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Ornamental Horticulture

On-line version ISSN 2447-536X

Ornam. Hortic. vol.24 no.3 Viçosa July/Sept. 2018

http://dx.doi.org/10.14295/oh.v24i3.1208 

Scientific Article

Morphophenological characterization of ornamental ginger and selection for landscape use

Caracterização morfofenológica de gengibre ornamental e seleção para uso paisagístico

Carlos Eduardo Ferreira de Castro(2) 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1407-0611

Ana Cecilia Ribeiro de Castro(3)  * 
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6441-9888

Charleston Gonçalves(2) 
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5414-0306

Vivian Loges(4) 
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9948-9501

(2)Instituto Agronômico (IAC), Centro de Horticultura, Campinas-SP, Brazil

(3)Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical (CNPAT), Fortaleza-CE, Brazil

(4)Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife-PE, Brazil

ABSTRACT

Many species of Zingiber have great ornamental potential, due to durability and exotic appearance of the inflorescences. Despite its large phenotypic variability, they are scarcely exploited or not yet exploited regarding the ornamental potential. To conserve potential ornamental genotypes, and subsidize breeding program, the Agronomic Institute (IAC) maintain a Germoplasm Collection of Ornamental Zingiberales with promising accessions, including Zingiber. The aim was the morphophenological characterization of ten Zingiber accessions and the indication for landscape purposes. A large variation was observed to the evaluated characters: Clump height (CH); Inflorescence visualization (IV); Clump area (CA); Clump density (CD); Leaf stem Firmness (LSF); Number of leaf stems per clump (NLSC); Number of leaves per stem (NLS); Leaf color (LCol); Evergreen tendency (ET); Flower stem growth (FSG); Flower stem length (FSLe); Flower stem diameter (FSD); Flower stem per clump (FSC); Color sensorial perception (CSP); Flower stem weight (FSW); Inflorescence length (IL); Inflorescence diameter (ID); Bracts aspects (BAs); and Flowering season (FSe). The accessions very suitable and with the best performance to use for landscape purpose were Z. spectabile, IAC Anchieta (Z. spectabile), Z. newmanii.

Keywords: Tropical flowers; landscaping; ornamental zingiberales; characterization

RESUMO

Muitas espécies de Zingiber tem grande potencial ornamental, devido a durabilidade e aparência exótica de suas inflorescências. Apesar da larga variabilidade fenotípica, essas plantas são escassamente ou não exploradas apesar de todo apelo ornamental. Para conservar genótipos ornamentais e subsidiar o programa de melhoramento, o Instituto Agronômico (IAC) mantem uma coleção de germoplasma de Zingiberales ornamentais com genótipos promissores, incluindo os do gênero Zingiber. O objetivo foi a caracterização morfofenológica de dez acessos de Zingiber e a indicação de uso ornamental. Uma grande variação foi observada nas características avaliadas: Altura da Touceira (CH); Visualização da Inflorescência (IV); Área da touceira (CA); Densidade da Touceira (CD); Firmeza da haste foliar (LSF); Numero de hastes foliares por touceira (NLSC); Numero de folhas por haste (NLS); Cor da folha (LCol); Tendência de permanecer sempre verde (ET); Crescimento da haste floral (FSG); Comprimento da haste floral (FSLe); Diâmetro da haste floral (FSD); Haste florais por touceira (FSC); Percepção sensorial de cor (CSP); peso da haste floral (FSW); Comprimento da flor (IL); Diâmetro da flor (ID); Aspecto das brácteas (BAs); e época da floração (FSe). Os acessos mais adequados e com melhor desempenho para uso em paisagismo foram: Z. spectabile, IAC Anchieta (Z. spectabile), Z. newmanii.

Palavras chave: Flores Tropicais; paisagismo; zingiberales ornamentais; caracterização

1. INTRODUCTION

Zingiber is one of the most important genera of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) but the real number of species is not known. Kishor and Leong-Skornicková (2013) described more than 250 species. Recently, Govaerts et al. (2015), after discarding synonyms, confirmed only 177 valid species. These plants are herbaceous and aromatic living originally in humid regions of the tropical to warm-temperate Asia. Thailand is the country with the richest representation of the genus Zingiber, center of diversity with 56 species, followed by China, with 42 species, of which 36 are endemic (TRIBOUN et al., 2014).

The inflorescence usually arises from the base of the leaf stem, on a underground stem (SABU, 2003). Bracts often bright red, orange, or yellow, closely imbricate or with the apices free, forming small bags filled up with mucilage, comprising a single cincinnus. These exotic appearance of the inflorescences, flowering characterized by many flower stems breaking the ground, the architecture and the typical ginger aroma are positive aspects to be explore in landscape.

Some species are appreciated as ornamental plants due to durability and the exoticism, as an example, Zingiber spectabile (COELHO et al., 2017). Despite its large phenotypic variability, few forms of Zingiber genera are exploited commercially regarding the ornamental potential. Based on the genera amplitude, probably exists many others potential species, geographically restricted and poorly known.

The Germoplasm Collection of Ornamental Zingiberales of the Agronomic Institute (IAC), has promising genotypes, including Zingiber. The objective of this work was the morphophenological characterization of ten Zingiber accessions and the indication for landscape purposes.

2. MATERIAL AND METHODS

Evaluations were performed at Germoplasm Collection of Ornamental Zingiberales of the Agronomic Institute (IAC). Three Clumps aged 3 years, distributed randomly and maintained in the field at full sun condition of the following accessions were evaluated during a year: Z. spectabile; IAC Anchieta (Z. spectabile); IAC Angatu (Z. spectabile); Z. zerumbet; IAC Almada (Z. spectabile x zerumbet); IAC Suanno (Z. spectabile x zerumbet); Z. macradenium; Z. newmanii; Z. ottensii; and Z. pachysiphon.

To perform the characterization, based on traits of clump, stems, leaves, inflorescences and flowering, were applied the following descriptors: Clump height (CH) - low (< 2.00 m), medium (≥ 2.00 and < 2.90), high (≥ 2.90 m); Inflorescence visualization (IV) - evident or hidden; Clump area (CA): clump base diameter (m) and clump canopy diameter (m); Clump density (CD) – agglomerate, intermediate and sparse; Leaf stem firmness (LSF) - firm or overturn tendency; Number of leaf stems per clump (NLSC): low (< 20); intermediary (≥ 20 and < 40); high (≥ 40); Number of leaves per stem (NLS); Leaf color (LCol); Evergreen tendency (ET): yes or no; Flower stem growth (FSG): erect or decumbent; Flower stem length (FSLe) - distance between the base to apex (cm); Flower stem diameter (FSD) (cm); Flower stem per clump (FSC) - low (< 15); medium (≥ 15 and < 30); high (≥ 30 and < 45); and very high (≥ 45); Color sensorial perception (CSP); Flower stem weight (FSW) (g); Inflorescence length (IL) (cm); Inflorescence diameter (ID) (cm); Bracts aspects (BAs): (appressed or free bracts and color); and Flowering season (FSe) – months of inflorescence occurrence.

A point scoring system was used to determine the accessions most suitable as ornamental plants base on: Inflorescence visualization (IV) (3 points - evident; 2 points - hidden); Clump density (CD) - (3 points - agglomerated; 2 points - intermediated; 1 point - sparse); Leaf stem firmness (LSF) – 3 points - firm; 0 points - overturn tendency; Evergreen tendency (ET) – 3 points - yes; 0 points - no; Flower stem per clump (FSC) – 3 points - very high and high; 2 points - medium; 1 point - low; Color sensorial perception (CSP) – 4 points to very intense color and contrast; 3 points to intense color and contrast; 2 points to intermediated color and contrast; 1 point to pale color with or without contrast; Flowering season (FS) – 3 points to more than 4 months; 2 points 4 to 3 months; 1 point - less than 3 months. Base on the total point score, the species were considered poorly suitable (less than 13 points), suitable (13 to 19 points) and very suitable (more than 19 points) to ornamental plants use.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

It was observed morphophenological variation between accessions with respect to general characteristics of clump, stems, leaves, inflorescences and flowering (Tables 1 to 5).

About plant height, accessions ranged from 1.80 to 3.30 m and were classified as low (Z. zerumbet), medium (IAC Anchieta, IAC Angatu, IAC Almada, IAC Suanno, Z. newmanii, Z. ottensii and Z. pachysiphon) and high (Z. spectabile and Z. macradenium). All accessions showed evident inflorescence visualization in the clump, except Z. zerumbet whose inflorescence were hidden below the foliage (Table 1).

Table 1 Clump characteristics of the Zingiber Accessions. 

Accession Clump height (CH) Inflorescence visualization (IV) Clump area: base and canopy (CA) Clump density (CD) Photo
Z. spectabile 3.30 m (high) evident 1.20 and 4.10 m intermediate
IAC Anchieta 2.50 m (medium) evident 0.83 and 3.10 m agglomerate
IAC Angatu 2.70 m (medium) evident 1.70 and 5.10 m sparce
Z. zerumbet 1.80 m (low) hidden 1.15 and 3.50 m agglomerate
IAC Almada 2.50 m (medium) evident 0.75 and 3.10 m intermediate
IAC Suanno 2.75 m (medium) evident 1.20 and 3.60 m agglomerate
Z. macradenium 3.00 m (high) evident 0.73 and 2.90 m intermediate
Z. newmanii 2.60 m (medium) evident 1.11 and 3.50 m intermediate
Z. ottensii 2.50 m (medium) evident 1.50 and 2.60 m sparce
Z. pachysiphon 2.20 m (medium) evident 0.73 and 2.30 m sparce

Regarding the clumps area, there was a variation between 0.73 to 1.70 m at the base and the canopy ranging 2.30 to 5.10 m. It was observed that plants of the accession with large base also had high canopy (e.g. IAC Angatu), and plants with small base had low canopy (e.g. Z. pachysiphon), but neither were the highest nor lowest plant height. Plants with most clustered growth (up to 3.50 m canopy projection) are interesting choices for gardens with limited area, since requires smaller spacing. Base on clump density, accessions with agglomerated and intermediated characteristic could be indicated to hidden walls or fences better than accessions with sparse clumps (Table 1).

Only the accessions Z. zerumbet and Z. ottensii had stems with overturn tendency. Other accessions keeps the stems firm and erect at the clump. The overturn tendency is not directly related to the highest clumps. The number of stems per clump ranged from 16 to 58. The number of leaves was also quite variable, between 20 to 52 leaves per stem, but do not have a direct relation to the number of stems per clump. The leaves color vary from green to dark green. Z. zerumbet was the only accession that foliar stems remains dry on the plant. The others accessions were evergreen during the year (Table 2).

Table 2 Leaf stem characteristics of the Zingiber accessions. 

Accessions Leaf stem firmness (LSF) Number of leaf stems per clump (NLSC) Number of leaves per stem (NLS) Leaf color (LCol) Evergreen tendency (ET)
Z. spectabile firm 19 (low) 28 dark green yes
IAC Anchieta firm 50 (high) 47 green yes
IAC Angatu firm 33 (intermediary) 45 dark green yes
Z. zerumbet overturn tendency 52 (high) 31 dark green no
IAC Almada firm 26 (intermediary) 35 green yes
IAC Suanno firm 58 (high) 52 green yes
Z. macradenium firm 18 (low) 50 dark green yes
Z. newmanii firm 16 (low) 55 dark green yes
Z. ottensii overturn tendency 17 (low) 20 green yes
Z. pachysiphon firm 29 (intermediary) 28 green yes

About the characterization of inflorescences was noted that all the flower stems were erect except by Z. newmanii and Z. pachysiphon which growth were decumbent. In all the accessions were observed that the length of the flower stems were quite variable in the same clump. The diameter of the flower stems ranged from 2.20 (Z. zerumbet) to 4.30 cm (Z. pachysiphon) (Table 3).

Table 3 Flower stem characteristics of the Zingiber accessions. 

Accession Flower stem growth (FSG) Flower stem length (FSLe) Flower stem diameter (FSD) Flower stem/clump (FSC) Color sensorial perception (CSP)
Z. spectabile erect 0.40-1.20cm 3.0 cm 23 (medium) intense color and contrast
IAC Anchieta erect 0.40-0.80 cm 3.0 cm 60(very high) intense color and contrast
IAC Angatu erect 0.49-0.63 cm 3.0 cm 28(medium) very intense color and contrast
Z. zerumbet erect 0.30-0.70 cm 2.2 cm 38(high) intermediated color and contrast
IAC Almada erect 0.30-0.60 cm 2.8 cm 20(medium) intermediated color and contrast
IAC Suanno erect 0.41-0.90 cm 3.0 cm 61(very high) intense color and contrast
Z. macradenium erect 0.40-0.70 cm 3.2 cm 8(low) very intense color and contrast
Z. newmanii decumbente 0.15-0.30 cm 3.8 cm 25(medium) very intense color and contrast
Z. ottensii erect 0.50-0.70 cm 2.6 cm 4(low) Pale color without contrast
Z. pachysiphon decumbent 0.10-0.30 cm 4.3 cm 8(low) intermediated color and contrast

About the inflorescence number, the accession IAC Suanno and IAC Anchieta were the most productive, with 60 and 61 stems per clump. Z. zerumbet, with 38 flower stem per clump, was classified as high production. Accessions classified as medium produced among 15 to 30 stems (Z. spectabile, IAC Angatu, IAC Almada, Z. newmanii) and some accessions produced up to 10 inflorescences per plant (Z. macradenium, Z. ottensii and Z. pachysiphon).

Regarding the inflorescence characteristics, it was observed that the flower stem weight varied greatly depending on the accession. It was observed that inflorescence weight is not only influenced by length and width, morphological aspects as having free bracts also seem to influence. The correlation between inflorescence length/width and flower stem weight could be noticed in accessions with free bracts as Z. spectabile and Z. macradenium.

The color of the bracts is also very varied, depending on accession, ranging from green, yellow, orange to darker red on the lips. Most of the accessions have a gradual change color with the inflorescences aging, from the basis for the apex, adding exoticity (Table 4). Thus, the sensorial perception could range for very intense color and contrast to pale color without contrast (Table 3).

Table 4 Inflorescence characteristics of the Zingiber accessions. 

Accession Flower stem weight (FSW) Inflorescence length (IL) Inflorescence diameter (ID) Bracts aspects (BA) Photo
Z. spectabile 340 g 20.0 cm 9.0 cm Free. Orange-yellowish
IAC Anchieta 200 g 14.0 cm 6.5 cm Free. Yellow to orange
IAC Angatu 280 g 14.0 cm 8.0 cm Free. Yellow to yellow greenish, bracts borders (base) turning orange
Z. zerumbet 220 g 13.0 cm 5.5 cm Appressed. Green turning red when mature
IAC Almada 140 g 15.0 cm 8.0 cm Appressed. Yellow to orange
IAC Suanno 210 g 19.0 cm 7.0 cm Free. Yellow to orange in Apex, pale pink at the inflorescence base, borders red
Z. macradenium 430 g 21.0 cm 13.0 cm Free. Pale green internally, bracts borders red to brown
Z. newmanii 200 g 16.0 cm 6.0 cm Appressed. Red
Z. ottensii 250 g 10.0 cm 6.0 cm Free. Red brown (base) to greenish toward apex when flowering and turning bright red
Z. pachysiphon 140 g 15.0 cm 6.5 cm Appressed Red to purple when matures bracts borders are dark necrotic.

The flowering season months observed was very early (August to September) as observed in IAC Suanno and Z. macradenium, mid (October to November) as observed Z. spectabile, IAC Anchieta, IAC Angatu, Z. zerumbet and Z. newmanii or late (December to January) as observed IAC Almada, Z. ottensii. Z. pachysiphon was the only accession that produce flowers from May to August.

4. CONCLUSIONS

The accessions morphophenologic characteristics were influenced by genetic variation and these traits are useful to indicate the type of use.

From the variability observed was possible to select potential accessions for landscaping.

The morphophenologic characterization and genotypic and phenotypic differences conserved in the collection is of great significance to agriculture, to provide important data for the commercial cultivation of potential species and to generate important information for breeding programs.

The accessions very suitable for use to landscape purpose were Z. spectabile, IAC Anchieta (Z. spectabile) and Z. newmanii and present easy inflorescence visualization, leaf stem firmness and evergreen tendency, high number of flower stem per clump, very intense color and contrast sensorial perception.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors would like to thank the Coordination of Superior Level Staff Improvement (CAPES) and National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq).

REFERENCES

COELHO, V.A.T.; DIAS, G.M.G.; FERREIRA, M.M.; RODAS, C.L.; SILVA, M.L.S.; PASQUAL, M. Potássio e sódio na composição mineral e crescimento em plantas de Zingiber spectabile. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Agrárias, v.12, p.35-40, 2017. DOI: 10.5039/agraria.v12i1a5417 [ Links ]

GONÇALVES, C.; CASTRO, C.E.F; CASTRO, A.C.R; LOGES, V. Zingiber zerumbet flower stem postharvest characterization. Ornamental Horticulturae, v.23, n.2, p.127-130, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14295/oh.v23i2.956Links ]

GOVAERTS, R.; NEWMAN, M.; LOCK, J.M. World Checklist of Zingiberaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2015. Available in: http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Accessed on: April 12th 2016. [ Links ]

KISHOR, R; LEONG-SKORNICKOVÁ, J. Zingiber kangleipakense (Zingiberaceae): A new species from Manipur, India. Gardens Bulletin Singapore, v.65, n.1, p.39-46, 2013. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.178.3.9Links ]

SABU, M. Revision of the genus Zingiber in South India. Folia Malaysiana, v.4, n.1, p.25-52, 2003. [ Links ]

TRIBOUN, P.; LARSEN, K.; CHANTARANOTHAI, P.A. Key to the genus Zingiber (Zingiberaceae) in Thailand with descriptions of 10 new taxa. Thai Journal of Botany, v.6, n.1, p.53-77, 2014. [ Links ]

Received: May 15, 2018; Accepted: August 21, 2018

*Corresponding author: cecilia.castro@embrapa.br

AUTHORS CONTRIBUTIONS

C.E.F.C.: Planting; Field analysis and data collection; Descriptors and selection criteria elaboration; Manuscript critical review. A.C.R.C.: Field analysis and data collection; Descriptors and selection criteria elaboration; Manuscript critical review and manuscript final version review. C.G.: Planting; Field analysis and data collection; Descriptors and selection criteria elaboration; Manuscript critical review. V.L.: Field analysis and data collection; Descriptors and selection criteria elaboration; manuscript critical review.

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