Iconogr. Diatomol.,v. 20. 2009.

Fragilaria rumpens (Kützing) G.W.F. Carlson, 1913. Fig. 4e

Valve dimensions: L: 15.6-33 mm; W: 2.4-3.7 mm; Str: 11-13 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, 8.IV.2011, EL1612; Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1614, 8.IV.2011, EL1625; antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615, EL1623; después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1617.

Reference: Saúl Blanco Lanza et al. Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 142, pl. 16, figs. 29-41.

Fragilaria vaucheriae (Kützing) J.B. Petersen, 1938. Fig. 5a

Valve dimensions: L: 24.5-25.6 mm; W: 3.3-3.9 mm; Str: 10-12 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610; antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615, EL1623.

Reference: Krammer & Lange-Bertalot. 1991a. p. 446, pl. 108, figs. 10-15.

Ulnariaceae

Ulnaria (Kützing) Compère

Ulnaria ulna (Nitzsch) Compère, 2001. Fig. 5b

Valve dimensions: L: 138.6-198 mm; W: 6.8-7.3 mm; Str: 12 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, 8.IV.2011, EL1612; antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615, después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1617, EL1623.

Reference: Saúl Blanco Lanza et al . Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 154, pl. 22, figs. 1-7.

Eunotiaceae

Eunotia Ehrenberg

Eunotia major var. gigantea Frenguelli, 1934. Fig. 5c

Valve dimensions: L: 158 mm; W: 8 mm; Str: 19 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1614.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 278, pl. 17, figs. 1-2.

Cymbellaceae

Cymbella C. Agardh

Cymbella sp. Fig. 5d

Valve dimensions: L: 29 mm; W: 12 mm; Str: 12 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615.

Cymbella affinis Kützing 1844. Fig. 5e

Valve dimensions: L: 35.3-44.3 mm; W: 12.6-14 mm; Str: 9-10 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611, 8.IV.2011, EL1612; antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615, EL1623; Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1616; después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1617, 8.IV.2011, EL1621; Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1618; Jardín Botánico, 8.II.2011, EL1620, 8.IV.2011, EL1622.

Reference: Krammer, Diatoms of Europe v. 3. 2002. p. 206, pl. 8, figs. 21-25.

Ecology and Distribution: Europe: Italy, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Spain. North America: NW USA, United States of America. Asia: China, Russia (Far East). South-west Asia: Iraq. (<http://www.algaebase.org>).

Present in alkaline waters, tolerant to small concentrations of nitrogen. It is a species that has preference for β-mesosaprobic sites, and can occur from oligotrophic to mesotrophic environments (Van Dam et al . 1994).

Cymbella tropica Krammer, 2002. Fig. 6a

Valve dimensions: L: 38-42 mm; W: 9-11 mm; Str: 10-12 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615; Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1618.

Reference: Krammer, Diatoms of Europe v. 3. 2002. p. 278, pl. 44, figs. 1-10.

Cymbella tumida (Brébison) Van Heurck, 1975. Fig. 6b

Valve dimensions: L: 46.9-76.3 mm; W: 16.1-19 mm; Str: 10-11 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611, 8.II.2011, EL1612, antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615, EL1623; Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1616, 8.IV.2011, EL1626; Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1618.

Reference: Rumrich, Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich Iconogr. Diatomol., v.9. 2000. p. 470, pl. 115, figs. 8-10.

Gomphonemataceae

Encyonema Kützing

Encyonema minutum Kützing (Hilse) D.G. Mann, 1990. Fig. 6c

Valve dimensions: L: 16.1-19.5 mm; W: 6.1-7.3 mm; Str: 10-11 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610; antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615; Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1618.

Reference: Saúl Blanco Lanza et al . Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 258, pl. 74, figs. 1-21.

Encyonema silesiacum (Bleish) D.G. Mann, 1990. Fig. 6d

Valve dimensions: L: 33-38.2 mm; W: 9-10 mm; Str: 10-11 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610; Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1614, EL1625; antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615; después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1617.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 498, pl. 127, figs. 7-9.

Encyonema silesiacum var. altensis Krammer, 1997. Fig. 6e

Valve dimensions: L: 20.2-25.3 mm; W: 7.8-8.3 mm; Str: 10-11 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, 8.IV.2011, EL1612; Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613, Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1614; antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615; Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1616.

Reference: Saúl Blanco Lanza et al . Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 256, pl. 73, figs. 35-43.

Encyonopsis Krammer

Encyonopsis minuta Krammer & E.Reichardt, 1997. Fig. 7a

Valve dimensions: L: 15.1-17 mm; W: 4-4.1 mm; Str: 24 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1611, Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613.

Reference: Saúl Blanco Lanza et al . Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 258, pl. 74, figs. 35-64.

Encyonopsis subminuta Krammer & E.Reichardt, 1997. Fig. 7b

Valve dimensions: L: 21 mm; W: 5 mm; Str: 24 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613.

Reference: Saúl Blanco Lanza et al . Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 258, pl. 74, figs. 22-34.

Gomphonema Ehrenberg

Gomphonema acuminatum Ehrenberg, 1832. Fig. 7c

Valve dimensions: L: 60-66 mm; W: 11-12 mm; Str: 10-11 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1611.

Reference: Saúl Blanco Lanza et al . Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 276, pl. 83, figs. 1-5. Reference complementary: Reichardt, E. Iconogr. Diatomol., v.8. 1999. p. 203.

Gomphonema capitatum Ehrenberg, 1838. Fig. 7d

Valve dimensions: L: 41 mm; W: 11 mm; Str: 11 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 518, pl. 137, figs. 11-13.

Gomphonema minutum (C. Agardh) C. Agardh, 1831. Fig. 7e

Valve dimensions: L: 19.4-26.3 mm; W: 4.6-5.6 mm; Str: 13 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1609, EL1617; Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611, EL1612; Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613, EL1616, 8.IV.2011, EL1626; Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1614, EL1618, EL1625; antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615, EL1623, 8.IV.2011, EL1624.

Reference: Rumrich, Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.9. 2000. p. 504, pl. 132, figs. 11-13.

Ecology and Distribution: Europe: Albania, Britain, France, Germany, Ireland, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Spain, North America: Arkansas, NW USA, Tennessee, United States of America. South America: Colombia. Asia: Korea, Russia (Far East), Taiwan, Turkey (Asia). Australia and New Zealand: New Zealand, Victoria (<http://www.algaebase.org>).

Present in circumneutral waters. For salinity, it is characterized as oligohalobium, fresh water with a restricted salt content less than 5 g.1-1. Occurs at pH around 7 with optimal development above 7. Found in β-mesosaprobic environments (Moro & Furstenberger 1997; Van Dam et al . 1994).

Gomphonema parvulum (Kützing) Kützing, 1849. Fig. 7f

Valve dimensions: L: 18.5-29 mm; W: 4.5-6.5 mm; Str: 11-14 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611, EL1612; antes de Desviación, EL1615, EL1623.

References: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 528, pl. 142, figs. 9-15. Krammer & Lange-Bertalot. 1991b. p. 400, pl. 76, figs. 1-2.

Gomphonema pumilum var. rigidum E. Reichardt & Lange-Bertalot, 1997. Fig. 7g

Valve dimensions: L: 18.2-36.6 mm; W: 4.3-5.7 mm; Str: 12 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1609, 8.IV.2011, EL1621; Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611, EL1612, Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613, 8.IV.2011, EL1626, Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1614, EL1625, antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615, EL1623; después de Bocatoma, 8.IV.2011. EL1624; 8.II.2011, EL1617, Lomas de la Cajita, 8.IV.2011, EL1618, Jardín Botánico, 8.II.2011. EL1619, EL1620, 8.IV.2011, EL1622.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 534, pl. 145, figs. 37- 44.

Ecology and Distribution: Cosmopolitan species. Found in mesoeutrophic to eutrophic waters with moderate electrolyte content. Not tolerant to critical levels of contamination (Taylor et al. 2007).

Gomphonema subclavatum (Grunow) Grunow, 1884. Fig. 8a

Valve dimensions: L: 36.8-44.4 mm; W: 7.3-8.8 mm; Str: 10-11 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1611, Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613, antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615, Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1618.

Reference: Krammer & Lange-Bertalot, p. 414, pl. 83, figs. 9-10. 1991b.

Gomphonema subclavatum var. compactum (Grunow) Grunow, 1884. Fig. 8b

Valve dimensions: L: 28-32 mm; W: 7-8 mm; Str: 9-10 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot, & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 544, pl. 150, figs. 5-8.

Reimeria J.P. Kociolek & Stoermer

Reimeria sinuata (Gregory) Kociolek & Stoermer, 1987. Fig. 8c

Valve dimensions: L: 14.5-18.5 mm; W: 3.9-5.4 mm; Str: 10 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1609, EL1617, EL1621, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611, 8.IV.2011, EL1612, Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613, EL1616; Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1614, EL1618, EL1625; antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615, EL1623, EL1626; Jardín Botánico, 8.II.2011, EL1619, EL1620, EL1622, EL1624.

Reference: Saúl Blanco Lanza et al . Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 252, pl. 71, figs. 1-12.

Ecology and Distribution: Cosmopolitan species (Taylor et al . 2007). Aerofitic, present in circumneutral to alkaline water, with high concentration of oxygen and preference for β-mesosaprobic sites, being able to occur from oligotrophic to mesotrophic environments. Tolerant to high levels of nitrogen (Taylor et al. 2007; Van Dam et al . 1994).

Rhoicospheniaceae

Rhoicosphenia Grunow

Rhoicosphenia abbreviata (Agardh) Lange-Bertalot, 1980. Fig. 8d

Valve dimensions: L: 24-38.8 mm; W: 3.2-4.9 mm; Str: 10 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611, 8IV.2011, EL1612; Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613, EL1616, 8.IV.2011, EL1626, antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615, EL1623, 8.IV.2011, EL1624, después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1617, Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1618, 8.IV.2011, EL1625; Jardín Botánico, 8.II.2011, EL1619, EL1620, EL1622; después de Bocatoma, 8.IV.2011, EL1621.

Reference: Saúl Blanco Lanza et al . Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 278, pl. 84, figs. 1-21.

Ecology and Distribution: Cosmopolitan species (http://www.algaebase.org). Present in alkaline waters, with high oxygen saturation above 75%, abundant in waters with high electrolyte content. β-mesosaprobic to eutrophic, tolerant to high levels of pollution and concentrations of nitrogen (Taylor et al . 2007; Van Dam et al . 1994).

Cocconeidaceae Kützing

Cocconeis Ehrenberg

Cocconeis lineata Ehrenberg, 1843. Fig. 8e

Sin. Cocconeis placentula var. lineata (Ehrenberg) Van Heurck, 1885.

Valve dimensions: L: 22.3-39.6 mm; W: 13-19.8 mm; Str: 13-22 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1609, EL1617, 8.IV.2011, EL1621; Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611, 8.IV.2011, EL1612; Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613, EL 1616, 8.IV.2011, EL1626; Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1614, EL1618, 8.IV.2011, EL1625; antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615, EL1623; Jardín Botánico, 8.II.2011, EL1619, EL1620, 8.IV.2011, EL1622, 8.IV.2011, EL1624.

Reference: Krammer & Lange-Bertalot. 1991b. p. 352, pl. 52, , figs. 1-13.

Ecology and Distribution: Cosmopolitan species (<http://www.algaebase.org>). Present in circumneutral to alkaline waters. Based on salinity, it is characterized as halophilic, preferring found in fresh water with a slight saline content. Found in oligotrophic environments with a low nutrient concentration and low mineral content, and in eutrophic environments characterized by high concentrations of nutrients, tolerant to high concentrations of nitrogen and indicating the presence of calcium in water (Moro & Furstenberger 1997; Van Dam et al . 1994). Lobo et al . (2015) classify this species as having a moderate tolerance to eutrophication.

Cocconeis euglypta Ehrenberg, 1854. Fig. 9a

Sin. Cocconeis placentula var. euglypta (Ehrenberg) Grunow, 1884

Valve dimensions: L: 22.4-26.3 mm; W: 12.8-13.5 mm; Str: 18 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611, 8.IV.2011, EL1612; Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613, 8.IV.2011, EL1626; Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1614, 8.IV.2011, EL1625; después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1617, EL1621; Jardín Botánico, 8.IV.2011, EL1622.

Reference: Saúl Blanco Lanza et al . Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 170, pl. 30, figs. 2, 4-12.

Ecology and Distribution: Species with wide world distribution. Arctic: Ellesmere Island, Svalbard (Spitsbergen). Europe: Albania, Baltic Sea, Britain, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia (Europe), Spain, Turkey (Europe), Western European mountains. North America: Alaska, Arkansas, Canada, Great Lakes, Mexico, Mississippi, Northwest Territories, NW USA, United States of America. South America: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia. Africa: Ghana, Sudan. Southwest Asia: Iran, Iraq, Israel, Turkey (Asia). Asia: China, Korea, Mongolia, Russia (Far East), Taiwan. Southeast Asia: Singapore, Australia and New Zealand: Australia, New Zealand Pacific Islands: Hawaiian Islands (<http://www.algaebase.org>).

It presents variation in the pH scale, being able to occur in waters circumneutral with great development around 7 until alkaline. For the salinity is characterized as halophilic, fresh water with slight saline content. Found in oligotrophic environments characterized by low concentration of nutrients and low mineral content, eutrophic characterized by high concentrations of nutrients, tolerant to high variations in nutrient and mineral concentration. Indicator of the presence of calcium in water (Moro & Furstenberger 1997; Van Dam et al . 1994). Lobo et al . (2015) classifies this species as moderate tolerance to eutrophication.

Cocconeis pseudolineata (Geitler) Lange-Bertalot, 2004. Fig. 9b

Valve dimensions: L: 27 mm; W: 16 mm; Str: 11 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1617.

References: Krammer & Lange-Bertalot. 1991b. p. 356, pl. 54, figs. 3-11. Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 322, pl. 39, fig. 7RL.

Achnanthidiaceae D.G. Mann

Achnanthidium Kützing

Achnanthidium minutissimum (Kützing) Czarnecki, 1994. Fig. 9c

Sin. Achnanthes minutissima Kützing, 1833

Valve dimensions: L: 9-21 mm; W: 2.9-3.8 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1609, EL1617, 8.IV.2011, EL1621; Pichindé, 8.11.2011, EL1610, EL1611, 8.IV.2011, EL1612, Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613, EL1616, 8.IV.2011, EL1626; Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1614, EL1618, 8.IV.2011, EL1625; antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615, EL1623, 8.IV.2011, EL1624; Jardín Botánico, 8.II.2011, EL1619, EL1620, 8.IV.2011, EL1622.

Reference: Saúl Blanco Lanza et al . Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 184, pl. 37, figs. 1-10, 18-22.

Ecology and Distribution: Cosmopolitan taxon (Siver & Hamilton 2011). It presents a very wide ecological range, being found in water with neutral pH until slightly alkaline and slightly acidic. It is a species that has preference for β-mesosaprobic sites, and can occur from oligotrophic to eutrophic environments (Van Dam et al . 1994; Siver & Hamilton 2011), Lobo et al . (2015) classifies this species with low tolerance to eutrophication.

Planothidium Round & Bukhiyarova

Planothidium frequentissimum (Lange-Bertalot) Lange-Bertalot, 1999. Fig. 9d

Valve dimensions: L: 12.9-16.2 mm; W: 4.6-5.3 mm; Str: 13-14 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611.

Reference: Saúl Blanco Lanza et al . Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 196, pl. 43, figs. 22-24, 29, 30.

Platessa Lange-Bertalot

Platessa hustedtii (Krasske) Lange-Bertalot, 2004. Fig. 9e

Sin. Achnanthes hustedtii (Krasske) Reimer, 1966

Valve dimensions: L: 10.9-11.8 mm; W: 6-7 mm; Str: 15-16 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.IV.2011, EL1612.

References: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot, & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 312, pl. 34, fig. 18. Saúl Blanco Lanza et al. Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 194, pl. 42, figs. 1-16.

Brachysiraceae D.G. Mann

Nupela W.Vyverman & Compère

Nupela cf. lesothensis (Schoeman) Lange-Bertalot, 1998. Fig. 9f

Valve dimensions: L: 15.2-18 mm; W: 4.5-5 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610; antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615, EL1623, 8.IV.2011, EL1624; Jardín Botánico, 8.II.2011, EL1619.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.5. 1998. p. 378, pl. 72, figs. 4,6.

Nupela sp.

Valve dimensions: L: 17-23 mm; W: 4 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Lomas de la Cajita, EL1614, 8.IV.2011.

Diadesmidaceae D.G. Mann

Diadesmis Kützing

Diadesmis arcuata Lange-Bertalot, 1998.

Valve dimensions: L: 22 mm; W: 5 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613.

Reference: Rumrich, Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich Iconogr. Diatomol., v.9. 2000. p. 406, pl. 83, figs. 1-6.

Humidophila (Lange-Bertalot & Werum) R.L. Lowe et al .

Humidophila contenta (Grunow) R.L. Lowe et al. 2014. Fig. 9g

Sin. Diadesmis contenta (Grunow) Mann, 1990

Valve dimensions: L: 8.8-9.4 mm; W: 2.5-3.2 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1611, Puente de Lelidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613, 8.IV.2011, EL1626; antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615, EL1623, EL1624.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 358, pl.57, figs. 12-20.

Luticola D.G. Mann

Luticola aequatorialis (Heiden) Lange-Bertalot & Ohtsuka, 2002. Fig. 9h

Valve dimensions: L: 17 mm; W: 7 mm; Str: 16 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.IV.2011, EL1612.

Reference: Rumrich, Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich Iconogr. Diatomol., v.9. 2000. p. 362, pl. 61, fig. 14.

Luticola goeppertiana (Bleisch) D.G. Mann, 1990. Fig. 10a

Valve dimensions: L: 22.4-34.5 mm; W: 7.5-9.7 mm; Str: 16-19 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611, 8.IV.2011, EL1612, Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613, EL1616; Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1618.

Refererences: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.5. 1998. p. 408, pl. 87, figs. 8-11. Saúl Blanco Lanza et al. Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 212, pl. 51, figs. 1-8.

Luticola sp. Fig. 10b

Valve dimensions: L: 27-35 mm; W: 10-10.9 mm; Str: 16-19 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613.

Amphipleuraceae Grunow

Amphipleura Kützing

Amphipleura lindheimeri Grunow, 1862. Fig. 10c

Valve dimensions: L: 137.7-194 mm; W: 19.6-23.7 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611; Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1616.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 464, pl. 110, figs. 1-2.

Frustulia sp. Fig. 10d

Valve dimensions: L: 38 mm; W: 9 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613.

Frustulia vulgaris (Thwaites) De Toni, 1891. Fig. 10e

Valve dimensions: L: 36.2-49 mm; W: 8.8-9.7 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610; Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1618.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 460, pl. 108, figs. 2-7.

Neidiaceae Mereschkowsky

Neidium Pfitzer

Neidium cf. ampliatum (Ehrenberg) Krammer, 1985. Fig. 10f

Valve dimensions: L: 80.1 mm; W: 13 mm; Str: 20 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1614.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 478, pl. 117, figs. 10,11.

Anomoeoneidaceae D.G. Mann

Adlafia Gerd Moser, Lange-Bertalot & Metzeltin

Adlafia bryophila (J.B. Petersen) Gerd Moser et al. 1998. Fig. 11a

Valve dimensions: L: 16 mm; W: 4 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613; Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1614, EL1625.

Reference: Rumrich, Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich Iconogr. Diatomol., v.9. 2000. p. 394, pl. 77, figs. 18-19.

Adlafia minuscula (Grunow) Lange-Bertalot, 1999. Fig. 11b

Valve dimensions: L: 16 mm; W: 4 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.IV.2011, EL1612.

Reference: Rumrich, Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.9. 2000. p. 394, pl. 77, fig. 12.

Sellaphoraceae Mereschkovsky

Fallacia Stickle & D.G.

Fallacia insociabilis (Krasske) D.G.Mann, 1990. Fig. 11c

Valve dimensions: L: 12 mm; W: 5 mm; Str: 18 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 366, pl. 61, figs. 25, 26.

Sellaphora Mereschkovsky

Sellaphora pupula (Kützing) Mereschkovsky, 1902. Fig. 11d

Valve dimensions: L: 29-30 mm; W: 8 mm; Str: 25 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.IV.2011, EL1612; antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615, 8.IV.2011, EL1624.

Reference: Hofmann, Werum & Lange-Bertalot, Diatomeen im Süßwasser-Benthos von Mitteleuropa. 2013. p. 684, pl. 41, fig. 14.

Pinnulariaceae D.G. Mann

Pinnularia Ehrenberg

Pinnularia borealis var. sublinearisKrammer, 2000. Fig. 11e

Valve dimensions: L: 36 mm; W: 6 mm; Str: 6 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1616.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 574, pl. 165, fig. 14.

Pinnularia parvulissima Krammer, 2002. Fig. 11f

Valve dimensions: L: 54 mm; W: 10 mm; Str: 9 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613.

Reference: K. Krammer, Diatoms of Europe, v.1. 2000. p. 388, pl. 65, fig. 10.

Naviculaceae Kützing

Caloneis Cleve

Caloneis bacillum (Grunow) Cleve, 1894.

Valve dimensions: L: 19-23 mm; W: 5-6 mm; Str: 20 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1611; Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 550, pl. 153, figs. 5,10.

Navicula Bory

Navicula capitatoradiata H. Germain, 1981. Fig. 11g

Valve dimensions: L: 35.9-37.3 mm; W: 7.6-8 mm; Str: 14-15 in 10 mm.

Examined material: COLOMBIA. VALLE DEL CAUC A: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611, 8.II.IV, EL1612; Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613, antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615, EL1623, 8.IV.2011, EL1624; Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1616, 8.IV.2011, EL1626; después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1617.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot, & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 342, pl. 49, figs. 10-18.

Ecology and Distribution: Cosmopolitan species. Found in alkaline waters, high electrolyte content, with moderate oxygen saturation (>50%), α-mesosaprobic, abundant in eutrophic environments, tolerant to critical levels of contamination (Taylor et al . 2007; Van Dam et al . 1994).

Navicula cryptotenella Lange-Bertalot, 1985. Fig. 11h

Valve dimensions: L: 19.8-28.2 mm; W: 4.8-5.6 mm; Str: 12-14 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1611; Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1618.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 338, pl. 47, figs. 17-20.

Navicula gregaria Donkin, 1861. Fig. 11i

Valve dimensions: L: 17.6-23.2 mm; W: 4.4-4.8 mm; Str: 15-16 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610; Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613, 8.IV.2011, EL1626; después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1617.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 334, pl. 45, figs. 16,17.

Navicula lohmannii Lange-Bertalot & U.Rumrich, 2000. Fig. 11j

Valve dimensions: L: 79.5 mm; W: 10.7 mm; Str: 11 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613.

Reference: Rumrich, Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich Iconogr. Diatomol., v.9. 2000. p. 312, pl. 36, figs. 6-7.

Navicula notha J.H. Wallace, 1960. Fig. 11k

Valve dimensions: L: 27-30.8 mm; W: 5 mm; Str: 19 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610; Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1618.

Reference: Saúl Blanco Lanza et al. Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 232, pl. 61, figs. 12-23.

Navicula rostellata Kützing, 1844. Fig. 11l

Valve dimensions: L: 37.5 mm; W: 9 mm; Str: 12 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.IV.2011, EL1612.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 344, pl. 50, figs. 7-11.

Navicula symmetrica Patrick, 1944. Fig. 12a

Valve dimensions: L: 32.6-35.6 mm; W: 6-6.9 mm; Str: 15 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611, 8.IV.2011, EL1612; Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613, 8.IV.2011, EL1626; antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615, 8.IV.2011, EL1624; después de Bocatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1617, 8.IV.2011, EL1621; Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1618; Jardín Botánico, 8.IV.2011, EL1622.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 340, pl. 48, figs. 6-9.

Ecology and Distribution: Europe: Germany. North America: Arkansas, Great Lakes, NW USA, United States of America. South America: Brazil, Colombia. South-west Asia: Iraq. Asia: Taiwan. Australia and New Zealand: Australia, Victoria (<http://www.algaebase.org>).

Circumneutral taxa with optimal development around 7, found in polysaprobic environments with oxygen absent or in very low concentration to β-mesosaprobic. Oligotrophic to eutrophic, supporting large variations in nutrient and mineral concentration, present in electrolyte rich waters, tolerant to heavily polluted environments (Moro & Furstenberger 1997; Taylor et al . 2007). Lobo et al . (2015) cites this species with a medium tolerance to eutrophication.

Navicula trivialis Lange-Bertalot, 1980. Fig. 12b

Valve dimensions: L: 41.6 mm; W: 9.6 mm; Str: 11 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613.

Reference: Saúl Blanco Lanza et al. Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 226, pl. 58, figs. 42-43.

Pleurosigmataceae Mereschkowsky

Gyrosigma obtusatum (Sullivant & Wormley) C.S. Boyer, 1922. Fig. 12c

Valve dimensions: L: 54.2-78 mm; W: 7.2-11 mm; Str: 16 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611; Lomas de la Cajita. 8.II.2011, EL1618.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 430, pl. 93, figs. 1,2. p. 432, pl. 94, fig. 1.

Catenulaceae Mereschkowsky

Amphora Ehrenberg ex Kützing

Amphora meridionalis Levkov, 2009. Fig. 12d

Valve dimensions: L: 20.4-21.6 mm; W: 10.1-10.3mm; Str: 10 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1612; Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1614.

Reference: Saúl Blanco Lanza et al . Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 240, pl. 65, figs. 15-18.

Halamphora (Cleve) Levkov

Halamphora montana (Krasske) Levkov, 2009. Fig. 12e

Valve dimensions: L: 16.9-23 mm; W: 7.1-11 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611, 8.IV.2011, EL1612; Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1614, EL1618, 8.IV.2011, EL1625.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 506, pl. 131, figs. 8-13.

Halamphora normanii (Rabenhorst) Levkov, 2009. Fig. 12f

Valve dimensions: L: 27.2-31.6 mm; W: 4.2-12.5 mm; Str: 20 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610.

Reference: Hofmann, Werum & Lange-Bertalot, Diatomeen im Süßwasser-Benthos von Mitteleuropa. 2013. p. 786, pl. 92, figs. 9,10.

Bacillariaceae Ehrenberg

Nitzschia Hassal

Nitzschia amphibia Grunow, 1862. Fig. 12g

Valve dimensions: L: 18-32 mm; W: 4-5 mm; Fib: 6-7 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1611.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 658, pl. 207, figs. 20-33.

Nitzschia cf. brevissima Grunow, 1880. Fig. 13a

Valve dimensions: L: 37 mm; W: 2.6 mm; Fib: 8 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Lomas de la Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1614.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 646, pl. 201, figs. 6-9.

Nitzschia dissipata (Kützing) Rabenhorst, 1860. Fig. 13b

Valve dimensions: L: 30.4-47 mm; W: 4-7 mm; Fib: 7-8 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, después de Bacatoma, 8.II.2011, EL1609; Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611, 8.IV.2011, EL1612; Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613, EL1616, 8.IV.2011; Lomas de Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1614, EL1618, 8.IV.2011, EL1625.

Reference: Saúl Blanco Lanza et al . Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 310, pl. 100, figs. 13-30. Ecology and Distribution: Cosmopolitan species (Taylor et al . 2007). Alkalophyte, high oxygen saturation above 75%, abundant in water of moderate to high electrolyte content, not present in waters with low conductivity. β-mesosaprobic, mesotrophic to eutrophic, tolerant to high nitrogen concentrations (Taylor et al. 2007; Van Dam et al . 1994).

Nitzschia linearis W. Smith, 1853. Fig. 13c

Valve dimensions: L: 72.8-126 mm; W: 4-5 mm; Fib: 11 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611, 8.IV.2011, EL1612; antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615, 8.IV.2011, EL1624; Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1616, 8.IV.2011, EL1626.

Reference: Saúl Blanco Lanza et al . Diatom atlas of the Duero basin.2010. p. 312, pl. 101, figs. 1-6.

Nitzschia palea (Kützing) W. Smith, 1856. Fig. 13d

Valve dimensions: L: 24-42 mm; W: 4-5.3 mm; Fib: 11-12 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 658, pl. 207, figs. 5-7.

Nitzschia palea is described as indicator species of polysaprobic or hypereutrophic environments, occurring in waters with low concentrations of dissolved oxygen, according to Van Dam et al . (1994), Licursi e Gómez (2002) noted that this species has no affinity for water of higher conductivity. Lobo et al . (2002) and Salomoni, et al . (2006, 2011) described this species as indicator of very polluted environments.

Nitzschia recta Hantzsch ex Rabenhost, 1862. Fig. 13e

Valve dimensions: L: 68 mm; W: 4 mm; Fib: 6 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.IV.2011, EL1612.

Reference: Saúl Blanco Lanza et al. Diatom atlas of the Duero basin. 2010. p. 314, pl. 102, figs. 1-8.

Simonsenia Lange-Bertalot

Simonsenia delognei (Grunow) Lange-Bertalot, 1979. Fig. 13f

Valve dimensions: L: 14 mm; W: 2.5 mm; Str: 17 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1611.

Reference: Krammer & Lange-Bertalot, p. 384, pl. 84, figs. 13-17. 1988.

Rhopalodiaceae (G. Karsten)

Rhopalodia O. Müller

Rhopalodia gibba (Ehrenberg) Otto Müller, 1895. Fig. 14a

Valve dimensions: L: 68 mm; W: 23 mm; Str: 10 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 630, pl. 193, fig. 10.

Rhopalodia cf. operculata (C.Agardh) Håkanasson, 1979. Fig. 14b

Valve dimensions: L: 26.4 mm; W: 5 mm; Str: 20 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 630, pl. 193, figs. 8-9.

Rhopalodia gibberula Ehrenberg O. Müller, 1895. Fig. 14c

Valve dimensions: L: 34.3 mm; W: 17.6 mm; Str: 20 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1611.

Reference: Krammer & Lange-Bertalot p. 444, pl. 113, fig. 5. 1988.

Rhopalodia parallela (Grunow) O. Müller, 1895. Fig. 14d

Valve dimensions: L: 77.6-98.8 mm; W: 20.4-22 mm; Str: 12 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, antes de Desviación, 8.II.2011, EL1615.

Reference: Hofmann, Werum & Lange-Bertalot, Diatomeen im Süßwasser-Benthos von Mitteleuropa. 2013. p. 846, pl. 122, fig. 2.

Surirellaceae Kützing

Surirella Turpin

Surirella angusta Kützing, 1844. Fig. 14e

Valve dimensions: L: 18.1-36.8 mm; W: 7.3-9 mm; Fib: 6-8 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.II.2011, EL1610, EL1611; Lomas de Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1618.

Reference: Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot & García-Rodríguez, Iconogr. Diatomol., v.15. 2005. p. 686, pl. 221, figs. 1-7.

Reference complementary: Bacillaria, p. 61, est. 30, fig. 52. 1844.

Surirella cf. angusta Kützing, 1844. Fig. 14f

Valve dimensions: L: 51 mm; W: 9 mm; Fib: 6 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.IV.2011, EL1612.

Tabellariaceae Kützing

Tabellaria Ehrenberg ex Kützing

Tabellaria flocculosa (Roth) Kützing, 1844. Fig. 14g

Valve dimensions: L: 18-27 mm; W: 7.7-8.8 mm; Str: 14 in 10 mm.

Examined material: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Cali, Pichindé, 8.IV.2011, EL1611; Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1613; Lomas de Cajita, 8.II.2011, EL1614; Puente de Felidia, 8.II.2011, EL1616, 8.IV.2011, EL1626; Jardín Botánico, 8.II.2011, EL1619.

Reference: Krammer & Lange-Bertalot, p. 442, pl. 106, figs. 1, 9, p. 444, pl. 107, figs. 6,7. 1991a.

Conclusion

The epilithic diatom flora of the Cali River hydrographical basin included 82 taxa distributed among 26 families and 38 genera, and 32 species are new occurrences in Colombia. The most representative families were Gomphonemataceae, Naviculaceae, and Bacillariaceae. However, 13 species were considered dominant, characterizing the flora of epilithic diatoms in the Cali River hydrographical basin, Colombia.

Acknowledgements

The authors want to thank the Brazilian Research Council (CNPq) for financial support (Edict MCT/CNPq/Universal - nº 14/2011) and the undergraduate scholarship granted to first author, PIBIC/CNPq.

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Received: May 26, 2017; Accepted: August 01, 2018

4 Author for correspondence: carla.heinrich@hotmail.com

Editora de área: Dra. Renata Reis

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