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Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia

Print version ISSN 0102-6712On-line version ISSN 2179-975X

Acta Limnol. Bras. vol.29  Rio Claro  2017  Epub Dec 11, 2017

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s2179-975x6017 

Thematic Section: Upper Paraná River Floodplain

Species inventory of aquatic macrophytes in the last undammed stretch of the Upper Paraná River, Brazil

Inventário de espécies de macrófitas aquáticas no último trecho sem barragens do Alto Rio Paraná, Brasil

Douglas Costa Souza1  * 

Eduardo Ribeiro Cunha1 

Raytha de Assis Murillo1 

Márcio José Silveira1 

Mikaela Marques Pulzatto1 

Mario Sérgio Dainez-Filho1 

Lucas Assumpção Lolis1 

Sidinei Magela Thomaz1 

1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais – PEA, Universidade Estadual de Maringá – UEM, Av. Colombo, 5790, Bloco G90, Jardim Universitário, CEP 87020-900, Maringá, PR, Brazil


ABSTRACT

Abstract

The last undammed stretch of the Upper Paraná River in the Brazilian territory is, to date, not completely inventoried, which rises concerns given the rapid rates of species extinctions.

Aim

Here, we provide an inventory of macrophyte taxa recorded in the last undammed 230 km stretch of the Upper Paraná River.

Methods

We inventoried macrophyte taxa in 27 sampling stations including lakes, the main channel of the river, and the tributary confluences in November 2013 and in May and November 2014. Macrophyte were sampled in littoral zones. We explored taxonomic and life form aspects of the recorded species. We used species accumulation curves and ordination techniques to summarize the variation in richness and composition of macrophyte species.

Results

We recorded 71 macrophyte taxa in 35 families. Most species were emergent, amphibian, free-floating, and rooted submerged. At the main channel of the Upper Paraná River, Eichhornia azurea, E. crassipes, and Paspalum repens represented the most frequent species. The most frequent species in the tributary confluences were Ludwigia sp., E. azurea, and Polygonum ferrugineum, while in lakes, Ludwigia sp., Oxycaryum cubense, and E. azurea were the most representative taxa. In regard to macrophyte composition, the invasive Hydrilla verticillata mostly influenced sites in the Upper Paraná River, in the ordination space, while floodplain lakes were mostly characterized by the presence of species such as Scleria melaleuca, Panicum maximum, and Thelypteris sp., among others.

Conclusions

Our study indicates that the last undammed stretch of the Upper Paraná River contains a large number of macrophyte species, suggesting that this stretch is an important area for the conservation of macrophyte species. In addition, the occurrence of invasive species (e.g., Hydrilla verticillata) within the investigated stretch deserves attention in terms of potential impacts for which management action may be necessary.

Keywords:  reservoir; conservation; aquatic plants; undammed river; floodplain

RESUMO

Resumo

Até o presente momento, o último trecho livre de barramentos no Alto Rio Paraná não foi completamente investigado e essa realidade é preocupante frente às taxas atuais de extinção de espécies.

Objetivo

Nesse trabalho, foi realizado um inventário dos taxa de macrófitas aquáticas nos últimos 230 km livres de barramento do Alto Rio Paraná.

Métodos

As macrófitas foram inventariadas na zona litorânea de 27 estações amostrais em novembro de 2013 e maio e novembro de 2014. Descrições gerais sobre aspectos taxonômicos de macrófitas e sobre as formas de vida foram explorados. Complementarmente, foram utilizadas curvas de acumulação de espécies e técnicas de ordenação para sumarizar a variação na composição das espécies de macrófitas.

Resultados

Foram registrados 71 taxa de macrófitas pertencentes a 35 famílias. A maioria das espécies foi classificada nas seguintes categorias: emergentes, flutuantes livres, anfíbias e submersas enraizadas. No canal principal do rio, as espécies mais frequentes foram Eichhornia azurea, E. crassipes e Paspalum repens. Nas confluências dos tributários, Ludwigia sp., E.azurea e Polygonum ferrugineum foram as mais representativas, enquanto nas lagoas, Ludwigia sp., Oxycaryum cubense e E. azurea se destacaram. Em relação à composição de espécies, os locais de amostragem no Alto Rio Paraná foram mais influenciados pela invasora Hydrilla verticillata, enquanto as lagoas foram mais caracterizadas por espécies como Scleria melaleuca, Panicum maximum, Thelypteris sp., entre outras.

Conclusões

Em geral, esse estudo apontou que a área do Alto Rio Paraná apresenta um grande número de espécies de macrófitas. Ademais, a ocorrência de espécies invasoras dentro do trecho investigado chama atenção para cuidados quanto a potenciais impactos, para os quais, ações de manejo podem ser necessárias.

Palavras-chave:  reservatório; conservação; plantas aquáticas; rio não barrado; planície de inundação

1. Introduction

Species inventories represent a consistent and efficient method for obtaining basic information on species distributions. This kind of data has been continuously claimed as a basis for prioritizing conservation areas and directing conservation actions (Prance & Campbell, 1988; Raven & Wilson, 1992; Balmford & Gaston, 1999; Brooks et al., 2004). Information on species distribution provides valuable inputs for habitat relationship modeling and biodiversity monitoring, which serves many conservational purposes, such as sustaining native populations and regulating invasive species (Thomaz et al., 2004; Elith & Leathwick, 2009). Despite the importance of such species inventories, this type of information still lacks for many areas or has been poorly implemented with incomplete surveys.

Similar to many other groups, information on species distribution of aquatic macrophytes shows large geographical gaps (Chambers et al., 2008). This group of aquatic plants include 2,610 species, with great species richness and endemism rates in the Neotropics (Chambers et al., 2008), which coincides with scarce inventories and intense threats for aquatic biodiversity such as habitat degradation, invasive species, flow modification, water pollution, and others (Dudgeon et al., 2006).

Within the Neotropical region, macrophytes colonize large wetland areas such as floodplains, and dam constructions represent major threats to their diversity. Dams drastically change environmental conditions (Ward & Stanford, 1995), causing habitat loss and displacement of macrophyte species (e.g., Benítez-Mora & Camargo, 2014). These features increase concerns about conservation, since a large number of reservoirs has been built in the tropics.

Among the severely dammed rivers in the Neotropical region, many macrophyte species have been recorded in the Upper Paraná River and in its associated habitats (Ferreira et al., 2011). Considering the importance of its remaining stretch that flows free near the line of the Southern Tropic, a large group of experts in the diversity of many aquatic taxa, including macrophytes, conducted a collaborative project aiming to increase the knowledge on many aquatic organisms along this stretch (see this special issue of Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia).

Here, we present an inventory of macrophyte taxa recorded in the last undammed 230 km stretch of the Upper Paraná River. We surveyed macrophytes in 12 sites located in the main channel of the Upper Paraná River, confluences of seven tributaries with this river and eight associated floodplain lakes. We present and discuss the occurrence of taxa recorded, the composition of the macrophyte community, and we infer about the commonness and rarity of such taxa across sampling sites in this stretch.

2. Material and Methods

2.1. Sampling

The sampling area comprised the entire undammed stretch of the Upper Paraná River. This stretch is mainly characterized by a gradient that extends from oligotrophic conditions close to the Porto Primavera dam to more pristine conditions farther away from the dam, but closer to the lower border of the Ilha Grande National Park (Figure 1). Ecosystems connected directly to the Upper Paraná River commonly present high water transparency, low P concentrations, and intermediate N concentrations (Rocha & Thomaz, 2004; Thomaz et al., 2004). More details on the abiotic aspects for the area can be found in Santana et al. (2017).

Figure 1 Sites of macrophyte sampling at the main channel of the Upper Paraná River (P1-P12; black circles), confluences of tributaries with the main channel (T1-T7; dark grey circles) and floodplain lakes (L1-L8; light grey circles). The tributaries sampled were the rivers Paranapanema (T1), Baía (T2), Ivinheima (T3), Ivaí (T4), Amanbai (T5), Iguatemi (T6), and Piquiri (T7). The floodplain lakes sampled were lakes Garças (L1), Xirica (L2), Pombas (L3), Ivaí (L4), Saraiva (L5), Pavão (L6), Xambrê (L7), and São João (L8). 

Macrophyte taxa were inventoried in 27 sampling stations, coinciding with the sampling sites presented for other taxonomic groups (see other publications in this special issue). The sampling stations were distributed among three categories of habitats: the main channel of the Upper Paraná River, tributary confluences (areas in the mouth of tributary rivers that reach the Upper Paraná River), and the floodplain lakes. Among the sample sites, 12 were established in the main channel of the Upper Paraná River and distributed along the study area. Along the same stretch, seven sampling stations were in tributary confluence areas of the rivers Paranapanema, Baia, Ivinheima, Ivaí, Amanbai, Iguatemi, and Piquiri. The other eight sampling sites were the floodplain lakes Garças, Xirica, Pombas, Ivaí, Saraiva, Pavão, Xambrê, and São João (Figure 1).

Field surveys were conducted in November 2013 and in May and November 2014. At each sampling site, we used a boat and recorded all macrophyte species that were visualized by one observer in a transect at the littoral zone (50-100 meters surveyed for 15-30 minutes). Submerged species were sampled with rakes. Over the whole sampling period, samples were taken by five different researchers with similar training. Taxa identification was supported by specialized literature (e.g., Kissman, 1997; Kissman & Groth, 1999; Kissman & Groth, 2000; Lorenzi, 2000; Pott & Pott, 2000). We also used specialized literature for classifying macrophytes according to their life form: amphibian (AN), emergent (EM), rooted floating-stemmed (RFS), rooted floating-leaved (RFL), free floating (FF), free submerged (FS), rooted submerged (RS), and epiphytic (EP) species (Pott & Pott, 2000).

2.2. Analyses

Species records on different sampling dates were combined for each sampling site. General descriptions for macrophyte taxonomic aspects and life forms were explored by frequency of species occurrence, number of species per taxonomic family, and number of species per life form.

To describe the pattern of species accumulation with increasing sampling effort, we used a species accumulation curve. The sample-based protocol was employed and the accumulation curve was constructed in the R environment, using the iNEXT package (Hsieh et al., 2016).

To summarize the variation in the composition of the macrophyte species, we used non-metric dimensional scaling (nMDS). We used presence and absence data to perform the ordination, and the configuration of sites in the multivariate space was obtained using the Sørensen index. The nMDS was performed in the R environment, using the vegan package (Oksanen et al., 2017).

3. Results

Most species recorded belonged to the families Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Polygonaceae, Pontederiaceae, and Salviniaceae (Figure 2A). Emergent, amphibian, free-floating, and rooted submerged were the life forms with the greatest species numbers (Figure 2B). In terms of frequency, the most common taxa were Ludwigia sp., Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth, E. crassipes (Mart.) Solms, Polygonum ferrugineum Wedd., and Salvinia auriculata Aubl. (Figure 3A).

Figure 2 Number of species per family for families with the largest number of recorded species (A) and number of species per life form (B) across all sampling sites. 

Figure 3 Most frequent species found in all sampling sites (A) and in the different types of habitats sampled, including the main channel of the Upper Paraná River (B), the tributary confluences (C), and the floodplain lakes (D). 

In the main channel of the Upper Paraná River, E. azurea, E. crassipes, and Paspalum repens were the most frequent species (Figure 3B; Appendix 1). Among the rare species, we recorded the emergent species P. hydropiperoides, Pontederia cordata, and Rhynchosphora corimbosa (Appendix 1). These species were considered rare since they showed lower frequencies of occurrence in relation to the other sampled species.

In terms of the macrophyte species sampled in the tributary confluences, the most frequent ones were Ludwigia sp., E. azurea, and P. ferrugineum, while the rare species were Pistia stratiotes, P. cordata, and Urochloa mutica (Figure 3C; Appendix 1). In the floodplain lakes, the most frequent species were Ludwigia sp., followed by Oxycaryum cubense and E. azurea (Figure 3D; Appendix 1). The rarest species recorded in these ecosystems were P. mesneirianum, Scleria melaleuca, and Thelypteris sp. (Figure 3C; Appendix 1).

A total of 71 macrophyte taxa, belonging to 35 families, were recorded (Appendix 1; Figure 4). The number of macrophyte species recorded increased rapidly with increasing sampling effort (solid line; Figure 4), but did not reach an asymptote (Figure 4). Extrapolations of species richness provided by the species accumulation curves (dashed line) indicated that additional macrophyte taxa could still be recorded with increasing sampling effort (Figure 4).

Figure 4 Species accumulation curve for macrophyte samples conducted at the last undammed stretch of the Upper Paraná River. 

The composition of the macrophyte species community was summarized by the nMDS (ordination stress = 0.12; Figure 5). Species composition in sites of the Upper Paraná River was mostly influenced by the presence of Hydrilla verticillata (Figure 5A and B), while the floodplain lakes were mostly characterized by the presence of S. melaleuca, Panicum maximum, Thelypteris sp., Eleocharis geniculata, Cissus erosa, Caperonia castaneifolia, and P. punctatum (Figure 5A and B). The tributaries shared species with both the Upper Paraná River and the floodplain lakes and were slightly influenced by the presence of U. mutica (Figure 5A and B).

Figure 5 Non-metric dimensional scale (nMDS) for macrophyte species sampled at sites in the main channel (black), tributaries (dark gray), and floodplain lakes (light gray) of the Upper Paraná River. Both sites (A) and species scores (B) are shown. 

4. Discussion

The taxa recorded in the different habitats of the last undammed stretch of the Upper Paraná River represent about 7% of the total species registered in the entire Neotropical region (about 984 species) (Chambers et al., 2008). However, although this is seemingly a low percentage of species, this number becomes more significant considering the relative small area where our study took place and the low taxonomic resolution of many taxa we recorded (22 out of 71 taxa were recorded at the genus level). In our survey, we recorded several species also found in other floodplains and wetlands in the Neotropical region (Pott & Pott, 2000; Bove & Paz, 2003; Catian et al., 2012). Compared to previous studies in the same area, we recorded more macrophyte taxa than, for example, Murphy et al. (2003) (28 taxa), Bini et al. (2001), and Thomaz et al. (2009) (50 taxa each). However, we recorded fewer macrophyte taxa than Ferreira et al. (2011), which may be related to the differences in the sampling approaches of the two studies. Our surveys were conducted in the littoral zones by boat to minimize survey costs and to maximize the inventoried geographical range, while the surveys performed by Ferreira et al. (2011) were more limited in terms of geographical range, but included additional microhabitats, such as marshes and intermittently flooded areas. Our study, however, provides a contribution in terms of expanding the geographical information on macrophyte distribution in the area.

Considering our findings in terms of taxonomy, the families with the greatest number of species were Poaceae, Cyperaceae, and Polygonaceae (Figure 3A). Both Poaceae and Cyperaceae are families with a cosmopolitan distribution, showing a great number of species. These species are most commonly associated with vegetation in poorly drained conditions such as swamps, marshes, bogs, and waterbody shores (Judd et al., 2009), but can also grow prolifically in areas with a shallow water column, such as littoral zones (e.g., Panicum pernambucensis). Species of these families usually have fast growth rates with propagule dispersion by water and wind, which enables them to achieve broader geographical distributions (Kissman, 1997; Matias et al., 2003). In addition, Poaceae and Cyperaceae hold species that are stoloniferous, a trait that makes them much more likely to expand their distribution and to show dominant distribution in contrast to species from other taxonomic families.

Interestingly, within families with the greatest number of species, we recorded U. arrecta, which is a highly invasive Poaceae species native to Africa. This species has been recorded in several habitats of the Upper Paraná River basin (Michelan et al., 2010, 2013), and records of its occurrence in the floodplain rise concerns. Even though the frequency of occurrence of this species was not remarkable, we believe that monitoring and management actions should be implemented as safety measures to avoid its potential spread and establishment in new sites.

Regarding the macrophyte life forms, emergent species attained the highest number of species recorded and were mostly represented by species of the Cyperaceae, Fabaceae, and Onagraceae families. These families are also present in other important wetlands similar to the one investigated here, such as the Pantanal (Pott & Pott, 2000). Emergent species usually have a higher tolerance to water stress and may easily adapt to intermittent conditions of flood and drought found in floodplain ecosystems. In our study, these species were recorded in all three habitat types (Upper Paraná River, tributary confluences, and floodplain lakes), which corroborates the findings from previous studies (Murphy et al., 2003; Santos & Thomaz, 2007; Pott et al., 2011; Tabosa et al., 2012). Most frequent among species with this life form was Ludwigia sp., which was recorded in all sampled ecosystems, but had a remarkable occurrence in lakes (Figure 5). Such findings were expected, given the great adaptability of this genus to different conditions.

The second most frequent life form was that of amphibian plants. This group has a stronger water stress tolerance than emergent plants and can occur in both drier and humid substrates (Matias et al., 2003). However, emergent life forms tend to be better competitors than amphibian ones due to their faster growth rates and opportunistic behavior (Lycarião & Dantas, 2017), which might explain the pattern found here.

The other two representative life forms were free-floating and rooted submerged macrophytes. These groups have, compared to the other life forms, a low diversity in floodplains (e.g., Junk & Piedade, 1997; Pott & Pott, 2000). In the sampled region, free-floating macrophytes were mainly represented by E. crassipes and S. auriculata, demonstrating a high frequency in all studied environments (Figure 5). These plants are highly spread in Neotropics and may achieve high abundances. In the Amazon floodplains, for example, E. crassipes may build up 40 to 50% of total plants biomass (Piedade et al., 2010). Among the submerged macrophytes, the native Egeria najas and the exotic invasive H. verticillata were the most important in terms of frequency of occurrence, which corroborate the surveys performed by Sousa et al. (2009, 2010). Our results show that Egeria najas and H. verticillata differ in terms of colonizing habitats, with greater occurrence of Egeria najas in lentic habitats and greater occurrence of H. verticillata in the main channel of Upper Paraná River (also similar to Sousa et al. 2009, 2010). Such aspect was also important for distinguishing species composition between types of habitat. For example, the nMDS identified H. verticillata as one of the main determinants of the community composition found in habitats in the main channel of the Upper Paraná River (see Figure 5).

Considering the occurrences of species, regardless of their family or life form, the most frequent ones were Ludwigia sp., E. azurea, E. crassipes, P. ferrugineum, and S. auriculata (Figure 3), and this pattern was consistent across all types of studied ecosystems. All five species were found in at least half of the sampled Upper Paraná River areas. All of them are widely distributed in South American floodplains (Pott & Pott, 2000; Bove & Paz, 2003; Catian et al., 2012), and some of them are even found invading other continents and causing economic and ecological losses (Téllez et al., 2008). In accordance to their large geographical distribution and successful invasion of ecosystems in other continents, the great frequencies of occurrence of these species in our samples are most likely related to the great phenotypic plasticity they present (Wells & Pigliucci, 2000).

Contrasting the patterns for frequent species, many species recorded in our study can be considered rare due to their low frequency of occurrence (Figure 3). Among them, for example, are Hymenachne amplexicaulis, U. mutica, and Panicum maximum (Appendix 1), which were restricted to only one of the types of ecosystems investigated. Along with limiting environmental conditions, another possible explanation for the low occurrence of these macrophyte species is the presence of stronger competitors, hampering their establishment.

Here, we recorded occurrence of macrophytes species within the whole last undammed stretch of the Upper Paraná River. Such information mainly contributes to expand the recorded distribution of macrophyte species within this area, which may be particularly useful for conservation and management purposes. The relatively high diversity of macrophytes we found rises attention to the need of strengthening conservation measures in order to protect macrophyte diversity. In addition, our samples revealed broad spatial distribution of invasive species, such as H. verticillata and U. arrecta, which alarm for urgent monitoring of potential impacts. Lastly, we recommend future investigations to explore the relationships between distribution of macrophyte species with environmental factors in order to provide even more solid basis for macrophyte conservation measures.

Appendix 1

List of species sampled in the main channel of the Upper Paraná River, confluences of tributaries with the main channel, and floodplain lakes. Black squares denote species occurrence. Tributaries sampled were the rivers Paranapanema (T1), Baía (T2), Ivinheima (T3), Ivaí (T4), Amanbai (T5), Iguatemi (T6), and Piquiri (T7). Floodplain lakes sampled were Garças (L1), Xirica (L2), Pombas (L3), Ivaí (L4), Saraiva (L5), Pavão (L6), and Xambrê (L7). Life forms were amphibian (AM), emergent (EM), rooted floating-stemmed (RFS), rooted floating-leaved (RFL), free floating (FF), free submerged (FS), rooted submerged (RS), and epiphytic (EP).

SPECIES LIFE FORMS SAMPLING SITES
PARANÁ RIVER   TRIBUTARIES   FLOODPLAIN LAKES
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12   T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7   L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8
Acanthaceae
Hygrophila costata Nees & T. Nees EM - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Alismataceae
Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltdl.) Micheli EM - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 - 1 - - - 1 -
Sagittaria montevidensis Cham. & Schltdl. EM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1 - - - - -
Amaranthaceae
Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. AM - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - -
Apiaceae
Centella asiática (L.) Urb. AM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - -
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L. f. RFS - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - 1 1 - - - 1 - - - - - - - -
Araceae
Pistia stratiotes L. FF - - - - 1 1 - - - 1 1 1 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Asteraceae
Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. AM - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Azollaceae
Azolla sp. FF - - - - 1 - - - - - - 1 - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Cabombaceae
Cabomba furcata Schult. & Schult. f. RS - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 1
Cactaceae
Oxypetalum sp. AM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1 - - -
Characeae
Nitella sp. RS - - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Commelinaceae
Commelina sp. EM - - - - 1 1 - - - - 1 1 - 1 - - 1 - 1 1 - - - 1 - - -
Convolvulaceae
Ipomoea alba L. AM - - - 1 1 1 - - - 1 1 - - 1 - - 1 - 1 - - - - - 1 - -
Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet AM - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - 1 - - 1
Ipomoea carnea Jacq. AM - - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 - - 1 - 1 - 1 1 1 - - 1 1 1 1
Cucurbitaceae
Cyclanthera sp AM - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
Cyperaceae
Cyperus giganteus Vahl AM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - 1 - - 1
Cyperus sp. AM - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - -
Eleocharis geniculata (L.) Roem. & Schult. EM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 1 - - - - -
Eleocharis mínima Kunth EM - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - 1 1 1 - - - - -
Fuirena sp. EM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth) Palla EP - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 1 - 1 1 - - - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.) Britton AM - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - -
Scleria melaleuca Rchb. ex Schltdl. & Cham. AM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 -
Euphorbiaceae
Caperonia castaneifolia (L.) A. St.-Hil. EM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - -
Fabaceae
Aeschynomene sp. EM - - - 1 1 1 - - - 1 1 1 - 1 - - 1 1 1 1 1 - - 1 - 1 1
Vigna lasiocarpa (Mart. ex Benth.) Verdc. EM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - 1 - - 1
Hydrocharitaceae
Egeria najas Planch. RS - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - - - 1 - 1 - 1 - - -
Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle RS 1 - - 1 1 1 - - - - 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Limnobium laevigatum (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Heine FF - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Lentibulariaceae
Utricularia foliosa L. FS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - -
Lythraceae
Cuphea melvilla Lindl. EM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1 - - - - - -
Cuphea sp. AM - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Malvaceae
Hibiscus sp. EM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - -
Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaea amazonum Mart. & Zucc. RFL - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - 1 - - - - - - 1 1 1 1 1 - 1
Onagraceae
Ludwigia helminthorrhiza (Mart.) H. Hara FF - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - 1 1 - - 1
Ludwigia sp. EM - - - - 1 1 1 - - 1 1 1 - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Phyllanthaceae
Phyllanthus sp. EM - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - 1 - 1 -
Poaceae
Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge) Nees EM - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Leersia hexandra Sw. EM - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - 1 1 - 1 1
Panicum maximum Jacq. EM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 -
Panicum pernambucense (Spreng.) Mez ex Pilg. EM - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1 1 - - - - - -
Panicum sp. EM - - - - - 1 1 - - 1 1 1 - - 1 - 1 1 1 1 - - 1 1 1 1 1
Paspalum repens P.J. Bergius EM - - - 1 1 1 1 - - 1 1 1 - 1 1 1 - 1 - 1 1 - 1 - - - 1
Poaceae sp1 EM - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Poaceae sp2 EM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - -
Poaceae sp3 EM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
Poaceae sp4 EM - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Urochloa arrecta (Hack. ex T. Durand & Schinz) Morrone & Zuloaga RFS - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 1 - 1 - - - - 1 - - - 1 - - 1 -
Urochloa mutica (Forssk.) T.Q. Nguyen EM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - -
Podostemaceae
Podostemum rutifolium Warm. RS - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Polygonaceae
Polygonum acuminatum Kunth EM - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 - - - - - - 1 1 1 1 1 - 1 - - -
Polygonum ferrugineum Wedd. EM - - - 1 1 1 1 - - 1 1 1 - 1 1 - 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 1 1 - -
Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx. EM - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Polygonum meisnerianum Cham. & Schltdl. EM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - -
Polygonum punctatum Elliott EM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - -
Polygonum stelligerum Cham. EM - - - 1 1 1 1 - - 1 - 1 - 1 - - 1 1 1 1 1 - - 1 1 - 1
Pontederiaceae
Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth RFS - - - 1 1 1 1 - - 1 1 1 - 1 1 - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 1
Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms FF - - - 1 1 1 1 - - 1 1 1 - 1 1 - - 1 1 - 1 - 1 1 1 1 1
Eichhornia diversifolia (Vahl) Urb. FF - - - - 1 - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
Pontederia cordata L. EM - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - 1 1 - - 1 - 1 1
Pteridaceae
Pteridophyta sp AM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1 1
Rubiaceae
Diodia brasiliensis Spreng. AM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1 - - - - - - -
Salviniaceae
Salvinia auriculata Aubl. FF - - - 1 1 1 - - - 1 1 1 - 1 1 1 1 - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - -
Salvinia herzogii de la Sota FF - - - - 1 1 - - - - 1 1 - 1 1 - 1 - 1 - - 1 1 1 1 - 1
Salvinia mínima Baker FF - - - - 1 - - - - 1 1 - - 1 1 - 1 - 1 - - 1 1 1 1 - 1
Scrophulariaceae
Lindernia sp RS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - -
Thelypteridaceae
Thelypteris sp. EM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 -
Verbenaceae
Lippia sp. EM - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - -
Vitaceae
Cissus erosa Rich. AM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - -

Acknowledgements

We thank the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES/Proex) for financial support. The authors DCS, MMP, and MSDF thank CAPES for providing scholarships. The authors RAM and LAL thank CNPq for scholarships. ERC thanks the Fundação Araucária (an organization of the Government of Paraná state, Brazil) and the Itaipu Binacional for providing a scholarship. MJS thanks the Brazilian Council of Research (CNPq) for a post-doctoral scholarship. SMT thanks the CNPq for continuous funding through a Research Productivity Grant. We also thank Sebastião Rodrigues, Thamis Meurer, and Thaisa Michelan for their support during surveys.

Cite as: Souza, D.C. et al. Species inventory of aquatic macrophytes in the last undammed stretch of the Upper Paraná River, Brazil. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia, 2017, vol. 29, e115.

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Received: May 26, 2017; Accepted: November 08, 2017

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