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Hoehnea

Print version ISSN 0073-2877On-line version ISSN 2236-8906

Hoehnea vol.44 no.4 São Paulo Oct./Dec. 2017

https://doi.org/10.1590/2236-8906-97/2016 

ARTICLES

Tree and shrub flora in the surroundings of the Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná State, Brazil: contribution to ecological restoration

Flora arbórea e arbustiva no entorno do Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, PR, Brasil: contribuição para restauração ecológica

Roque Cielo-Filho1  4 

Geraldo Antonio Daher Corrêa Franco2 

Fernando Periotto3 

Osny Tadeu de Aguiar2 

João Batista Baitello2 

Carla Daniela Câmara3 

Carolina Rodrigues Sousa2 

Juliana Menezes de Jesus2 

1Instituto Florestal, Floresta Estadual de Avaré, Rua Pernambuco, s/n, 18701-180 Avaré, SP, Brasil

2Instituto Florestal, Divisão de Dasonomia, Rua do Horto, 931, 02377-000 São Paulo, SP, Brasil

3Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Campus Medianeira, Avenida Brasil, 4232, 85884-000 Medianeira, PR, Brasil


ABSTRACT

Aiming to expand the regional floristic knowledge and compile species information to subsidize restoration projects, we conducted a floristic survey in native forest fragments of an area located between the Parque Nacionaldo Iguaçu and the Área de Preservação Permanente do Lago de Itaipu, in western Paraná State. We found 204 species and 51 families, being the richest Fabaceae (29 spp.), Myrtaceae (18 spp.), Solanaceae (10 spp.), Euphorbiaceae, Meliaceae and Rutaceae (nine spp. each). The zoochoric syndrome was the most common (69% of the species), followed by anemochoric (17%) and autochoric (14%). The non-pioneer species were the most frequent (64%). In general terms, these results agree qualitatively with those observed in seasonal semideciduous forests. Based on phytosociological data from other studies, we indicated 34 locally abundant species that can be used in greater proportions in restoration projects. We recorded seven species threatened and 15 exotic, of which 12 have invasive potential and require actions for controlling.

Keywords: Atlantic forest; conservation; floristic; restoration; threatened species

RESUMO

Conduzimos um estudo florístico em fragmentos de floresta nativa de uma área localizada entre o ParqueNacional do Iguaçu e a Área de Preservação Permanente do Lago de Itaipu, oeste do Estado do Paraná, objetivando ampliar o conhecimento florístico regional e compilar informações sobre as espécies para subsidiar projetos de restauração naquela área. Encontramos 204 espécies e 51 famílias, sendo as mais ricas Fabaceae (29 spp.), Myrtaceae (18 spp.), Solanaceae (10 spp.), Euphorbiaceae, Meliaceae e Rutaceae (nove spp. cada). A síndrome zoocórica foi a mais comum (69% das espécies), seguida pela anemocórica (17%) e autocórica (14%). As espécies não pioneiras foram as mais frequentes (64%). Qualitativamente, de modo geral, esses resultados coincidem com o observado em florestas estacionais semideciduais. Com base em dados fitossociológicos de outros estudos, indicamos 34 espécies localmente abundantes que podem ser usadas em maiores proporções em projetos de restauração. Registramos sete espécies ameaçadas de extinção e 15 exóticas, das quais 12 possuem potencial invasivo demandando ações de controle.

Palavras-chave: conservação; espécies ameaçadas; florística; Mata Atlântica; restauração

Introduction

The Iguaçu National Park (INP) is located in the Alto Paraná Atlantic Forest Ecoregion, the largest among the 15 ecoregions identified in the Atlantic Forest biome (Di Bitetti et al. 2003). It covered originally 471,204 km2 extending from the western side of the Atlantic mountain range, in Brazil, to eastern Paraguay and northeastern Argentina. Its predominant vegetation type is the seasonal semideciduous forest (Di Bitetti et al. 2003). The vegetation cover in this Ecoregion was reduced to 7.8% of its original area, the greatest reduction being observed in Brazil where forest cover declined to only 2.7% of its original area; followed by Paraguay and Argentina, with 13.4% and 50% of remaining vegetation, respectively (Di Bitetti et al. 2003). According to these authors, Argentina preserves the largest continuous forest cover in the Alto Paraná Forest Ecoregion, comprising much of the Misiones Province. In the border region between Brazil and Argentina, the Iguaçu National Park stands out as the largest protected area covering a territory of 185,262 ha (Di Bitetti et al. 2003). The native forest cover in this region constitutes the largest continuous remnant of seasonal semideciduous forest in the context of the Atlantic forest biome (Galindo-Leal & Câmara 2005).

The functional connection between the INP and other protected areas in Argentina and Paraguay as well as in the Brazilian States of Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul represents a highly favorable condition for the conservation of theAtlantic Forest biodiversity (Di Bitetti et al. 2003, Galindo-Leal & Câmara 2005). To this end, some proposals have been discussed, such as the Biodiversity Corridor of the Paraná River (Limont et al. 2015) and the Biodiversity Conservation Landscape for the Alto Paraná Forest Ecoregion (Di Bitetti et al. 2003). These are considered long-term strategies for biodiversity conservation through the maintenance of the ecological process of the biota (Di Bitetti et al. 2003).

An important region for the implementation of those strategies is located between the INP and the southern limit of the permanent preservation area of the Itaipu Lake (PPAIL), in western Paraná State, where the connection between the northern and southern sectors of the Biodiversity Conservation Landscape for the Alto Paraná Forest Ecoregion could be established (Di Bitetti et al. 2003). The PPAIL consists of a 2,900 km long strip, with an average width of 217 m of reforestation or native forest remnants that runs along almost the entire length of the Itaipu Hydroelectric reservoir margins (Itaipu Binacional 2016a).

However, the connection between the INP and the PPAIL is hindered by the eminently agricultural land use in the region and by the busy BR 277 Highway, which separates apart these two protected areas. The map of the Biodiversity Conservation Landscape for the Alto Paraná Forest Ecoregion indicates the establishment of a biological corridor in this region (Di Bitetti et al. 2003). An example of a biological corridor already established there is the Santa Maria corridor consisting of remnants of native vegetation and a 60-m width reforestation strip in the Bonito River Basin (Itaipu Binacional 2016b). Notwithstanding, a wider biological corridor should yet be designed in the region in order to warrant an effective connection between the two sectors of the Biodiversity Conservation Landscape for the Alto Paraná Forest Ecoregion (Di Bitetti et al. 2003). Furthermore, the simple recovery of native forests in the river margins and other permanent preservation areas in small rural properties can greatly enhance the functional connectivity at the landscape scale in the region (Seganfredo 2015).

Either for the establishment of a biological corridor between the INP and the PPAIL, or for the recovery of permanent preservation areas in the region, there will be the necessity of forest restoration (sensuAronson et al. 2011). Floristic knowledge about native vegetation remnants is critical to the choice of the most suitable species for restoration projects (e.g.Monge 2009); to avoid the use of exotic species, and enable high diversity forest restoration. The current floristic knowledge in the region covers the surroundings of the Santa Maria biological corridor, in the Santa Terezinha de Itaipu municipality (Gris 2012), at an average altitude of 270 m above sea level; and specific areas inside the INP, at altitudes ranging from 150 to 750 m above sea level (Souza 2015).

The present contribution aimed to extend the regional floristic knowledge in the region between the INP and the PPAIL to a 440 km2 study area covering an altitudinal range expanding from 200 m to 600 m above sea level in the municipalities of Céu Azul, Matelândia, Medianeira and Serranópolis do Iguaçu. Beyond a floristic list, we aimed to provide useful information compiled from the literature for the application of the list in restoration projects in the study area, such as successional category, dispersal syndrome, conservation status and indication of locally abundant species.

Material and methods

Study area - The study area covers predominantly the municipality of Matelândia and, to a lesser extent, of Céu Azul, Medianeira and Serranópolis do Iguaçu, in Paraná State, Brazil. For methodological convenience, we defined the study area as the polygon circumscribed by the Highways BR 277 and PR 495 and by the northwestern border of the INP, covering an area of 440 km2 (figure 1). The average annual temperature in the region is 21.6 ºC, with average annual rainfall of 1,803 mm. Climate is subtropical, Cfa according to Köppen classification system (EMBRAPA 2011). Vegetation in the native forest fragments is seasonal semideciduous forest (Di Bitetti et al. 2003) due to the predominance of phanerophytes, the subtropical climate seasonality and the leaf shedding of part of the tree individuals (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística 2012). Seasonal semideciduous forests of localities inside the INP, near the study area and extending through a similar altitudinal range, were classified as typical and humid submontane forests by Souza (2015).

Source: Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica and INPE (2016).

Figure 1 Study area, western Paraná State, Brazil. The area consists of a polygon delimitated by BR 277 and PR 495 highways, and by the northwestern limit of the Iguaçu National Park. The localities of botanical records are indicated by stars. 

Floristic survey - We visited 16 native forest fragments located in the study area from October 2013 to December 2015 during field campaigns that had an average duration of 3 days and monthly periodicity. The number of visits to each fragment along the study period varied, being greater in larger and less disturbed ones. As our objective was to describe the floristic composition of the study area as a whole and not of each fragment individually, we did not compiled an individual floristic list of each fragment, so frequency of species across fragments in the area is not available. Fragments were chosen taking into account the sampling of the entire study area with a distribution of sampling effort as homogeneous as possible, and also considering the access authorization by landowners. We also sampled the northwestern edge of the Iguaçu National Park between the limits of the Park and the so called Old Guarapuava Road between Serranópolis do Iguaçu and Céu Azul municipalities, walking the length of this road in that stretch. The forest fragments studied have different disturbance histories and include secondary forests and primary forests with different levels of degradation (degraded primary forest sensuAronson et al. 2011). The vegetation of the northwestern edge of the INP was considered as secondary forest. The method used for the floristic survey was based on the walking method (Filgueiras et al. 1994), considering only the tree and shrub components and using trails already existent in the forests. The botanical material was collected with the use of a telescopic pruner and all collections were geo-referenced using Global Positioning System (GPS). In addition to the forest fragments and the INP edge, we also collected botanical material along the rural roads in the study area.

We processed the botanical material according to the conventional techniques (Fidalgo & Bononi 1989). Both fertile and vegetative materials were identified by comparison with herbarium specimens deposited in the Forestry Institute of São Paulo State (Dom Bento José Pickel Herbarium -SPSF), and by consulting the specialized literature. The voucher herbarium sheets were deposited in the SPSF Herbarium, with duplicates deposited in the herbarium of the Federal Technological University of Paraná - Campus Medianeira (Figueira Herbarium - FIG). Only fertile materials were deposited in the SPSF herbarium, while 27 vegetative materials, corresponding to 27 species, were deposited in the FIG herbarium. These species were not found in reproductive phase during the study period, but we decided to incorporate the respective voucher to the FIG herbarium considering the absence of herbarium sheets of these species in this recently established collection (Cielo-Filho et al. 2016).

We sorted the species into families and genera according to the APG IV system (APG IV 2016). To check spelling, corrected and accepted names we consulted the List of Species of the Brazilian Flora (Brazilian Flora 2020 in construction 2016). For most species, plant habits classification was obtained in the List of Species of the Brazilian Flora, but we follow Souza et al. (2013) for palm and fern, although we counted these habits as tree in the results. Verification of endangered species was based on the Red List of Endangered Species of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (International Union for Conservation of Nature 2016) and the Official List of Endangered Species of the Brazilian Flora (Brasil 2014), which was based on the list presented by Martinelli & Moraes (2013). We did not use the Red List of Paraná State (Paraná 1995), since this list is out of date. With the aim of supporting future forest restoration projects and the establishment of a biological corridor in the study area, we compiled information concerning the successional category (sensuSwaine & Whitmore 1988) and dispersal syndrome (sensuPijl 1982) of the identified species from the literature (e.g.Lorenzi 1992, Gandolfi et al. 1995, Lorenzi 1998, Silva & Soares-Silva 2000, Carvalho 2003, Carpanezzi & Carpanezzi 2006, Carvalho 2006, Carvalho 2008, Lorenzi 2009, Carvalho 2010, Barbosa et al. 2015). We also indicated the native species found in the present contribution which were also registered, as locally abundant species, in phytosociological studies available for the INP and its surroundings (Gris 2012, Souza 2015). To do this, we considered species occupying the first ten positions in the importance value ranking of a typical submontane forest in the Santa Maria Natural Patrimony Private Reservoir (Gris 2012), and of typical and humid submontane forests in the interior of the INP (Souza 2015).

Results

We performed 940 botanical records of native species, 303 in primary forest and 520 in secondary forest, averaging 51 records per fragment. The remainder 117 records were done on the margins of rural roads. We identified 204 tree and shrub native species from 51 families and 134 genera (table 1). The arboreal habit was represented by 174 species, while the shrubby habit by 96 species. Sixty six species presented both habits. The richest families were Fabaceae (29 species), Myrtaceae (18), Solanaceae (10), Euphorbiaceae, Meliaceae and Rutaceae (nine species each). The richest genera were Eugenia (eight species), Solanum and Zanthoxylum (six species each), Ocotea, Trichilia and Aegiphila (four species each). The most common dispersal syndrome was zoochoric (141 species, 69%) followed by anemocoric (35 species, 17%) and autochoric (28 species, 14%) syndromes. Most (130) species (64%) belonged to the non-pioneer successional category and the 74 remainder (36%) was classified as pioneer. Of the 204 recorded species, seven are threatened due to habitat loss and overexploitation (table 2). Additionally to the native species, we found 15 exotic species, of which eight were recorded inside forest fragments and seven in more anthropogenic environments such as roadsides, gardens and pastures (table 3).

Table 1 Tree and shrub native flora in western Paraná State, Brazil. SD, dispersal syndrome: AUT: autochoric, ANE: anemochoric, ZOO: zoochoric; CS, successional category: P: pioneer, NP: non-pioneer; sh: shrub, tr: tree; FIG and SPSF, record number in the FIG and SPSF herbaria. C, complementary information: species reported as locally abundant in typical (a) and humid (b) forests in the Iguaçu National Park and surroundings (Gris 2012, Souza 2015), locally abundant pioneer species according to visual assessment (c) and tree species exclusive of the present study (e). 

Family/Species Vernacular name Habit SD CS FIG SPSF C
Pteridophyta
Cyatheaceae
Alsophila sternbergii (Sternb.) D.S. Conant samambaiaçu fern ANE NP 458 49546 e
Gimnospermae
Araucariaceae
Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze araucária tr ZOO NP 235 48974
Angiospermae
Acanthaceae
Aphelandra schottiana (Nees) Profice anil-bravo sh AUT NP 83 48228
Ruellia angustiflora (Ness) Lindau ex Rambo guiné sh AUT NP 45 48227
Ruellia cf. brevifolia (Pohl) C. Ezcurra pingo-de-sangue sh AUT NP 580 50142
Anacardiaceae
Astronium graveolens Jacq. guaritá tr ANE NP 536 50099
Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi aroeira-vermelha sh, tr ZOO P 11 47917
Annonaceae
Annona emarginata (Schltdl.) H.Rainer araticum-mirim sh, tr ZOO P 259 49005
Apocynaceae
Aspidosperma australe Müll.Arg. pequiá tr ANE NP 257 49003
Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll.Arg. peroba-rosa tr ANE NP 204 48865 a
Rauwolfia sellowii Müll.Arg. casca-d’anta tr ZOO NP 65 48211
Tabernaemontana catharinensis A.DC. jasmin sh, tr ZOO P 243 48962 c
Tabernaemontana hystrix Steud. leiteiro tr ZOO P 256 49002
Aquifoliaceae
Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil. erva-mate sh, tr ZOO NP 296 49174
Araliaceae
Aralia warmingiana (Marchal) J. Wen carobão tr ZOO P 585
Dendropanax cuneatus (DC.) Decne. & Planch. maria-mole tr ZOO P 167 48628 a
Schefflera morototoni (Aubl.) Maguire et al. mandioqueiro tr ZOO P 598
Arecaceae
Euterpe edulis Mart. palmito-juçara palm ZOO NP 308 49189 a
Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman jeriva palm ZOO NP 443 49528 a,b
Asteraceae
Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. vassourinha sh ANE P 477 49559
Dasyphyllum brasiliense (Spreng.) Cabrera sucará sh, tr ANE NP 586 e
Piptocarpha rotundifolia (Less.) Baker candeia tr ANE NP 606 e
Bignoniaceae
Handroanthus albus (Cham.) Mattos ipê-amarelo-da-serra tr ANE NP 589
Handroanthus heptaphyllus (Vell.) Mattos ipê-roxo tr ANE NP 199 48888
Handroanthus ochraceus (Cham.) Mattos ipê-amarelo tr ANE NP 237 48993
Jacaranda micrantha Cham. caroba-miúda tr ANE P 207 48860
Boraginaceae
Cordia americana (L.) Gottschling & J.S. Mill. guaiuvira tr ANE NP 317 49198 b
Cordia ecalyculata Vell. louro-mole tr ZOO NP 51 48129
Cordia trichotoma (Vell.) Arrab. ex Steud. louro-pardo tr ANE NP 91 48324
Heliotropium transalpinum Vell. pau-de-sapo sh ZOO P 250 48996
Cannabaceae
Celtis ehrenbergiana (Klotzsch) Liebm. esporão-de-galo sh, tr ZOO NP 513 50081 e
Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sarg. gumbixava sh, tr ZOO NP 106 48320
Celtis spinosa Spreng. grão-de-galo sh ZOO P 261 49007
Trema micrantha (L.) Blume candiúba sh, tr ZOO P 348 49273 c
Cardiopteridaceae
Citronella paniculata (Mart.) R.A. Howard falsa-congonheira tr ZOO NP 617
Caricaceae
Jacaratia spinosa (Aubl.) A. DC. jaracatiá tr ZOO NP 281 49159
Celastraceae
Maytenus aquifolia Mart. falsa-espinheira-santa sh, tr ZOO NP 607
Clusiaceae
Garcinia gardneriana (Planch. & Triana) Zappi bacupari sh, tr ZOO NP 269 49016
Ebenaceae
Diospyros inconstans Jacq. marmelinho sh, tr ZOO NP 603 e
Erythroxylaceae
Erythroxylum argentinum O.E. Schulz cocão sh, tr ZOO NP 386 49300 e
Erythroxylum cuneifolium (Mart.) O.E. Schulz fruta-de-pomba sh ZOO NP 486 49639
Erythroxylum deciduum A.St.-Hil. marmelinho sh, tr ZOO NP 377 49284
Euphorbiaceae
Acalypha amblyodonta (Müll.Arg.) Müll. Arg. tapa-buraco sh AUT P 508 49786
Alchornea glandulosa Poepp. & Endl. tanheiro, tapiá sh, tr ZOO P 124 48633
Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng.) Müll.Arg. pau-jangada sh, tr ZOO P 23 47898 a
Bernardia pulchella (Baill.) Müll.Arg. canela-de-virá sh AUT P 395 49304
Croton triqueter Lam. velane sh AUT P 506 49787
Croton urucurana Baill. sangra-d’água tr AUT P 385 49257 e
Gymnanthes klotzschiana Müll.Arg. branquilho sh, tr AUT NP 404 49334
Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong pau-de-leite sh, tr ZOO P 602 e
Sebastiania brasiliensis Spreng. branquilho sh, tr AUT P 4 47908 b
Fabaceae
Albizia cf. edwallii (Hoehne) Barneby & J.W. Grimes gurujuba sh AUT NP 396 49301
Albizia niopoides (Benth.) Burkart farinha-seca tr AUT P 599
Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan angico-branco sh, tr AUT NP 406 49337
Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel.) J.F. Macbr. garapa tr ANE NP 376 49248
Bauhinia longifolia (Bong.) Steud. pata-de-vaca sh, tr AUT P 35 48229 e
Bauhinia forficata Link unha-de-vaca tr AUT P 399 49292
Calliandra foliolosa Benth. cabelo-de-anjo sh, tr AUT NP 253 48999
Dalbergia frutescens (Vell.) Britton rabo-de-bugio sh ANE NP 14 47894
Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong tamboril tr ZOO P 173 48894
Erythrina falcata Benth. corticeira-da-serra tr AUT NP 231 48977
Holocalyx balansae Micheli alecrim tr ZOO NP 135 48648
Inga marginata Willd. ingá-feijão tr ZOO NP 3 47906
Inga vera Willd. ingá-banana tr ZOO P 39 48232
Lonchocarpus cultratus (Vell.) A.M.G. Azevedo & H.C. Lima embira-de-sapo tr ANE P 20 47896
Machaerium hirtum (Vell.) Stelfelld jacarandá-de-espinho tr ANE NP 478 49565 e
Machaerium paraguariense Hassl. sapuvão tr ANE NP 41 48231
Machaerium stipitatum Vogel sapuva tr ANE NP 90 48341 a,b
Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) Kuntze maricá sh, tr AUT P 490 49770
Muellera campestris (Mart. ex Benth.) M.J. Silva & A.M.G.Azevedo embirinha tr ANE NP 390 49302
Myrocarpus frondosus Allemão cabreúva-amarela tr ANE NP 294 49172
Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan angico-da-mata tr AUT NP 113 48677
Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.) Taub. canafístula tr ANE P 12 47916 c
Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl pau-sangue tr ANE NP 601 e
Pterogyne nitens Tul. amendoim tr ANE NP 597
Senegalia polyphylla (DC.) Britton & Rose monjoleiro sh, tr AUT P 81 48225
Senegalia tenuifolia (L.) Britton & Rose serra-goela sh AUT P 448 49536
Senna alata (L.) Roxb. mata-pasto sh, tr AUT P 600 e
Senna macranthera (DC. ex Collad.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby manduirana sh, tr AUT P 182 48884 e
Senna pendula (Humb.& Bonpl.ex Willd.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby canudo-de-pito sh, tr AUT P 183 48872 e
Lamiaceae
Aegiphila brachiata Vell. tamanqueiro sh, tr ZOO P 378 49293 e
Aegiphila integrifolia (Jacq.) Moldenke caiuia, gaioleira sh, tr ZOO P 382 49290
Aegiphila mediterranea Vell. pau-de-tamanco tr ZOO P 71 48221
Aegiphila novofriburgensis Moldenke tamanqueiro sh ZOO P 34 48226
Vitex megapotamica (Spreng.) Moldenke tarumã sh, tr ZOO NP 389 49282
Lauraceae
Nectandra lanceolata Nees canela amarela tr ZOO NP 7 47904
Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng.) Mez canelinha tr ZOO NP 29 48137 a,b
Ocotea diospyrifolia (Meisn.) Mez canela-louro tr ZOO NP 306 49185 a,b
Ocotea puberula (Rich.) Nees canela-guaicá tr ZOO NP 116 48676
Ocotea pulchella (Nees & Mart.) Mez canela-lajeana tr ZOO NP 596 e
Ocotea silvestris Vattimo-Gil canela-do-campo tr ZOO NP 60 48135
Laxmanniaceae
Cordyline spectabilis Kunth & Bouché guaraiva tr ZOO P 616
Loganiaceae
Strychnos brasiliensis Mart. salta-martim sh ZOO NP 408 49327
Malvaceae
Bastardiopsis densiflora (Hook. & Arn.) Hassl. jangada-brava tr ANE P 153 48629 c
Ceiba speciosa (A.St.-Hil.) Ravenna paineira tr ANE NP 105 48335
Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. mutamba-preta tr ZOO P 109 48654
Heliocarpus popayanensis Kunth jangada-brava tr ANE P 175 48891 c
Luehea divaricata Mart. & Zucc. açoita-cavalo tr ANE P 57 48113 b
Pavonia sepium A.St.-Hil. carrapicho sh, tr AUT NP 504 49782 e
Sida cf. planicaulis Cav. guanxuma sh AUT P 566 50128
Melastomataceae
Miconia cinerascens Miq. jacatirão sh, tr ZOO P 507 49784 e
Miconia discolor DC. apaga-brasa tr ZOO NP 380 49305 e
Miconia pusilliflora (DC.) Naudin pixirica sh, tr ZOO P 89 48322
Meliaceae
Cabralea canjerana (Vell.) Mart. canjerana tr ZOO NP 150 48673 a
Cedrela fissilis Vell. cedro tr ANE NP 40 48128 a
Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleumer marinheiro sh, tr ZOO NP 588
Guarea kunthiana A. Juss. canjambo tr ZOO NP 5 47914 a
Guarea macrophylla Vahl baga-de-morcego tr ZOO NP 101 48326
Trichilia catigua A. Juss. catiguá tr ZOO NP 273 49020
Trichilia clausseni C. DC. quebra-machado tr ZOO NP 224 48992
Trichilia elegans A. Juss. catiguazinho sh, tr ZOO NP 169 48632
Trichilia pallida Sw. baga-de-morcego tr ZOO NP 202 48873
Monimiaceae
Hennecartia omphalandra J. Poiss. canema tr ZOO NP 614
Moraceae
Ficus guaranitica Chodat figueira-branca tr ZOO NP 26 47900 e
Ficus insipida Willd. figueira-mata-pau tr ZOO P 1 47919
Ficus luschnathiana (Miq.) Miq. figueira tr ZOO NP 367 48960
Maclura tinctoria (L.) D.Don ex Steud. taiuva tr ZOO NP 18 47913
Sorocea bonplandii (Baill.) W.C. Burger et al. cincho sh, tr ZOO NP 227 48978 a
Myrtaceae
Calyptranthes concinna DC. guamirim-facho tr ZOO NP 466 49550
Campomanesia guaviroba (DC.) Kiaersk. gabiroba tr ZOO NP 277 49154 e
Campomanesia guazumifolia (Cambess.) O. Berg sete-capotes tr ZOO NP 371 49211
Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Mart.) O. Berg gabiroba tr ZOO NP 333 49266
Eugenia burkartiana (D. Legrand) D. Legrand guamirim tr ZOO NP 286 49164
Eugenia florida DC. guamirim tr ZOO NP 613
Eugenia hiemalis Cambess. guamirim-miúdo sh, tr ZOO P 123 48656
Eugenia involucrata DC. cereja-do-rio-grande tr ZOO NP 297 49175
Eugenia pyriformis Cambess. uvaia sh, tr ZOO P 46 48133 c
Eugenia ramboi D. Legrand batinga-branca tr ZOO NP 587
Eugenia subterminalis DC. cambuí-pitanga tr ZOO NP 61 48132
Eugenia uniflora L. pitangueira sh, tr ZOO NP 334 49260 e
Myrceugenia euosma (O. Berg) D. Legrand cambuizinho tr ZOO P 591 e
Myrcia pulchra (O. Berg) Kiaersk. guamirim tr ZOO NP 592 e
Myrcia splendens (Sw.) DC. jambinho, guamirim tr ZOO NP 593 e
Myrcianthes pungens (O. Berg) D. Legrand guabiju tr ZOO NP 16 47901 e
Myrciaria tenella (DC.) O. Berg cambuí tr ZOO NP 594 e
Plinia rivularis (Cambess.) Rotman guapuriti, piúna tr ZOO NP 206 48869
Nyctaginaceae
Guapira hirsuta (Choisy) Lundell maria-mole sh, tr ANE NP 447 49531 e
Guapira opposita (Vell.) Reitz flor-de-pérola sh, tr ZOO NP 67 48213 e
Neea pendulina Heimerl maria-mole sh, tr ZOO P 595
Pisonia ambigua Heimerl maria-faceira tr ZOO NP 78 48222
Phyllanthaceae
Margaritaria nobilis L.f. sobragirana sh, tr ZOO NP 50 48131 e
Phytolaccaceae
Phytolacca dioica L. cebolão tr ZOO P 230 48959
Piperaceae
Piper aduncum L. pimenta longa sh, tr ZOO P 107 48328 c,e
Piper amalago L. jaborandi sh ZOO NP 108 48329
Polygonaceae
Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. marmeleiro-do-mato tr ANE NP 295 49173
Primulaceae
Geissanthus ambiguus (Mart.) G. Agostini pau-de-charco sh ZOO NP 610
Myrsine coriacea (Sw.) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult. capororoca sh, tr ZOO P 302 49180 c
Myrsine loefgrenii (Mez) Imkhan. pororoca tr ZOO NP 270 49017 e
Myrsine umbellata Mart. copororoca tr ZOO NP 44 48127
Proteaceae
Roupala montana var. brasiliensis (Klotzsch) K.S.Edwards carvalho-brasileiro sh, tr ANE NP 266 49012
Rosaceae
Prunus myrtifolia (L.) Urb. pessegueiro-bravo tr ZOO NP 2 47905
Rubus erythroclados Mart. ex Hook. f. amora-branca sh ZOO P 473 49566
Rubiaceae
Coussarea contracta (Walp.) Müll.Arg. pasto-de-anta sh, tr ZOO NP 260 49006 e
Ixora venulosa Benth. ixora-do-mato sh, tr ZOO NP 590
Palicourea marcgravii A.St.-Hill erva-do-rato sh ZOO NP 364 49184
Psychotria carthagenensis Jacq. erva-de-gralha sh, tr ZOO NP 239 48968
Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl. grandiúva-de-anta sh ZOO NP 405 49332
Randia armata (Sw.) DC. laranja-de-macaco sh, tr ZOO NP 418 49352 e
Rutaceae
Balfourodendron riedelianum (Engl.) Engl. pau-marfim tr ANE NP 32 48118 a,b
Helietta apiculata Benth. canela-de-veado tr ANE NP 431 49349
Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem. jaborandi tr AUT NP 103 48333
Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lam. arruda-brava tr ZOO NP 216 48958
Zanthoxylum fagara (L.) Sarg. tembetari, mamica sh, tr ZOO NP 163 48627 e
Zanthoxylum monogynum A.St.-Hil. Juvá tr ZOO NP 618 e
Zanthoxylum petiolare A.St.-Hil. & Tul. mamica-de-porca tr ZOO NP 441 49533
Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. mamica-de-cadela tr ZOO NP 357 49251
Zanthoxylum riedelianum Engl. mamica-de-porca tr ZOO NP 247 48957 e
Salicaceae
Banara tomentosa Clos cambroé sh, tr ZOO NP 329 49524
Casearia decandra Jacq. cafezeiro-do-mato sh, tr ZOO NP 328 49155
Casearia gossypiosperma Briq. espeteiro tr ZOO P 190 48880
Casearia sylvestris Sw. carvalinho sh, tr ZOO P 203 48867 c
Prockia crucis P. Browne ex L. cuiteleiro sh, tr ZOO NP 303 49181
Xylosma ciliatifolia (Clos) Eichler espinho-de-agulha sh, tr ZOO NP 565 50127
Sapindaceae
Allophylus edulis (A.St.-Hil. et al.) Hieron. ex Niederl. chal-chal, vacum sh, tr ZOO P 242 48965 c
Cupania vernalis Cambess. camboatã-vermelho tr ZOO NP 154 48626
Diatenopteryx sorbifolia Radlk. maria-preta tr ANE P 264 49010 c
Matayba elaeagnoides Radlk. camboatã-branco sh, tr ZOO NP 331 49263
Sapotaceae
Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq.) Engl. caxeta-amarela tr ZOO NP 15 47912 a,b
Chrysophyllum marginatum (Hook. & Arn.) Radlk. aguaí tr ZOO NP 58 48108
Simaroubaceae
Picrasma crenata (Vell.) Engl. pau-amargo tr ZOO NP 358 49000
Solanaceae
Acnistus arborescens (L.) Schltdl. marianeira sh ZOO P 361 49250
Aureliana wettsteiniana (Witasek) Hunz. & Barboza fumeirinho tr ZOO P 387 49298 e
Cestrum intermedium Sendtn. coreana sh, tr ZOO P 238 48961
Cestrum strigilatum Ruiz & Pav. coerana sh, tr ZOO P 104 48325
Solanum asperolanatum Ruiz & Pav. jurubeba sh ZOO P 453 49542
Solanum caavurana Vell. caavurana sh ZOO P 345 49269 c
Solanum mauritianum Scop. fona-de-porco sh, tr ZOO NP 350 49280
Solanum pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. tabaqueira tr ZOO P 433 49428
Solanum sanctae-catharinae Dunal joá-manso tr ZOO P 485 49638
Solanum variabile Mart. jurubeba sh, tr ZOO NP 369 49208 e
Styracaceae
Styrax leprosus Hook. & Arn. carne-de-vaca tr ZOO P 346 49432 c
Symplocaceae
Symplocos celastrinea Mart. mate-falso sh, tr ZOO NP 492 49767 e
Symplocos estrellensis Casar. canela-conserva sh, tr ZOO NP 474 49557 e
Urticaceae
Boehmeria caudata Sw. urtiga-mansa sh ZOO NP 241 48987
Cecropia pachystachya Trécul embaúba tr ZOO P 25 47899 c
Urera baccifera (L.) Gaudich. ex Wedd. urtiga sh, tr ZOO NP 319 49200 b
Verbenaceae
Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. cidrilha sh ZOO P 502 49789
Aloysia virgata (Ruiz & Pav.) Juss. cambará-de-lixa sh, tr ZOO P 99 48332 c
Citharexylum solanaceum Cham. pau-viola tr ZOO P 355 49281 e
Lantana camara L. camará sh, tr ZOO P 85 48115 e
Lantana trifolia L. lantana sh ZOO NP 461 49549
Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl rincão sh ZOO P 366 49151
Violaceae
Pombalia bigibbosa (A.St.-Hil.) Paula-Souza ganha-saia sh AUT P 82 48114 c
Pombalia communis (A.St.-Hil.) Paula-Souza apanha-saia sh AUT NP 438 49430

Table 2 Threatened species recorded in the study area, in western Paraná State, Brazil, according to the lists of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment (MMA). CR, Critically Endangered; EN, Endangered; VU, Vulnerable. The information concerning the type of threat was obtained from Martinelli & Moraes (2013) and from IUCN (2016)

Family/Species IUCN MMA Type of threat
Apocynaceae
Aspidosperma polyneuron EN Timber exploitation.
Araucariaceae
Araucaria angustifolia CR EN Habitat loss, timber exploitation.
Arecaceae
Euterpe edulis VU Habitat loss, exploitation of the palm heart.
Fabaceae
Apuleia leiocarpa VU Timber exploitation.
Meliaceae
Cedrela fissilis EN VU Habitat loss, timber exploitation.
Myrtaceae
Myrcianthes pungens EN Habitat loss.
Rutaceae
Baufourodendron riedelianum EN Habitat loss, timber exploitation.

Table 3 Exotic species recorded in the study area, western Paraná State, Brazil. F, species recorded inside forest fragments; A, species recorded in anthropogenic environments such as roadsides, gardens and pastures. 

Family/Species F A
Anacardiaceae
Mangifera indica L. X
Asteraceae
Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. ex Walp. X
Bignoniaceae
Handroanthus impetiginosus (Mart. ex DC.) Mattos X
Tabebuia roseoalba (Ridl.) Sandwith X
Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth X
Bixaceae
Bixa orellana L. X
Fabaceae
Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit X
Lauraceae
Persea americana Mill. X
Magnoliaceae
Michelia champaca L. X
Meliaceae
Melia azedarach L. X
Myrtaceae
Psidium guajava L. X
Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston X
Rhamnaceae
Hovenia dulcis Thunb. X
Rosaceae
Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. X
Rutaceae
Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck X

In table 1 we indicated 14 species reported as locally abundant in Typical Submontane Forest and 10 species reported as locally abundant in Humid Submontane Forest, according to phytosociological studies available for the INP and its surroundings (Gris 2012, Souza 2015). Of the mentioned locally abundant species, only four are pioneer ones: Alchornea triplinervia, Dendropanax cuneatus, Sebastiania brasiliensis and Luehea divaricata.

Discussion

An important aspect of the present floristic survey was the apparently low species richness, when compared to other studies conducted in Atlantic forests at lower latitudes. For instance, surveys of tree and shrub flora in the seasonal semideciduous forest, carried out in protected areas in the municipalities of Paranapanema and Itapeva, both in São Paulo State, registered 349 and 317 species, respectively (Cielo-Filho et al. 2009, Souza et al. 2012). However, as pointed out by these authors, the high richness in those areas may be related to the presence of Cerrado remnants in the region, which would expand the regional species pool, increasing the richness in remnants of seasonal semideciduous forest. Even without the influence of the Cerrado flora, the number of tree and shrub species (266) reported by Rossetto & Vieira (2013) for the seasonal semideciduous forest of the Mata dos Godoy State Park, northern Paraná State, was higher than that found in the present study.

It could be suggested that the flora in northern remnants of seasonal semideciduous forest of the Paraná State is richer than in the remnants located at higher latitudes of the State, due to more rigorous climatic conditions. For instance, the number of tree species (197) reported for the Mata dos Godoy State Park, where a comprehensive floristic study in a well conserved forest remnant was carried out (Rossetto & Vieira 2013), was greater than that found in our study (174), as well as in the studies of Souza (2015) and Gris (2012) which identified, respectively, 165 and 112 native tree species in the INP and forest fragments nearby. However, when considered together, the floristic data available for the study area and its surroundings - this study, Gris (2012) and Souza (2015) - summed up 228 native tree species, what suggests that the tree flora in northern remnants of seasonal semideciduous forest of the Paraná State is not richer than in southern ones.

Another aspect to be considered in these richness comparisons is the differences concerning methods and anthropogenic disturbance histories among study areas. For instance, the use of an inclusion criterion to sampling plant individuals - stem perimeter at breast height equal or more than 15 cm - by Gris (2012) and Souza (2015) may have limited the number of species recorded in those studies. This kind of methodological limitation may also have restricted the tree species richness found in other studies, such as in the Rio das Cobras Farm, southwestern Paraná State - 128 species (Viani et al. 2011); in protected areas of the Argentine Province of Misiones: Iguazú National Park and its surroundings -72 species (Chediack 2008) and Osununú Private Reserve - 96 species (Velazco et al. 2015); in protected areas of the Paraguayan side of the area of influence of the Itaipu Lake - 127 species (Monge 2009); and in the São Francisco State Park, northern Paraná State, where 113 tree species were recorded, although in this case the relatively low richness seems to be also related to the intensive practice of selective logging before the protected area had been established (Tomé et al. 1999, Zama et al. 2012).

It is worth to note that 43 native tree species recorded in the present floristic survey (table 1) were not registered by Gris (2012) and Souza (2015) in the INP and its surroundings. This may be a consequence of sampling effect, but also of floristic particularities of the study area in relation to its surroundings. Of that 43 species, 70% are non-pioneer, 72% have zoochoric dispersal syndrome, while the other two dispersal syndromes comprised each, 14% of the remainder species. Comparing these data with the corresponding percentages observed for the whole set of species in this study, there is no evidence of bias concerning successional category or dispersal syndromes for the set of species exclusive of the present research. However, in relation to the distribution of exclusive species among families, there was a highlight for Myrtaceae, with seven of the 18 species found being exclusive. This may be a consequence of the relatively complex taxonomy of this family. Another highlight may be perceived for the distribution of species between habits: 56% of the exclusive species present both arboreal and shrubby habit, while the corresponding value for the whole set of species in this study is of 32%. We suggest that because we did not use an inclusion criterion to sampling plant individuals as the other studies referred above - stem perimeter at breast height equal or more than 15 cm - we attained a better representation of the flora composed by species presenting simultaneously the arboreal and shrubby habits. Furthermore, the overrepresentation of the shrubby-arboreal habit among the exclusive species may be a consequence of the intensive sampling of edge habitats in the present study, as indicated by the greater percentage of shrub-tree-pioneer species in the set exclusive species (9/43 = 21%) than in the whole set of species (29/204 = 14%). Among the exclusive species, there was one threatened, Myrcianthes pungens, found in both primary and secondary forest fragments in the study area, what stress the importance of these remnants to biodiversity conservation.

On the other hand, 54 native tree species were registered by Gris (2012) and Souza (2015), but not by the present study. The data set resulting from the results of those authors complies study sites at altitudes ranging from 150 to 750 m above sea level, while the present study area covers an altitudinal range expanding from 200 m to 600 m above sea level, and 68% of our botanical records were done in study sites located at altitudes between 300 m and 500 m. The weak representation of the regional altitudinal extremes in our data set may help to explain the absence in our species list of the 54 species exclusive of the lists reported by Gris (2012) and Souza (2015). Another possible explanation comes from the landscape context: our study sites are situated in a highly fragmented landscape in which some species may have been lost because of edge effect, dispersal barriers and other process associated with forest fragmentation leading to local species extinction (Primack & Rodrigues 2001).

The distribution of species richness among families in the study area was similar to that found in other seasonal semideciduous forest studies in the Brazilian States of São Paulo (Cielo-Filho et al. 2009, Souza et al. 2012) and Paraná (Viani et al. 2011, Gris 2012, Zama et al. 2012, Rossetto & Vieira 2013); in the Province of Misiones, Argentina (Chediack 2008, Velazco et al. 2015); and in the Departments of Canindeyú and Alto Paraná, Paraguay (Monge 2009). However, an interesting feature of the study area was the relatively low representativeness of Lauraceae and the relatively high richness of Solanaceae. This could suggest a particularity of the flora of seasonal semideciduous forest remnants located in higher latitudes of the Paraná State, but, instead, seems to be a consequence of forest fragmentation or sampling effect, as discussed above. For instance, we recorded only six species of Lauraceae, but this number increases to 10 considering the results of floristic surveys nearby (Gris 2012, Souza 2015), equaling the number found in the Mata dos Godoy State Park in northern Paraná (Rossetto & Vieira 2013). In relation to Solanaceae, the number of tree and shrub species found in the Mata dos Godoy State Park, 19, was even higher than that found in the study area and its surroundings, 15 (this study, Gris 2012, Souza 2015). The presence of Fabaceae and Myrtaceae in the first two richness ranking positions is a characteristic shared by other studies of the tree and shrub flora in seasonal semideciduous forests of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay (Cielo-Filho et al. 2009, Monge 2009, Souza et al. 2012, Rossetto & Vieira 2013, Velazco et al. 2015).

Despite the above considerations about an apparent lack of particularities in the flora of the study area concerning species richness and families representativeness, a botanist familiarized with the flora of seasonal semideciduous forest remnants located at lower latitudes that came to visit forest remnants in the study area and its surroundings, will still encounter some peculiarities of the tree and shrub flora of these higher latitudes remnants concerning species composition. For instance, she/he will miss some notorious species like, among others: Croton floribundus Spreng, Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Esenbeckia febrifuga (A.St.-Hil.) A.Juss. ex Mart., Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng.) Harms, Machaerium nyctitans (Vell.) Benth., Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart.) J.F.Macbr., Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell.) Bureau ex Verl., Geonoma schottiana Mart. (and Arecaceae in general), Moquiniastrum polymorphum (Less.) G. Sancho (and Asteraceae in general), Miconia theizans (Bonpl.) Cogn. (and Melastomataceae in general).

It must be stressed that some species found by Gris (2012) in plantings done in the Permanent Preservation Area of Itaipu Lake and in the reforestation strip of the Santa Maria biological corridor may not be native of the region. We highlight the following exotic or probably exotic species registered in Gris (2012), but not in the present contribution nor in Souza (2015): Annona neosericea H. Rainer, Handroanthus impetiginosus Mattos, Croton floribundus, Manihot grahamii Hook., Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg., Calliandra brevipes Benth., Cassia leptophylla Vogel, Copaifera langsdorffii, Machaerium nyctitans, Piptadenia gonoacantha, Poincianella pluviosa (DC.) L.P. Queiroz. and Eugenia gracillima Kiaersk.. Together with the species explicitly stated as exotic of the Brazilian territory in Gris (2012), these species should be avoided in future restoration projects in the region.

Corroborating the ranking of representativeness of dispersal syndromes observed in other studies carried out in seasonal semideciduous forest (Silva & Soares-Silva 2000, Santos & Kinoshita 2003, Kinoshita et al. 2006, Zama et al. 2012) and agreeing with the general pattern observed in tropical forests (Howe & Smallwood 1982), the most frequent dispersal syndrome was the zoochory (69%), followed by anemochory (17%) and autochory (14%). The percentage of zoochoric species that we found in this study was higher than that found in other studies in well preserved seasonal semideciduous forests (Silva & Soares-Silva 2000, Santos & Kinoshita 2003, Kinoshita et al. 2006), what shows a good overall representativeness of zoochoric species in our floristic sampling. The same can be inferred for the representativeness of non-pioneer species, 64%, a percentage higher than that found in the Mata dos Godoy State Park, where 55.8% of the species found may be considered as non-pioneers, taking the late secondary and climax categories adopted by Silva & Soares-Silva (2000) together. The Mata dos Godoy State Park shelters a well preserved seasonal semideciduous forest remnant in advanced successional stage (Silva & Soares-Silva 2000, Rossetto & Vieira 2013). Given the importance of a good representativeness of non-pioneer and zoochoric species in restoration projects, our study presents a promising species list to support initiatives of this nature in the area studied. In line with this assertion is the inclusion of the shrubby habit in the present floristic survey, since the use of non-tree species in restoration projects have been recently encouraged (Durigan et al. 2010, Barbosa et al. 2015).

The endangered species recorded in this study denote the overall conservation status of the Atlantic forest, especially with regard to the drastic reduction in vegetation cover (Ribeiro et al. 2009) resulting in significant habitat loss. Another aspect that stands out is the overexploitation of natural resources (timber and palm heart in the case of Euterpe edulis). The most critically threatened species we found in the study area was Araucaria angustifolia, considered "critically endangered" and "endangered", respectively, in the IUCN and MMA consulted lists. It should be noted that this species is rare in the study area, occurring mostly in anthropogenic sectors situated on the edge of the INP, in the strip sampled at the margins of the old Guarapuava road. This could suggest that those specimens were planted there by the first settlers who arrived in the area in the 1950s and 1960s. On the other hand, the presence of adult reproductive individuals of Araucaria angustifolia at the beginning of the colonization period was confirmed by ancient settlers in neighborhood of the Marquezita town, but not for other localities in the study area (N.L. Viapiana, personal communication), indicating that the species is native, but was not widespread in that area. In the highest elevations of the INP, above the altitudinal range of our study area, Souza (2015) identified a transitional zone between seasonal semideciduous forest and ombrophilous mixed forest, where Araucaria angustifolia is one of the most abundant species. Additionally, Ombrophilous Mixed Forests are also encountered not so far away from our study area (less than 150 km), for instance, in the Argentine Province of Misiones (e.g. in the Cruce Caballero Provincial Park (Rios 2006)), and in vast tracts of the Southwest region of Paraná State (Castella & Britez 2004). Notwithstanding, as this species is locally rare and not widespread in our study area, we did not recommend its extensive use in restoration projects in this area. On the other hand, we encouraged the widespread use in such projects of all the other endangered species registered in the present study.

The locally abundant species indicated in table 1 are, in general, more prone to become well established in restoration areas and, so, their use in higher proportions can favor the rapid forest recover. In using the indication of locally abundant species in table 1 to design restoration projects, one should consider if the species were reported as locally abundant in typical or humid submontane forest, and apply this last species category in the restoration of sites located in river margins and depressions of the terrain, where soils are more humid, while the first species category must be reserved to the restoration of sites with drier soil conditions. Some of the locally abundant species can be applied in both situations (table 1). Another consideration refers to the successional category of the locally abundant species indicated, the majority of which, non-pioneer. As restoration plantings, in general, apply a greater proportion of pioneer than non-pioneer species, it would be interesting the indication of additional locally abundant pioneer species, besides the four already mentioned. To do this, we listed the following pioneer species considered as locally abundant through visual assessment by the authors (table 1): Tabernaemontana catharinensis, Trema micrantha, Peltophorum dubium, Bastardiopsis densiflora, Heliocarpus popayanensis, Eugenia pyriformis, Piper aduncum, Myrsine coriacea, Casearia sylvestris, Allophylus edulis, Diatenopteryx sorbifolia, Solanum caavurana, Styrax leprosus, Cecropia pachystachya, Aloysia virgata and Pombalia bigibbosa. Naturally, all species listed in table 1 should be considered in restoration plantings in the study area, the ones not cited as locally abundant should be considered for the achievement of high diversity plantings.

Among the exotic species found in the study area, with the exception of Michelia champaca, Gymnanthemum amygdalinum and Syzygium jambos, all others have confirmed invasive potential, especially Tecoma stans, Leucaena leucocephala and Hovenia dulcis (Zenni & Ziller 2011). Such species constitute serious threats to biodiversity conservation in the region and should be targeted by control actions aimed at the eradication of their populations in natural environments. Additionally, actions aiming to prevent anthropogenic disturbances in the forest remnants should be implemented in order to allows secondary forests in the study area to reach more advanced successional stages, since the susceptibility to invasion by exotic species may be greater in forests of earlier successional stages, as suggested for the invasion by Hovenia dulcis in forests of the upper Uruguay region (Lazzarin et al. 2015).

In conclusion, we reported the floristic composition of an area situated in a strategic region for the conservation of the seasonal semideciduous forest in the context of the Atlantic forest biome. In general, regarding species richness, we did not detect any particularity of the flora of the study area and its surroundings in relation to the flora of seasonal semideciduous forest remnants located at lower latitudes. The same can be said regarding species distribution among families, and frequency distribution of dispersal syndromes and ecological groups, for the flora of the study area. However, some peculiarities emerged due to the lack in the study area of certain tree species commonly found in those remnants. We provided information on dispersal syndromes and successional categories for 204 tree and shrub species and indicated 34 locally abundant and seven threatened ones, in order to aid in the design of restoration projects in the study area. We also identified 15 exotic tree species in the area, of which, 12 have invasive potential, requiring eradication programs.

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to CNPq for the scientific initiation scholarship granted to Carolina Rodrigues Sousa and Juliana Menezes de Jesus; to the UTFPR, Medianeira Campus, to the Forestry Institute of São Paulo State, to Itaipu Binacional, to Chico Mendes Institute of Biodiversity Conservation and to the Department of Environment of Medianeira and Matelândia municipalities; to the several undergraduate students and other volunteers who helped in the collection and processing of botanical material; to the Herbarium technician Mr. Ernane Lino da Silva; to the landowners who allowed the entrance into their properties,especially to Mr. Ângelo Baratto, Mr. José Nilson de Oliveira, Ms. Luciane Trauczynski dos Santos, Ms. Mariza Ângela Biazuz and Mr. Odair Camargo.

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Received: November 17, 2016; Accepted: July 03, 2017

4Corresponding author: cielofbr@yahoo.com.br

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