SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.29THE CONTEXTUAL INTERFERENCE EFFECT IN THE LEARNING OF A MANUAL AIMING TASKVARIABILITY AND RELIABILITY OF GAIT KINEMATIC PARAMETERS AFTER CONTROLLED TRIPPING IN OLDER ADULTS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand

Journal

Article

Indicators

Related links

Share


Journal of Physical Education

On-line version ISSN 2448-2455

J. Phys. Educ. vol.29  Maringá  2018  Epub May 24, 2018

http://dx.doi.org/10.4025/jphyseduc.v29i1.2905 

Original Article

VARIABLES THAT MAY EXPLAIN MOTOR PERFORMANCE CHANGES IN CHILDREN WITH Development Coordination Disorder AND TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT

VARIÁVEIS QUE PODEM EXPLICAR MUDANÇAS NO DESEMPENHO MOTOR DE CRIANÇAS COM DESORDEM COORDENATIVA DESENVOLVIMENTAL E DESENVOLVIMENTO TÍPICO

Larissa Wagner Zanella1 

Mariele Santayana de Souza1 

Nadia Cristina Valentini1 

1Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre-RS, Brasil.

ABSTRACT

The aim this study is investigate the relations among important factors regarding to motor development, body mass index and daily activities of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder, at risk of DCD and typically developing children before and after an motor intervention. Participants were 48 children (5 to 7 year-old) designed in intervention group (n=24) and control group (n=24) assessed using the MABC-2, MABC-2 Checklist, body mass index (BMI) and abdominal circumference. At pre test were found significant and positive correlation between motor development and BMI for all participants and for children with DCD. At the post test, for all children and for children in risk of DCD, significant and positive correlations were found between motor development and section B of check list. Intervention programs contribute to minimize the influence of risk factors in the achievement of motor proficiency of children with and without motor delays.

Keywords: Motor skills disorders; Child; Intervention Studies.

RESUMO

O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar associações entre o desempenho motor, estado nutricional e atividades cotidianas de crianças com Desordem Coordenativa Desenvolvimental, risco de DCD e desenvolvimento típico antes e após uma intervenção motora. Participaram do estudo 48 crianças (5 à 7 anos), distribuídas em grupo interventivo (n=24) e grupo controle (n=24) avaliadas com MABC-2, MABC-2 Checklist, Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) e circunferência abdominal . Na pré-intervenção correlações significativas e positivas foram encontradas entre desempenho motor e IMC para o total da amostra e para as crianças com DCD. Na pós-intervenção correlações significativas e positivas foram encontradas entre o desempenho motor e seção B do check-list para o total de crianças da amostra e para as crianças com risco de DCD do grupo interventivo. Programas interventivos contribuem para minimizar a influência de fatores prejudiciais para o alcance da proficiência motora de crianças com e sem atrasos motores.

Palavras-chave: Transtorno das habilidades motoras; Criança; Estudos de intervenção.

Introduction

Mastery of a wide variety of motor skills, simple or complex, is a requirement for children to engage in physical activities. In addition to intervening motor development factors, there are situations in which the child may present characteristics that deviate from normal motor behavior1. Among these cases are children identified with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). To diagnose DCD, the identification of 4 criteria is recomended: (1) a significantly lower than expected ability to perform tasks involving motor coordination; (2) the observed motor impairment affects day-to-day activities (home and school achievements); (3) the exclusion of other causes or medical reasons for the motor delays; (4) if learning difficulties coexist, the motor difficulty exceeds what would be expected1. For children with DCD, the movement dificulties that are considered are those of gross and/or fine motor coordination that the child presents in the absence of neurological diseases or mental retardation that would justify these difficulties1.

The prevalence of DCD is estimated to be between 2% and 9% of children ages 5 to 11 years1 and to be more frequent in boys1),(2. In Brazil, however, previous research reports a higher prevalence (19.9%) of DCD in children aged 4 to 12 years and with a higher frequency of DCD among girls3. In relation to age, for children with DCD and in risk of DCD (r-DCD)3), the difficulties seem to be accentuated in older children, so it is considered that delays do not decrease over time. Similar results have been reported in children with typical development with motor delays2),(4; although, in general, it is observed that older children tend to develop more proficient skills compared to younger children5.

When motor difficulties become very pronounced, children with DCD, r-DCD6 and typical development (TD) (7 tend to limit their participation in physical activities by choosing a sedentary lifestyle. As a consequence, they may be subject to overweight6 and motor performance lower than their healthy-weight peers with DCD and r-DCD6. Low levels of motor performance have also been reported in overweight children with TD8; establishing overweight and obesity in childhood as predictors of inactivity, overweight, or obesity in adulthood9.

Considering that the lack of proficiency in motor skills limits the practice of physical activities, generate few opportunities for children to develop healthy habits10, and that physical activity is a protective factor for health11, children with DCD and r-DCD fit into risk groups and are targets for compensatory intervention programs. Motor interventions with different methodological approaches have the potential to lead children with motor delays to more proficient levels of performance12. However, the impact of motor interventions with a mastery-oriented motivation climate to mediate positive changes for children of different skill levels with and without disabilities13),(14 in motor, cognitive and social parameters15),(16),(17),(18 is highlighted. Moreover, interventions with mastery motivational climate can promote greater engagement in physical education classes and help reduce the body mass index of schoolchildren15. The efficiency of this methodology has been mainly linked to its inclusive and mediating characteristic of the autonomy of children19. This climate is established through diversified activities in small groups, with varied materials, different levels of difficulty in the same activity and participation of the children in the decision making regarding the organization and execution of the classes. Children, participants of classes based in these climates, become more motivated and engaged in practice, regardless of motor difficulties, delays or deficiencies19.

Specifically, in children with DCD, interventions with different methodologies have been shown to be effective in promoting motor proficiency20),(21),(22),(23; however, they are distibguished by groups of only children with DCD or r-DCD, not including children with typical development in the same environment. In this perspective, the mastery motivational climate, recognized in the literature to have the potential to mediate positive effects in different aspects of motor, cognitive and social development of children with and without motor difficulties and with or without disabilities, can constitute an interventional alternative for children with DCD and r-DCD. This is a methodology that may favor the inclusion of children with DCD in physical education classes of the intervention programs, since all children, regardless of their level of ability, are able to carry out the activities. Children with DCD, like other children with motor delays, are constantly excluded24 and/or excluded themselves25),(26 from physical and motor activities. This climate with its inclusive potential makes more engagement possible in function of the autonomy, diversity, and levels of difficulty in the same activity that are routinely employed.

To date, no research has been identified that has investigated the benefits of inclusive intervention with this methodology for children identified with DCD and r-DCD. Given the high prevalence of children with DCD, and even more so, the increased odds of children with DCD to become overweight6, there is a need to develop research to increase understanding about this disorder. The need to understand the factors that can interfere in the motor acquisition of children in general, such as in daily activities, is also observed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the associations between motor performance, nutritional status, and daily activities of children with DCD, r-DCD, and typical development before and after an intervention implemented with the mastery motivational climate. The following hypotheses were adopted for this study: (1) in the preintervention, nutritional status will be a factor associated with motor performance; (2) in post-intervention, nutritional status will not be a factor associated with motor performance; (3) in the post-intervention, daily activities will be associated with motor performance.

Methods

Participants

Participants included 48 children organized in a intervention group (24 children) and a control group (24 children) (12 girls and 12 boys in each group), aged between 5 and 8 years. All children were evaluated at the pre-intervention stage with Movement Assessment Battery for Children- Second Edition (MABC-2)27, school performance with the School Performance Test (SPT)28 and performance in daily activities at school and at home through the MABC-2 Checklist29. The evaluations allowed the formation of three subgroups, children with DCD, r-DCD and typical development (DT) (Table 1). Medical diagnoses were obtained from the children who presented low scores in all three domains evaluated (motor <5% in MABC-2, low school performance and high difficulty in daily activities). A negative medical diagnosis of the disorder (motor or cognitive) allowed the identification of children with DCD, meeting the criteria proposed by the American Psychology Association1. Children who had an intermediate motor performance level (6 to 15th percentile) and some school or daily activity difficulties were identified as having DCD risk. Children with motor performance scores in the percentile> 16%, and without school or daily activity difficulties were identified as children of TD.

The sample was selected based of the interest of the parents, the schools in which the children studied, the availability of the teachers, and the children's interest in participating in the research. The parents and/or legal guardians of all children signed a Informed Consent Term. This research was authorized by the Ethics Committee of the university of origin (2003109). The socioeconomic level of the families of the children was identified by application of a questionnaire of economic classification for the Brazilian population30 and was completed by the parents or legal guardians. The average family income was R$ 2,038.25 for the children in the intervention group and R$ 2,771.69 for the children in the control group.

Instruments and Procedures

The MABC-227, validated for Brazilian children31, has been widely used to identify DCD in children ages 3 to 163. The test allows the identification of specific difficulties in motor coordination through 3 test batteries specific to age groups called Age Bands (AB). Three AB make up the test battery (AB I: children between 3 and 6 years old, AB II: children between 7 and 10 years old, AB III: children between 11 and 16 years of age). In this study AB I and II were used. Each AB is composed of eight tasks that correspond to 3 subtests (manual dexterity, ball skills, and balance). The gross values obtained in each of the subtests are converted into gross scores and a subsequent standard score. The sum of the scores for each domain gives the value of the Total Motor Impairment Score, which is converted to a percentile. The authors propose cutoff points indicated in the test manual: <5% atypical motor performance, indicative of DCD; 6th to 15th percentile as r-DCD; any percentile higher than 16% equivalent to TD. The motor evaluation followed the protocol proposed by the author of the test, performed in a silent space and isolated from possible distractions organized by the researchers. The test was applied individually, with an approximate duration of 20 minutes for each child. Two trained examiners conducted the test application.

The Movement Assessment Battery for Children - Checklist29, validated in Brazil32, is a screening tool administered by adults to identify motor difficulties in children aged 5 to 12 years. The MABC Checklist consists of 3 sections that list motor behaviors observed in the child's daily life at home and at school: (1) Section A of the Checklist (SAC) observes motor behavior with the child standing in a predictable environment; (2) Checklist Section B (SBC) observes motor behaviors with the child moving and in a dynamic environment; (3) Section C of the Checklist (SCC) contains information that adversely affects movement and is organized into dichotomous responses. The scores in sections A and B are organized on a likert scale with values of 0, 1, 2 and 3 referring to the quality of the execution of the movement. Firstly it is decided if the child performs the task; and whether he did it very well (score 0) or only well (score 1). If the child is not able to perform the movement, it should be observed if the child is close to performing (score 2) or not close to performing (score 3) the tasks. The MABC Checklist was delivered to the parents along with a direct explanation of the issues. The families answered the questions at home and returned the questionnaire in a later class.

The School Performance Test was applied to all children who presented motor performance below the 15th percentile. This tool was used to aid in the categorization of children with DCD and r-DCD following the prepositions of the American Psychology Association1 to identify children with or in risk of motor disorder. The SPT8 was generated according to the reality of Brazilian schools and allows the evaluation of the school performance of children ages 6 to 13 years in reading, arithmetic, and writing. The test is divided into (1) writing subtest (it includes the writing of proper nouns and of isolated words presented in the form of dictation); (2) arithmetic subtest (corresponds to oral solution of problems and calculation of arithmetic operations in writing): and (3) reading subtest (evaluates the recognition of words isolated from the context). Each of the subtests presents an increasing level of difficulties comprising from the first to the seventh school year. All items are presented to the student independent of the series or year in which they are, however, for each phase there is a different pattern of comparison, and the higher the score, the better the performance in the test. There are three classifications for school performance: superior, middle, and inferior, the latter being an indicative of learning difficulties, which may be specific (difficulty in writing, reading, or arithmetic) or general. The application of each subtest can be interrupted at the moment the resolution of the items becomes impossible for the child. SPT was applied in a quiet place free of noise or other possible distractions, following the test application protocol.

Body Mass Index (BMI) was used to evaluate the nutritional status of the children with the CDC (Center of Desease Control)33 curves and the waist circumference (WC). The BMI and CDC classify the child's nutritional status as low weight (percentile less than 5), healthy weight (percentile between 5 and 84), overweight (percentile between 85 and 94), and obese (percentile equal or greater to 95). Body mass was measured with a digital scale and height with a portable stadiometer. waist circumference was obtained with a flexible and inelastic tape measure, without compressing the skin. The children were evaluated individually in a maximum of 10 minutes. The necessary material was organized by the researcher in a calm environment. To assess height, the child was positioned with his back to the stadiometer, with their feet parallel and with the lower part of the eye socket aligned to the outer ear. The body mass measurement was obtained barefoot, with arms loose along the body and in light clothing (pants and t-shirt).

Motor Skill Intervention Program Implementation Procedures

The Motor Intervention Program lasted 26 weeks (32 sessions). The classes took place two days a week, not during school hours, with a duration of approximately 70 minutes. The classes were elaborated, organized, and ministred by the teachers/researchers and had an emphasis on the development and improvement of fundamental motor skills.

The mastery-oriented motivation climate, which emphasizes the autonomy and active participation of the child in the learning process18, was implemented in the motor intervention through the TARGET structure. The acronym TARGET refers to the six dimensions of daily classroom activities, for which the teacher organizes intervention strategies. In the present intervention the following strategies were adopted in each dimension: (1) TASK: It involved the content and sequence of the motor activities, as well as the level of difficulty of these tasks and significant experiences compatible with the individual abilities; (2) AUTHORITY: Involved the effective and cooperative participation of the children in the establishment of rules, choice of activity, planning of stations, and organization of tasks; (3) RECOGNITION: It involved appreciation and recognition for the efforts and achievements of the children through a support system of significant people in the lives of the children, parentes, and teachers; (4) GROUP: Groups were flexible and constantly changing, with each session offering opportunities to train groups with heterogeneous characteristics such as gender, age, race, skill level, and physical abilities; (5) EVALUATION: Individualized assessment standards were established, respecting the development pace and the characteristics of each student; children also had self evaluating opportunities; (6) TIME: The practice time of the physical activities in class was established considering the initial assessment of the group, and more time was established for the practice of skills that the children presented greater difficulties. With the use of strategies consistent with the real needs of all children, it was possible to create practice conditions with high demands on levels of participation (since individualities were respected) and consequently creating conditions for greater motor engagement and caloric expenditure.

Statistic Analysis

Descriptive analysis were used (mean and standard deviation). The Shapiro Wilk test showed a nonparametric distribution for the dependent variables (BMI, waist circumference, Section A and Section B of the checklist) (“p” values between 0.002 and <0.001). In these variables, Mann Whitney's "U" test was used to verify possible differences between the intervention and control groups. Spearman correlations were used to determine the extent and direction of linear relationships between motor performance and variables gender, age, waist circumference, BMI and everyday situations (section A and section B of the checklist). Backward linear regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between sex, age, abdominal circumference, BMI and daily situations (section A and section B of the checklist) and motor performance (gross score of MABC-2) in general in the sample and by categorization (DCD, r-DCD and TD). The analysis were performed in the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 21.0, values of p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Correlations up to 0.30 are considered weak, between 0.30 and 0.60 moderate, and above 0.60 strong34.

Results

Categorization of the Groups and Subgroups

Table 1 shows the descriptive analysis (mean and standard deviation), the number of participants in the groups and subgroups in the variables investigated in the pre- and post-intervention moments.

Table 1. Characteristics of the participating groups and subgroups in the investigated variables in the pre- and post- intervention moments 

General Sample Intervention Group Control Group
Moment Total DCD r-DCD DT Total DCD r-DCD DT Total DCD r-DCD DT
(n=48) (n=14) (n=9) (n=25) (n=24) (n=7) (n=5) (n=12) (n=24) (n=7) (n=4) (n=13)
Pre
Age 6,5(0,6) 6,4(0,6) 6,3(0,5) 6,6(0,6) 6,6(0,6) 6,3(0,7) 6,5(0,5) 6,8(0,6) 6,3(0,5) 6,5(0,5) 6,0(0,0) 6,3(0,6)
WC 63,3(9,2) 65,4(10,2) 66,1(10,1) 61,1(8,0) 64,3(10,0) 66,0(10,0) 69,3(12,4) 61,3(8,7) 62,3(8,4) 64,8(11,2) 62,2(5,7) 60,9(7,7)
BMI 20,8(22,8) 28,9(41,8) 19,3(3,4) 16,7(2,8) 24,6(32,0) 18,5(2,9) 20,1(4,2) 17,0(3,2) 16,9(2,3) 16,9(1,7) 18,3(2,2) 16,5(2,6)
MABC 62,2(13,3) 46,2(9,5) 59,9(2,8) 72,0(6,6) 61,7(14,4) 44,6(12,3) 60,4(3,4) 72,2(6,4) 62,8(12,5) 47,8(1,7) 59,2(2,2) 72,0(7,1)
SAC 7,8(6,6) 8,4(8,9) 8,0(6,4) 7,4(5,3) 9,0(7,4) 11,3(11,0) 10,2(7,5) 7,2(4,7) 6,6(5,6) 5,6(6,1) 5,2(4,3) 7,6(6,0)
SBC 12,7(7,4) 13,4(10,1) 12,5(6,1) 12,3(6,3) 13,3(8,2) 15,7(12,6) 14,2(6,8) 11,5(5,5) 12,0(6,6) 11,1(7,2) 10,5(4,8) 13,0(7,1)
Pos
Age 6,9(0,7) 6,7(0,8) 6,7(0,5) 7,1(0,6) 7,0(0,8) 6,5(0,8) 7,2(0,8) 7,3(0,6) 6,8(0,7) 7,0(0,8) 6,1(0,0) 7,0(0,6)
WC 64,3(8,4) 65,4(9,2) 67,6(11,2) 62,5(6,5) 65,7(9,4) 67,7(10,8) 70,6(13,5) 62,4(5,6) 62,9(7,1) 63,1(7,7) 63,8(7,6) 62,5(7,4)
BMI 20,4(18,8) 17,9(2,4) 19,4(3,9) 22,4(26,1) 23,7(26,4) 18,5(2,9) 20,5(4,6) 17,2(2,3) 17,1(2,2) 17,2(1,8) 18,2(2,9) 16,8(2,2)
MABC-2 65,5(15,9) 54,8(19,5) 68,4(11,3) 70,5(12,3) 69,8(16,9) 62,0(23,7) 71,2(13,7) 73,7(13,0) 61,2(13,8) 47,6(11,8) 65,0(7,9) 67,5(11,3)
SAC 7,7(7,2) 9,5(9,4) 8,4(7,4) 6,6(5,6) 9,3(8,3) 10,7(12,3) 13,0(6,8) 7,1(5,7) 6,2(5,6) 8,3(6,1) 2,7(3,2) 6,1(5,8)
SBC 8,7(6,8) 10,3(8,4) 9,4(5,9) 7,6(6,1) 9,1(6,3) 10,0(8,8) 12,6(4,0) 7,1(5,1) 8,4(7,3) 10,7(8,8) 5,5(5,9) 8,1(7,1)

Note. WC: waist circunference; BMI: body mass index; MABC-2: Movement Assement Batery for Children-2; SAC: Section A of the checklist; SBC: Section B of the checklist

Source: Authors

Associations between variables

Table 2 shows the correlations between motor performance and the variables investigated in the general sample, by groups (intervention and control) and by subgroups (DCD, r-DCD and DT).

General Sample

At the pre-intervention moment a negative, moderate, and significant correlation between motor performance and BMI (p = 0.001) was found for the total number of children; for these children, no significant correlations were observed between motor performance and other variables (WC: p = 0.412, SAC: p = 0.160, SBC: p = 0.119). In regard to the subgroup analysis, a strong, negative, and significant correlation between motor performance and BMI (p = 0.001) was observed for children with DCD. The other correlations between motor performance and variables investigated were not significant (WC: p = 0.228 ; SAC: p = 0.182; SBC: p = 0.264). There were no significant correlations between motor performance and other variables for children in r-DCD (WC: p = 0.654, BMI: p = 0.348, SAC: p = 0.862, SBC: p = 0.732) and choldren with TD (WC: p = 0.924, BMI: p = 0.968, SAC: p = 0.232, SBC: p = 0.064).

At the post-intervention moment, there were no significant correlations between motor performance and the variables investigated for all of the children (WC: p = 0.911, BMI: p = 0.191, SAC: p = 0.459, SBC: p = 0.019), for children with DCD (WC: p = 0.649, BMI: p = 0.316, SAC: p = 0.961, SBC: p = 0.171), for children in r-DCD (WC: p=0.811; BMI: p=0.966; SAC: p=0.461; SBC: p=0.403), and children with TD (WC: p = 0.607, BMI: p = 0.221, SAC: p = 0.938, SBC: p = 0.357).

Intervention Group

At the time of pre-intervention, for all of children in the intervention group, no significant correlations were observed between motor performance and the variables investigated (WC: p = 0.271, BMI: p = 0.128, SAC: p=0.428; SBC: p = 0.377). Similarly, in the subgroups, no significant correlations were observed between motor performance and the variables investigated for children with DCD (WC: p = 0.337, BMI: p = 0.939, SAC: p = 0.819, SBC: p = 0.939), children in r-DCD (WC: p=0.322; BMI: p=0.253; SAC: p=0.741; SBC: p=0.573) and children with TD (CA: p = 0.504, BMI: p = 0.661, SAC: p = 0.917, SBC: p = 0.965).

At the time moment of post-intervention, no significant correlations were observed between the motor performance and the variables investigated (WC: p = 0.631, BMI: p = 0.968, SAC: p = 0.966, and SBC: p = 0.523) for all of the children in the intervention group. In the subgroups, only a negative, Strong, and significant correlation was observed for the intervention group of children with r-DCD between motor performance and SBC (p = 0.041); for these children, no significant results were found between motor performance and other variables (WC: p = 0.624, BMI: p = 0.624, SAC: p = 0.188). There were no significant correlations between motor performance and the other variables analyzed in the subgroups of children with DCD (WC: p = 0.879, BMI p = 0.760, SAC: p = 0.728, SBC: p = 0.554) and children with TD (WC: p = 0.262, BMI: p = 0.965, SAC: p = 0.229, SBC: p = 0.650).

Control Group

At the time of pre-intervention, no significant correlations were observed between the motor performance and the variables investigated (WC: p = 0.340, BMI: p = 0.302, SAC: p = 0.947, and SBC: p = 0.707) for the total number of children in the control group. In the r-DCD subgroup of the control group, positive, significant, and strong correlations were observed between motor performance and SAC (p<0.001) and motor performance and SBC (p<0.001) in children with r-DCD. For the other variables, in the subgroups of the control group, no significant correlations were observed between motor performance and the variables investigated for the group of children with DCD (WC: p = 0.129, BMI: p = 0.574, SAC p = 0.599, SBC : p = 0.574), children in r-DCD (WC: p = 0.600, BMI: p = 0.684), and for children with TD (WC: p = 0.617, BMI: p = 0.790, SAC: p = 0.105, SBC : p = 0.072).

Positive, moderate, and significant correlation between motor performance and SAC (p = 0.025) was observed in the post-intervention moment for the total of children in the control group; for these children, no significant results were found between motor performance and other variables (WC: p = 0.609, BMI: p = 864, and SBC: p = 0.055). In the subgroups, a significant negative correlation was observed for children in r-DCD between motor performance and SAC (p = 0.050), for these children there were no significant correlations between motor performance and other variables (WC: p = 0.200; BMI: p = 0.200; SBC: p = 0.400). There were no significant correlations between motor performance and the other variables investigated in the subgroups of children with DCD (WC: p = 0.582, BMI: p = 0.728, SAC: p = 0.711, SBC: p = 0.379), and for children with TD (WC: p = 0.986, BMI: p = 0.914, SAC: p = 0.105, SBC: p = 0.288).

Table 2. Correlation Data between motor performance and environment and individual variables 

Pre-intervention Post-intervention
Groups WC BMI SAC SBC WCA BMI SAC SBC
General Sample
Total -0,12 -0,48** -0,21 -0,23 -0,02 0,13 0,09 -0,11
DCD 0,34 -0,78** -0,38 -0,32 0,19 0,29 -0,02 0,25
r-DCD -0,17 -0,35 0,07 -0,13 -0,11 -0,01 -0,28 0,02
TD -0,02 0,01 -0,25 -0,37 -0,34 -0,39 -0,32 -0,19
Intervention Group
Total 0,23 0,32 0,17 0,19 0,1 0,01 0,01 0,14
DCD 0,43 -0,04 -0,11 0,04 0,07 0,14 -0,16 -0,27
r-DCD -0,56 -0,63 -0,2 -0,34 0,3 0,3 -0,7 -0,89*
TD 0,21 0,14 -0,03 -0,01 -0,35 0,01 0,38 0,15
Control Group
Total 0,2 0,22 0,14 0,08 0,11 0,04 0,46* 0,4
DCD 0,63 0,26 -0,24 -0,26 -0,25 0,16 -0,17 -0,4
r-DCD 0,4 0,32 0,99** 0,99** -0,8 -0,8 -0,95* -0,6
TD -0,15 -0,08 -0.40 -0,51 -0,01 0,03 -0,47 -0,32

Note. WC: waist circunference; BMI: body mass index; MABC-2: Movement Assement Batery for Children-2; SAC: Section A of the checklist; SBC: Section B of the checklist.

Significant Results: ** p ( 0.001; * p ( 0.050

Source: Authors

Linear Regression for the Intervention Group

Table 3 presents the results of the linear regression models between motor performance in MABC-2 and children's factors and performance in daily activities for the intervention group and its subgroups (DCD, r-DCD and TD) at the pre- and post-stages of intervention. The results of the linear regression indicated that for both the intervention group and the subgroups, no significant models were observed in the pre- and post-intervention moments.

Linear Regression for the Control

Table 4 presents the results of the linear regression models between motor performance in MABC-2 and children’s factors and performance in daily activities for the control group and its subgroups (DCD, r-DCD and TD) at pre- and post-stages of intervention. At the pre-intervention moment, for children with TD from the control group, there were two significant models, Model 3 and Model 4, with Model 4 maintaining SBC as a predictive variable, explaining 63.6% of the motor performance variation for these children ENT#091; R = 0.636, F (1.11) = 7.469, p = 0.019ENT#093;. No significant models were observed for the total sample and in the subgroups of children with DCD and r-DCD. At the post-intervention moment, for the total sample of the control group, there were two significant models, Model 3 and Model 4, with Model 4 maintaining the SBC as a predictive variable, explaining 48.8% of the motor performance variation in this group ENT#091;R = 0.488 , F (1.24) = 6.884, p = 0.016ENT#093;. No significant models were found for the subgroups of children with DCD, r-DCD and TD.

Table 3 Linear regression models between motor performance in the MABC-2 and children’s factors (WC and BMI) and the daily activities in the pre- and post-intervention moments for the intervention group and the subgroups (DCD, r-DCD e DT) 

Linear Regression Models: Intervention Group
Total DCD r-DCD1 TD
M1 M2 M3 M4 M1 M2 M3 M4 M1 M1 M2 M3 M4
Pre-Intervention
R 0,36 0,36 0,36 0,32 0,48 0,48 0,46 0,31 1 0,16 0,16 0,09 0,06
F 0,72 1,01 1,58 2,46 0,15 0,3 0,55 0,52 - 0,05 0,07 0,03 0,04
p 0,588 0,41 0,229 0,131 0,947 0,826 0,617 0,5 - 0,995 0,97 0,966 0,85
β WC 0,08 0,07 - - 0.89 0,87 0,95 0,38 1,24 0,03 - - -
β BMI -0,94 -0,93 -0.74 - -2,37 -2,29 -2,43 - -4,5 -0,51 -0,44 -0,18 -0,12
β SAC -0,5 -0,56 -0.58 -0.62 0,03 - - - -0,63 -0,34 -0,36 - -
β SBC -0,06 - - - -0,15 -0,13 - - 0,95 0,35 0,37 0,08 -
Post-Intervention
R 0,41 0,37 0,36 0,26 0,79 0,65 0,61 0,31 1 0,48 0,48 0,47 0,34
F 0,95 1,04 1,52 1,55 0,85 0,74 1,18 0,5 - 0,52 0,78 1,3 1,27
p 0,455 0,394 0,241 0,227 0,605 0,594 0,396 0,512 - 0,73 0,537 0,32 0,286
β WC -0,81 -0,17 - - -4,12 -0,58 - - -3,7 -1,62 -1,74 -1,71 -0,77
β BMI 1,97 - - - 13,28 - - - 9,57 2,12 2,33 2,27 -
β SAC 0,72 0,85 0,84 - 2,38 2,46 2,06 - 9,62 0,14 - - -
β SBC -1,57 -1,58 -1,56 -0,68 -4,35 -3,97 -3,33 0,81 -20,76 -0,2 -0,13 - -

Legend. M: Model; 1Only 1 linear regression modelwas found for children in r-DCD from the intervention and control group; WC: waist circunference; BMI: body mass index; SAC: Section A of the checklist; SBC: Section B of the checklist.

Source: Authors

Table 4 Linear regression models between motor performance in the MABC-2 and children’s factors (WC and BMI) and the daily activities in the pre- and post-intervention moments for the control group and the subgroups (DCD, r-DCD e DT) 

Linear Regression Models: Control Group
Total DCD r-DCD1 TD
M1 M2 M3 M4 M1 M2 M3 M4 M1 M1 M2 M3 M4
Pre-Intervention
R 0,16 0,16 0,15 0,13 0,84 0,71 0,65 0,52 1 0,74 0,69 0,66 0,64
F 0,13 0,18 0,25 0,37 1,2 1,01 1,49 1,87 - 2,43 2,71 3,9 7,47
p 0,969 0,908 0,779 0,547 0,501 0,495 0,327 0,229 - 0,133 0,107 0,050* 0,019*
β WC -0,11 -0,08 - - 0,76 0,53 0,28 0.22 0,65 -0,85 -0,39 - -
β BMI 0,19 - - - 2,15 - - - -1,31 3,14 1,52 0,51 -
β SAC 0,2 0,19 0,25 - 1,46 0,72 - - - 0,59 - - -
β SBC -0,36 -0,35 -0,39 -0,24 -0,9 -0,73 -0,35 - 0,45 -1,03 -0,67 -0,67 -0,64
Post-Intervention
R 0,51 0,51 0,5 0,49 0,95 0,91 - - 1 0,49 0,48 0,48 0,36
F 0,17 0,32 3,43 6,88 5,04 4,91 - - - 0,63 0,9 1,48 1,62
p 0,199 0,11 0,050* 0,016* 0,172 0,112 - - - 0,653 0,478 0,273 0,229
β WC -0,5 -0,43 - - -1,42 -1,73 - - -2,21 -0,43 -0,16 - -
β BMI 1,93 1,77 0,56 - 9,02 7,37 - - 4,1 3,03 2,22 1,76 -
β SAC -0,21 - - - 1,35 - - - - -0,5 - - -
β SBC -0,8 -0,94 -0,95 -0,92 -1,3 -0,81 - - -1,16 -0,42 -0,79 -0,8 -0,57

Note. M: Model; 1Only 1 linear regression modelwas found for children in r-DCD from the intervention and control group; WC: waist circunference; BMI: body mass index; SAC: Section A of the checklist; SBC: Section B of the checklist.

Source: Authors

Discussion

The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between motor performance, nutritional status, waist circumference, and daily activities of children with DCD, r-DCD and TD before and after an the implementation of a intervention with the mastery motivational climate.

The results of the present study indicated that in pre-intervention, in the general sample, and for children with DCD, motor performance was influenced by BMI. These results partially confirm the first hypothesis of the study regarding the negative association between motor performance and BMI. The results of this study corroborate previous research reports that overweight and childhood obesity may be harmful to the motor performance of children7),(14),(35),(36. The difficulties presented by overweight and obese children in their motor performance may be related to less possibilities in the execution of movements, since the increase of corporal mass can result in a smaller amplitude of the articulations, or even related to the fatigue or physical exhaustion, that makes these children opt for more sedentary activities. A longitudinal study developed by D'Hont et al.36 reports a strong, negative, and significant correlation between motor performance and BMI in children over two years. Other research developed by Spessato, Gabbard and Valentini11 reports negative, moderate, and significant correlations between BMI and motor performance only in younger children (6 and 7 years). The two studies present similar results to the present study.

In regard to the children with DCD, these results strengthen previous research observations, which report that DCD may be a risk factor for overweight and obesity37),(39. In Canada, a study by Cairney et al.37 with the participation of 578 children, reports that DCD may be a risk factor for overweight and obesity in childhood, and may extend to adolescence. Similar results were also found in a longitudinal study, developed by Green et al.38 with 4,331 children. In a study developed with a large sample (2029 children) in Taiwan, the researchers observed that the prevalence of obesity was higher in the group of boys with DCD. The researchers point out that the movement difficulties faced by children with DCD are a potential risk factor for overweight and obesity40, a plausible explanation for the findings of the present study.

At the pre-intervention moment, for the control group of children with r-DCD, in the post-intervention moment for the general sample, and for the intervention group with r-DCD, the results of the present study indicated that motor performance was influenced by daily activities, specifically by the SB of the checklist (intervention group) and the SA and SB of the checklist (control group). For children with DCD from the control group, a correlation between motor performance and the SA of the checklist was found. SB of the checklist deals with everyday situations related to a dynamic environment, with tasks typically experienced by children at home and/or at school. Based on the results of this study it is possible to infer that good resourcefulness in these situations has influences on better motor performance. Proper motor performance in everyday situations and in stable environments suggests that motor acquisition depends on a favorable, challenging, and variable environment at home and at school41.

The results regarding daily activities should be emphasized since motor performance is strongly influenced by the environment. Neto et al.41 investigated this association in Brazilian children aged 6 and 7 from private schools and the results showed strong associations between locomotion and manipulation skills and the environment in which they were inserted (physical education classes in clubs or frequent street games). In this sense, in addition to the individual aspects of the child, the different environments in which the child is inserted (which offer opportunities for movement and exploration) should be considered when investigating children's motor performance41.

In the present study, it was possible to observe that the correlations between the tasks related to the environment with motor performance provide even more support for the mastery motivational climate. The study of motivational climates in educational contexts has been investigated in the literature in recent years42),(43),(44),(45 and has sought effective space in the literature of physical education7),(19),(46),(47),(48),(49. However, to date, no records of implementation of this methodology have been found with specific groups of children with DCD or r-DCD, therefore, this study advances in the current knowledge evidencing new support to these climates.

Considering that the theoretical perspective of the mastery motivational climate is based on the accomplishment of goals elaborated according to the level of development of each child, the possibilities of frustration caused by errors or comparisons of the children themselves with the disorder in relation to the children of TD are minimized. The organization of the climate in stations with differentiated tasks (eg when a child is kicking others are jumping rope, balancing on boards, and/or other tasks) which allows the child to focus on his own practice. These strategies are adopted aligned with the methodology that is student-centered and considers that the competences are specific and that the effort is focused on the individual achievements of each child. Individual characteristics and diverse situational factors lead to different forms of behavioral engagement in tasks of achievement50, making this environment conducive to individual achievements and goals, potentializing development and respecting the rhythm of each child. During classes, strategies are used that include, for example, a large number of diversified motor options, as well as providing attractive materials that constantly challenge the child, it is in this environment of respect that the differences that children with motor difficulties may experience shelter and feeling of belonging.

For children with motor disorders, persistence in physical activity is not always prolonged. This may occur due to the difficulties of motor coordination, which leads to preference for easier, sedentary activities or the exclusion of this group of children. The opportunity to participate in a program that provided a challenge in the exploration of movements; education, and feedback appropriate to their developmental level; the appreciation of colleagues; and the encouragement of adults, allows a greater persistence of these children in physical activities, therefore, factors of extreme importance for any child17),(18),(19),(51, even more for children with DCD or in r-DCD. Children with DCD or TD have faced moderate levels of challenge, which can be overcomed with effort, an essential factor to increase motor skills. In this way, attention is not directed at the motor delays caused by the disorder, but rather to the increasing levels of challenges that each child imposes on himself52, with or without any disorder. Therefore, in addition to providing attractive materials, which constantly challenged the child and respect the individualized pace of motor practice; the fact of having a site with adequate instruction and feedback favored the development and improvement of motor skills, reflecting in the motor performance of this group in other aspects besides the intervention environment.

Conclusion

Several factors concomitantly with DCD are considered as risks for poorer motor performance. In the present study, overweight was an associated and therefore worrying factor since it can provoke a cycle that includes rejection of physical activities and reduction of social interactions. Furthermore, daily activities also explained part of the observed variability in the motor performance of children with r-DCD and DCD, noting that in order to understand the difficulties and potentialities of these children, teachers and researchers should cross school walls and interact in other spaces.

From this data, it can be inferred that when children participate in motor intervention programs, motor proficiency changes potentially being the intervention protective factor for children with DCD, r-DCD and TD. Opportunities for participation in differentiated and individual-level physical activity combined with the appropriate instruction of Physical Education teachers who understand the problems faced by children and can contribute to improved motor performance. An intervention program involving meaningful learning can help children, especially overweight and with DCD, to reduce the difficulties they face in daily activities, as well as to help them engage in physical activities in other settings (leisure or sports). Understanding the motor performance determinants of children with DCD is essential for the development of interventional programs and motor acquisition.

Aknowledgements:

We thank the CAPES for the support for the present research.

References

1. American Psychiatric Association (APA). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-V). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013. [ Links ]

2. Kourtessis T, et al. Developmental coordination disorder in early childhood - A preliminary epidemiological study in greek schools. The International Journal of Medicine, 2008;1(2), p. 95-99. [ Links ]

3. Valentini NC, Coutinho MTC, Pansera SM, dos Santos VAP, Vieira JL, Ramalho MH, Oliveira MA, et al. Prevalência de déficits motores e desordem coordenativa desenvolvimental em crianças da região Sul do Brasil. Rev Paul Pediat, São Paulo, 2012;30(3):377-384. [ Links ]

4. Spessato BC, Gabbard C, Valentini NC, Rudisill M, et al. Gender differences in Brazilian children’s fundamental movement skill performance. Early Child Dev Care, 2013;183(7):916-923. doi:10.1080/03004430.2012.689761 [ Links ]

5. Engel-Yeger B, Hanna Kasis A. The relationship between Developmental Co-ordination Disorders, child’s perceived self-efficacy and preference to participate in daily activities. Child Care Health Dev, Oxford, 2010;36(5):670-677. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2010.01073.x [ Links ]

6. Cairney J, et al. Developmental coordination disorder, sex, and activity deficit over time: a longitudinal analysis of participation trajectories in children with and without coordination difficulties. Dev Med Child Neurol, Londres, 2010;52(3):e67-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2009.03520.x [ Links ]

7. D’Hondt E, et al. A longitudinal analysis of gross motor coordination in overweight and obese children versus normal-weight peers. Int J Obes, Londres, 2013;37(1):61-67. doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.55 [ Links ]

8. Berleze A, Haeffner LSB, Valentini NC. Desempenho motor de crianças obesas: uma investigação do processo e produto de habilidades motoras fundamentais. Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum, Florianópolis, 2007;9(2):134-144. [ Links ]

9. Biddle SJ, Gorely T, Stensel DJ. Health-enhancing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents. J Sports Scien, Londres, 2004;22(8):679-701. doi: 10.1080/02640410410001712412 [ Links ]

10. Li W, Shen B, Rukavina PB. Effect of perceived sport competence on intentions to exercise among adolescents : mediating or moderating? J Sport Behav, Mobile, 2004;34(2):160-174. [ Links ]

11. Spessato BC, Gabbard C, Valentini NC. The role of motor competence and body mass index in children’s activity levels in physical education classes. J Teach Phys Educ, Champaign, 2013;32(2):118-130. doi: 10.1123/jtpe.32.2.118 [ Links ]

12. Tsai C-L, Wang C-H, Tseng Y-T. Effects of exercise intervention on event-related potential and task performance indices of attention networks in children with developmental coordination disorder. Brain Cogn, Nova York, 2012;79(1):12-22. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2012.02.004 [ Links ]

13. Gursel F. Inclusive intervention to enhance the fundamental movement skills of children without hearing: a preliminary study. Percept Mot Skills, Louisville, 2014;118(1):304-315. [ Links ]

14. Logan S, et al. Exploring preschoolers’ engagement and perceived physical competence in an autonomy-based object control skill intervention: a preliminary study. Eur Phys Educ Rev, Driffield , 2013;19(3) p. 302-314. doi: 10.1177/1356336X13495627 [ Links ]

15. Berleze A. Efeitos de um Programa de Intervenção Motora, em crianças obesas e não-obesas, nos parâmetros motores, nutricionais e psicossociais. ENT#091;Tese de Doutorado em Ciências do Movimento HumanoENT#093;. Porto Alegre: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências do Movimento Humano; 2008. [ Links ]

16. Goodway JD, Branta CF. Influence of a motor skill Intervention on fundamental otmor skill development of disadvantaged preschool children. Res Q Exerc Sport, Reston, 2003;74(1):36-46. doi: 10.1080/02701367.2003.10609062 [ Links ]

17. Valentini NC. Influência e uma intervenção motora e desempenho motor e na percepção de competência de crianças com atrasos motores. Rev Paul Educ Fis, São Paulo, 2002a;16(1):61-75. [ Links ]

18. Valentini NC, Rudisill ME. Effectiveness of an inclusive mastery climate intervention on the motor skill development of children. Adapt Phys Activ Q, Champaign, 2004; 21(4):330-347. doi: 10.1123/apaq.21.4.330 [ Links ]

19. Valentini NC, Rudisill ME. Motivational climate, motor-skill development and perceived competence: Two studies of developmental delayed kindergarten children. J Teach Phys Educ, 2004a;23(3):216-234. doi: 10.1123/jtpe.23.3.216 [ Links ]

20. Beltrame TS, Cardoso FL, Alexandre JM, Bernardi CS. Desenvolvimento motor e autoconceito de escolares com transtorno do desenvolvimento da coordenação. Psicol Esc Educ, Uberlândia, 2016;20(1):55-67. [ Links ]

21. Caçola PM, Ibana M, Romero M, Chuang J. The effectiveness of a group motor skill intervention program in children with developmental coordination disorder: program frequency matters. Internet J Allied Health Scie Pract, Flórida, 2016;14(1):4. [ Links ]

22. Peens A, Piennar AE, Nienaber AW. The effect of diferente intervention programmes on the self-concept and motor proficiency of 7- to 9-year-old children with DCD. Child Care Health Dev, Oxford , 2008;34(3):316-328. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2007.00803.x [ Links ]

23. Silva EVA, Contreira AR, Beltrame TS, Sperandio FF. Programa de intervenção motora para escolares com indicativo de transtorno do desenvolvimento da coordenação - TDC. Rev Bras Educ Fís Esp, São Paulo, 2011;17(1):137-150. [ Links ]

24. Castetbon K, Andreyeva T. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationallyrepresentative surveys. BMC Pediat, 2012; 12(1):12-28. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-28 [ Links ]

25. Summers J, Larkin D, Dewey D. Activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder: Dressing, personal hygiene, and eating skills. Hum Mov Sci, 2008;27(2):215-229. doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2008.02.002 [ Links ]

26. Kirk MA, Rhodes RE. Motor Skill Interventions to Improve Fundamental Movement Skills of Preschoolers With Developmental Delay. Adapt Phys Activ Q, 2011;28(3):210-232. doi: 10.1123/apaq.28.3.210 [ Links ]

27. Henderson SE, Sugden DA, Barnett AL. Movement Assessment Battery for children - 2 Examiner’s Manual. In: Assessment H, editor. Movement Assessment Battery for children - 2. London, 2007. [ Links ]

28. Stein LM. TDE: Teste do desempenho escolar: manual para aplicação e interpretação. São Paulo: Casa do Psicólogo, 1994. [ Links ]

29. Henderson SE, Sugden DA. Movement Assessment Battery for children . SIDCUP: Therapy Skill Builders; 1992. [ Links ]

30. Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Pesquisa (ABEP). Critério de classificação econômica Brasil; 2013. [ Links ]

31. Valentini NC, Ramalho MH, Oliveira MA. Movement Assessment Battery for children -2: translation, reliability, and validity for Brazilian children. Res Dev Disabil, Nova York, 2014;35(3):733-740. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2013.10.028 [ Links ]

32. Ramalho MH, et al. Validação para língua portuguesa : Lista de Checagem daMovement Assessment Battery for children . Motriz, Rio Claro, 2013;19(2), p. 423-431. [ Links ]

33. Center for Disease Control and Prevention ENT#091;CDCENT#093;. (2008). BMI percentile calculator for child and teen, English version. Disponível em Disponível em http://aps.nccd.cdc.gov/dnpabmi/ Acesso em 13 de Março de 2014. [ Links ]

34. Callegari-Jacques SM. Bioestatística: princípios e aplicações. Artmed Editora, 2009. [ Links ]

35. Lopes VP, Stodden DF, Bianchi MM, Maia JA, Rodrigues LP. Correlation between BMI and motor coordination in children. J Sci Med Sport, 2012;15(1):38-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2011.07.005 [ Links ]

36. D'Hont E, Deforche B, Gentier I, Bourdeaudhuij I De, Vaeyens R, Philippaerts R, Lenoir M, et al. A longitudinal analysis of gross motor coordination in overweight and obese children versus normal-weight peers. Int J Obes, 2013;37(1), p. 61-67. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2012.55 [ Links ]

37. Cairney J, Hay JA, Faught BE, Wade TJ, Corna L, Flouris A. et al. Developmental coordination disorder, generalized self-efficacy toward physical activity, and participation in organized and free play activities. J Pediatr, 2005;147(4):515-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.05.013 [ Links ]

38. Green D. et al. The risk of reduced physical activity in children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder: a prospective longitudinal study. Res Dev Disabil, 2011;32(4):1332-1342. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2011.01.040 [ Links ]

39. Wagner MO, Kastner J, Petermann F, Jekauc D, Worth A, Bös K, et al. The impact of obesity on developmental coordination disorder in adolescence. Res Dev Disabil , 2011;32(5):1970-1976. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2011.04.004 [ Links ]

40. Zhu Y-C, Cairney J, Li Y-C, Chen W-Y, Chen F-C, Wu SK, et al. High risk for obesity in children with a subtype of developmental coordination disorder. Res Dev Disabil, Nova York , 2014;35(7):1727-1733. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2014.02.020 [ Links ]

41. Neto AS, Mascarenhas LPG, Nunes GF, Lepre C, Campos W, et al. Relação entre fatores ambientais e habilidades motoras básicas em crianças de 6 e 7 anos. Rev Mackenzie Educ Fís Esp, São Paulo, 2004;3(3):135-140. [ Links ]

42. Ames C, Archer J. Achievement goals in the classroom: student’s learning strategies and motivation processes. J Educ Psychol, 1988;80(3):260-267. [ Links ]

43. Ames C. Motivation: What teachers need to know. Teachers College Record, 1990;91(3):409-421. [ Links ]

44. Ames C. Achievement goals, motivational climate and motivational processes. In: ROBERTS G. C. (ed.) Motivation in sport and exercise. Champaign, Il: Human Kinetics, 1992a. [ Links ]

45. Ames C. Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. J Educ Psychol , 1992b;84(3):261-271. [ Links ]

46. Valentini NC. The influence of two motor skill interventions on the motor skill performance, perceived competence and intrinsic motivation of kindergarten children ENT#091;Dissertação de MestradoENT#093;. Auburn: Auburn University; 1997. [ Links ]

47. Valentini NC. Mastery motivational climate motor skill intervention: replication and follow-up ENT#091;Tese de DoutoradoENT#093;. Auburn: Auburn University; 1999. [ Links ]

48. Valentini NC, Rudisill ME, Goodway JD. Incorporating a mastery climate into elementar physical education: it's developmentally appropriate! J Phys Educ Recreat Dance, 1999a;70(7):28-32. [ Links ]

49. Valentini NC. Mastery climate: children in charge of their own learning. Teach Element Phys Educ, 1999b;10(1):6-10. [ Links ]

50. Braithwaite R, et al. Motivational climate interventions in physical education: A meta-analysis. Psycol Sport Exerc, 2011;12(6):628-638. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.06.005 [ Links ]

51. Kirk D. Physical education, youth sport and lifelong participation: the importance of early learning experiences. Eur Phys Educa Rev, 2005;11(3), p. 139-255. [ Links ]

52. Villwock G, Valentini NC. Percepção de competência atlética, orientação motivacional e competência motora em crianças de escolas públicas: estudo desenvolvimentista e correlacional. Rev Bras Educ Fís Esp, São Paulo , 2007;21(4):245-257. doi: 10.1590/S1807-55092007000400001 [ Links ]

Received: March 06, 2016; Revised: March 29, 2017; Accepted: September 26, 2017

Author Address: Nadia Cristina Valentini, Rua Felizardo, 750, Jardim Botânico, 90690-200, Porto Alegre/RS, nadia.cristina@ufrgs.br

Creative Commons License This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License