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Journal of Physical Education

On-line version ISSN 2448-2455

J. Phys. Educ. vol.29  Maringá  2018  Epub Apr 01, 2019

http://dx.doi.org/10.4025/jphyseduc.v29i1.2961 

Original Article

CONTINUING EDUCATION OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS: PEDAGOGICAL ACTIONS BY THE REGIONAL EDUCATION BOARD OF ILHÉUS

FORMAÇÃO CONTINUADA DE PROFESSORES DE EDUCAÇÃO FÍSICA: AÇÕES PEDAGÓGICAS DA DIRETORIA REGIONAL DE EDUCAÇÃO DE ILHÉUS

Cristiano de Sant’anna Bahia1 

Keyla Cardoso Santana Campos2 

Marilia Garcia Pinto3 

Alexandra Folle4 

Gelcemar Oliveira Farias4 

Juarez Vieira do Nascimento5 

1Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus-BA, Brasil.

2Instituto Federal da Bahia, Valença-BA, Brasil.

3Fundação Catarinense de Educação Especial, São José-SC, Brasil.

4Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis-SC, Brasil.

5Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis-SC, Brasil.

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze pedagogical actions for school Physical Education qualification documented by the Regional Education Board [Diretoria Regional de Educação] - DIREC 06, Ilhéus (Bahia) -, from 2008 to 2011, namely pedagogical meetings, continuing education courses and school games. The descriptive study comprehended analysis of DIREC 06’ legal documents on educational and sports policies, including continuing education reports, pedagogical meetings and the School Games of Bahia’s Public Network. The documental sources were analyzed by the content analysis technique. There is evidence that pedagogical actions helped pedagogical coordinators to promote the development of the area by means of the School Games, decentralization of resources for acquisition of didactical sports material, distribution of book kits related to the field, and conduction of regular meetings. In addition to providing teachers with the opportunity to analyze their pedagogical practice, the search for new pieces of knowledge and the improvement of teaching quality enabled the perception of deficits in relation to training, to professional devaluation issues and to training needs. Teacher qualification through the actions developed comprised the expansion of theoretical repertoire, diversification of contents, as well as engagement of the state school community with sports, a representative social phenomenon in the Brazilian reality.

Keywords: Continuing Education; Physical Education; Teachers

RESUMO

O estudo teve como objetivo analisar as ações pedagógicas, para a qualificação da Educação Física escolar, documentadas pela Diretoria Regional de Educação - DIREC 06 Ilhéus (Bahia), no período de 2008 a 2011, nomeadamente as reuniões pedagógicas, os cursos de formação continuada e os jogos escolares. O estudo descritivo contemplou a análise de documentos legais da DIREC 06, sobre as políticas educacionais e esportivas, dentre eles relatórios de formação continuada, reuniões pedagógicas e Jogos Escolares da Rede Pública da Bahia. As fontes documentais foram analisadas pela técnica de análise de conteúdo. As evidências indicam que as ações pedagógicas serviram para que os coordenadores pedagógicos pudessem promover o desenvolvimento da área, nomeadamente a realização dos Jogos Escolares, a descentralização de recursos para aquisição de materiais didáticos esportivos, a distribuição de kits de livros da área e a realização de reuniões periódicas. Além de proporcionarem aos professores a oportunidade de analisar a sua prática pedagógica, a busca por novos conhecimentos e a melhoria da qualidade do ensino, viabilizou a percepção das carências em relação à formação, aos problemas de desvalorização profissional e às necessidades formativas. A qualificação docente proveniente das ações desenvolvidas compreendeu a ampliação do repertorio teórico, a diversificação dos conteúdos e o envolvimento da comunidade escolar estadual, movimentada por meio do esporte, fenômeno social representativo na realidade brasileira.

Palavras-chave: Educação continuada; Educação Física; Docente

Introduction

Physical Education studies centered on continuing education of teachers seek to comprehend pedagogical practice changes in the course of their career1, the contribution of continuing education for those teaching students with disabilities2, as well as programs and participation in refresher courses3. Besides, document-based theoretical studies in the dimension of continuing education and the multiculturalism in pedagogical teaching practice4) that outline specific programs in the school5 demarcate different possibilities to investigate Physical Education teachers and the interface with continuing education, considering that educational challenges create a scenario that places the matter of continuing education of teachers directly under investigative spotlights6.

In this scenario, Asian, European and American countries, including Brazil, have sought to implement policies aimed at improving teacher training7. When it comes to Brazil, continuing education has been predominantly taken on by state and municipal education systems, which are in charge of maintaining basic education networks. However, the continental dimension of the country and its distribution in states and cities with political autonomy as to education make these formative policies a hard task8. In this case, continuing education policies are oftentimes instituted and oriented from top to bottom, away from school entities and disregarding the real context of schools, in addition to the needs and interests of teachers9.

From this perspective, continuing education for teachers are being implemented at state and municipal education secretariats in order to promote the socialization of teachers. However, different strategies are systematized by education managers, ranging from long-term courses, lectures, lato sensu graduate courses, to study groups among teachers. Lato sensu graduate programs, for instance, have been one of the most recurrent actions when it comes to continuing education for teachers10. On the other hand, it is worth noting that, in the Brazilian context, education systems focus on objectives related to the school environment or to the didactical and pedagogical dimensions of teaching, in general, providing training activities for specific fields of knowledge, especially in the case of Physical Education9.

Considerations about the overcoming of pedagogical and structural problems built up over the years as to the formation of a school Physical Education identity in Brazil10 and, especially, in the state of Bahia, triggered the implementation of proposals to qualify teachers and respective components of school Physical Education. Thus, since 2008, the state’s Education Secretariat has been promoting institutional pedagogical actions by means of Physical Education and Sports coordinations implemented at each Regional Education Board [Diretoria Regional de Educação] (DIREC).

These pedagogical actions have helped pedagogical coordinators from each DIREC to develop the area with the School Games, decentralization of resources for schools to purchase sports didactical material, distribution of book kits about the field to schools, and conduction of regular meetings to discuss Physical Education issues. The overcoming of some pedagogical and structural dilemmas of Physical Education requires the construction and elaboration of institutional actions in line with the longings and goals of education institutions and the school community.

Nonetheless, one should be aware that research around the continuing education of teachers is still incipient, because, despite the broad range of training options, there is still little reliable and verified information that might provide an overview of its possible impact on education improvement6. Thus, challenges are posed in the research process involving the continuing education of teachers, especially in Physical Education11.Therefore, this article aimed to analyze pedagogical actions towards the qualification of school Physical Education, all documented by the DIREC 06 Ilhéus (Bahia) from 2008 to 2011, namely pedagogical meetings, continuing education courses and school games.

This study is justified by an interest in socializing institutional pedagogical actions developed by the DIREC 06, in the sense of valuing and discussing the possibilities of school Physical Education beyond sports, searching for reflections about the pedagogical practice of teachers. The pedagogical actions were created, systematized and put forward from 2008 to 2011, when the DIREC proposed a set of formative proposals to legitimate school Physical Education. This historical period becomes important for being a moment of decision-making and implementation of the elaborated proposal, constituting a milestone for the current policy on pedagogical actions instituted in the state of Bahia.

Methods

The descriptive study, with qualitative approach, comprised the analysis of Bahia’s DIREC 06 legal documents on educational and sports policies for professional qualification of Physical Education teachers concerning continuing education, pedagogical meetings and the School Games of Bahia’s Public Network [Jogo’s Escolares da Rede Pública da Bahia], JERP, which took place from 2008 to 2011.

The documental analysis was carried out by means of documents characterized as primary sources, that is, those that did not receive statistical treatment12. The documental sources that supported the study were reports made available by the DIREC 06, manually prepared, which allowed the analysis of actions performed by the coordination during pedagogical meetings, seminars, get-togethers, study groups and the JERP, specifying mediations, objectives, period for activities, target audience, methodologies and discussions.

Data analysis complied with all ethical orientations through the consent and authorization of the DIREC 06, as well as educational managers’ permission for the investigation of documental sources. Data were collected from 2012 to 2014, and, due to the volume of documents and information to be analyzed, were organized and systematized in 2015 and 2016.

Data analysis resorted to software Nvivo 9.2, which allowed the categorization of qualitative data. In this process, data were analyzed by means of content analysis13. The content analysis technique is a set of techniques for collected information (message contents and indicators that allow one to infer about knowledge relating to the conditions of production/reception of these messages) and was organized in three phases:

  • Pre-analysis (data organization phase): surveying, selection and skimming of documental sources;

  • Material exploration (data coding, counting and classification: association of information with times analyzed and with the organization of pedagogical actions, and elaboration of categories of analysis;

  • Data treatment (inference and interpretation to make data valid and significant): document analysis based on times and categories listed.

Finally, it is worth noting that Software Qualitative Solutions Research NVIVO, version 10, is a program intended to help in the qualitative and quantitative data analysis, with the main function of text coding and storage of specific categories14.

Results and Discussion

The implementation of continuing education programs tends to contribute to the transformation process of teachers’ pedagogical practice and to institute new educational practices. In addition to expanding the discussion about current themes in an attempt to solve everyday problems, it seeks to instrumentalize and make education secretariats more dynamic in order to guarantee the quality of education and the fulfillment of legal rights in force.

In order to move forward with pedagogical matters inherent in education administration, the DIREC 06, from 2008 to 2011, in accordance with legal devices and considering different attempts aiming at strengthening Physical Education in schools, developed pedagogical meetings (pedagogical and administrative), continuing education courses and school games in the state of Bahia, which were registered in the Board’s own documents in the form of projects and annual reports that have recorded, qualitatively and quantitively, the actions developed.

Data registered in 2008-2011 reports revealed the conduction of 10 pedagogical meetings per year, with participation of around 38 teachers, totaling 53 registered in the network. According to these records, the get-togethers or pedagogical meetings, which took place once a month, with a pre-set schedule, constituted spaces for discussion, planning and formation of a group interested in overcoming the problems of school Physical Education. Such pieces of information corroborate with the recognition that teachers need to be prepared for a collaborative practice and to feel part of the school. However, it is not enough to massify continuing education, but also, through the quality it provides, to enable the creation of mechanisms that value a teacher’s work7. In this context, continuing education actions for teachers are an aspect of paramount importance to improve teaching and work in public schools, as well as the provision of high-quality educational services15.

In this sense, it is worth highlighting that collective teaching work in schools consists of integrating the activities of teachers, direction board and pedagogical staff in order to improve students’ learning by means of actions aimed at overcoming barriers teachers encounter, in this case, in school Physical Education16. This scenario transcends mere educational proposals, as it allows dialogue and the transparency of affirmative political actions for Physical Education. Thus, this movement becomes important in reflections about professionals of this field by taking into account the outstanding position, the importance and the relevance of Physical Education classes for society17, but it reveals the detachment of teachers in discussions resulting from class councils or other pedagogical meetings that are imperative for the smooth operation of the school. The dialogue between coworkers contributes to breaking with the isolation of teachers, and this interaction can motivate these professionals to qualify their pedagogical actions18.

The documents analyzed allowed the comprehension that the intermediation of articulators, the mediation of subsidizes of the Physical Education and School Sports Coordination of Bahia’s SEC and pedagogical meetings have turned into collective and decisive moments when it comes school Physical Education and sports matters. The analysis of meeting reports revealed that said meetings have triggered valuation processes towards the subject, inserting specialized teachers and the curricular component into the school context. According to the records, teachers at meetings presented their innovative ideas to motivate classes, socializing their experiences with peers. However, the meetings were not restricted to the socialization of didactical experiences only, but to debates about improvements in the physical and material structure of schools, wage devaluation and the training workload that is incompatible with the time necessary to combine studies and training. Thus, the demands of professional activities performed by teachers in the school context require a continuing education with a strong commitment with the expectations of the school reality6, encouraging a consistent change in the pedagogical practice entailed in the objectives set by formative proposals.

In this scenario, Anacleto et al.9 reflect that training modalities offered should develop considering specific concepts, objectives and purposes, which depend on aspects of social, political and financial order, for being characterized as a search initiative by teachers and reflecting their view of both the educational process and the teaching job. Moreover, the main functions of continuing education systems should provide teachers with professional training, recycling and development, promote adaptation to teaching activities according to social and economic changes, and introduce innovative educational technologies15.

In this way, it is believed that the proposal coming from educational sectors should be collective and aggregate everyone, so that the voices are translated into actions that actually articulate what is real and what is factual, that is, so there can be transformations in the pedagogical practice of teachers involved. Effectively, as a documented pedagogical action, the SEC implemented a continuing education course for Physical Education teachers in Basic Education, with a workload of 120 hours and the first module made up of 40 on-site hours, approaching basic contents for pedagogical praxis; the second module, with 40 hours as well and supported by theoretical knowledge, was dedicated to the application of projects at school units; the third module, with 40 on-site hours too, was the moment when the teachers exposed their experiences, reporting results achieved with practice.

Nationwide, the Brazilian Ministry of Education [Ministerium da Educação] (MEC) proposes continuing education programs to meet education demands in states and cities and to fulfill the National Educational Bases and Guidelines Law, which sets forth that it is the role of public agencies to provide continuing education19. The programs provided include the ‘National Network for Continuing education of Teachers’, whose objective is to contribute to improving the education of teachers and students, with the priority target audience being basic education teachers from education public systems20.

The proposals analyzed state that one of the goals of the SEC was to contribute to studies and planning of Physical Education classes. Thus, with the available financial resources, investments on book kits were made, which intended to provide teachers with a contact with the updated literature and with themes related to school Physical Education. The documented records bring the information that, in the beginning of the 2011 academic year, the Physical Education coordination gathered 56 directors, vice-directors and pedagogical coordinators from the School Units in order to hand out this material. Continuing education actions, besides involving the teachers of the school, should be based on collective ideas and have pedagogical coordinators as interlocutors, becoming privileged measures, as they are the intermediating subjects among teachers with their reflections about practice, those responsible for turning actions to the school routine21.

The meetings of teachers participating in the training offered by the DIREC 06, besides being administrative, have become a space for discussion of texts and articulation of materials received, in a way that these references were aggregated to others in the sense of making proposals in the school context more dynamic. Furthermore, a partnership between DIREC’s Physical Education and Sports Coordination and the State University of Santa Cruz (UESC-Ilhéus/BA) led to cycles of lectures and debates, courses, pedagogical journeys and seminars, totaling 22 formative actions from 2008 to 2011 (Figure 1). In this case, continuing education activities involving courses, workshops, self-directed studies, online activities, in-service training at the workplace, along with offers in universities, are characterized as a set of measures created to keep professionals up to date22.

The authors

Figure 1 Pedagogical Actions of DIREC’s Physical Education and Sports Coordination - 2008 to 2011 

In this context, although in-service continuing education initiatives are largely taken on by the public power, they should involve a variety of partnerships8. In this case, the university, in collaboration with states and cities, is a fundamental institution in the execution of actions as to both initial and continuing education for teachers7. In addition, a proposal such as the one implemented by the DIREC and the UESC reinforces the importance of partnerships between education secretariats, whether state or municipal, and universities, seeking to promote continuing education policies supported by collaborative relations that take into account the needs, regional demands and interests of teachers23.

It is shown in the proposals registered that the actions developed by the DIREC in partnership with the university aimed to contribute to the education of reflexive teachers capable of connecting theory and practice, being critical and inquisitive, in order to perceive transformations mediated in the school. It is also worth stressing that the profile of a professional with so many prerogatives is a necessity in the school sphere, which reveals the lack of education institutions, in this aspect. Although these actions are present in many Brazilian cities, professional qualification should be driven by several sectors, both public and private (university, Non-Governmental Organizations - ONGS -, study centers…).

Considering that federal, state and municipal agencies are responsible for organizing and promoting public policies, continuing education oftentimes depends on the initiatives of these agencies, and it is almost always in those states and cities with better financial conditions that the frequency and effectiveness of training proposals offered are more relevant to the needs and interests of teachers7. The objective of these actions is to face public problems by means of political decisions on the construction and execution of these actions, seeking resolutions that are collectively relevant24. Thus, the continuing education process cannot be understood only as a “[…] scientific, pedagogical and cultural update for the teacher, but the discovery of the theory to organize it, found it, revisit it and fight it, if needed”25):72.

A milestone in the region’s school Physical Education, according to the records, was the implementation of the Specialization Course on Physical Education and School Sports Methodology, held by the UESC in partnership with the SEC, the DIREC 06 and the Anísio Teixeira Institute, which had the participation of 30 teachers from the state network in the first class, and 15 teachers from other basic education institutions, class of 2011-2012. The course aimed to contribute to the continuing education of teachers from the state network, articulating Physical Education and the current demands of Basic Education26. Currently, Resolution CNE/CES No 02/201526, which approved the new National Curricular Guidelines for initial training in higher education, highlights that Higher Education Institutions should provide continuing education possibilities by means of refresher, extension and graduate courses that promote new types of knowledge and practices articulated with public policies, teachers’ practice spaces and Basic Education teaching institutions26.

Besides the acquisition and development of capabilities in work situation, continuing education also targets the promotion of educational innovations. For the consolidation of the process, teachers need a certain organization in the school context, which comprehends personal, professional and organizational matters. Personal matters correspond to self-development and acquisition of status in society, whereas the professional context has to do with career progression, professional satisfaction, curriculum valuation and the feeling of belonging to the professional group. Finally, the organizational matter seeks the adequacy of social, economic and technological changes of the world the teacher will have to understand to teach27. Thus, with the aid of resources, specializations, conferences, seminars and other mechanisms, one should seek personal and professional growth28),(29.

In this context, continuing education processes for Physical Education teachers should consider the different reasons that lead the latter to choose and invest on refresher or lato sensu graduate courses. These choices relate to personal and professional needs of teachers, who seek to expand their knowledge, invest on their profession, overcome difficulties in areas they do not master, with a desire to complement their initial training, breaking with routine and exchanging experience with peers9. Moreover, it is worth pointing out that teachers need to be constantly up to date about teaching strategies, methods and techniques, as well as evaluation and communication, so they can keep up with all advances in education and the characteristics of children and adolescents30.

Finally, the records in the documents show that, in 2008, the JERP started with the pedagogical goal of enabling the participation and integration of students in school sports, awakening values such as respect, cooperation and inclusion, and articulating the socialization of body diversity with the valuation of corporeity, playfulness, sports and human movement. The JERP sought to involve teachers and directors in planning and execution decisions; those were the objectives set by the organizing team, according to the documents analyzed. A summary of the pedagogical actions of SEC’s Physical Education and Sports coordination, 2008-2010, can ben see in Figure 2.

The authors

Figure 2 Pedagogical actions of the Physical Education and Sports Coordination of the State Education Secretariat - 2008 to 2010 

This scenario evidences that school sports seek to introduce and integrate students into the bodily culture of movement, to form citizens that will enjoy, share, produce, reproduce, transform, and should be aligned with the pedagogical proposal of the school31. School sports contribute to human formation, supported by the principles of inclusion, socialization and contextualization of reality, as a set of bodily domains of learning turned to interactions with the other, seeking the enrichment of lived and acquired experiences. In this context, they can be thought of pedagogically and present alternatives that structure learning, so the latter is meaningful in the life of students, allowing for experiences that enrichen their existence as human beings32),(33.

The records on efforts to define the guidelines for Elementary Education (1994) and the curricular orientations for High School34 targeted the overcoming of the ‘degrading’ situation of school Physical Education in the state of Bahia, for the lack of a basic curricular reference, with the start, in 1994, of the construction process of a Physical Education curriculum in the state network. In this sense, the documents highlight the video conference entitled ‘Seminar - Subsidizes for the 2012 planning - Physical Education Curricular Framework and the JERP’ as a means to promote knowledge about productions and referrals carried out in the curricular frameworks for Physical Education, expanding the exhibition and participation of teachers in different regions of the state of Bahia.

Regarding the expansion of possibilities of teacher participation, there is a growing interest in online teaching, since it allows participants to adjust their own available time without having to commute to a physical place, or can happen on weekends, when people have more free time, making this distance possibility increasingly valued in the educational context6. In this case, actions such as video conferences aim to value collaborative studies and study possibilities in which participants stay in their workplace, decreasing one’s difficulties in keeping a continuous study routine in the teachers’ everyday practice35.

The analysis of data made available for this study showed the inter-relation between Ilhéus’s DIREC 06 and Universities in the region, a fact that integrates the return of teachers to the university, and the university reaching the places where education happens. This relationship is being gradually built with the exchange of experiences between these two sectors, in which the school provides the laboratory for the practices of future teachers, and the university shares researches and scientific knowledge, coming closer to basic education36. Broadly speaking, the evidence found in the documents analyzed reflect that the pedagogical actions driven by the DIREC 06 are providing teachers from Bahia’s education networks the opportunity to analyze their pedagogical practice, allowing them to realize their deficits in relation to training, professional valuation and need to move forward, favoring the search for new types of knowledge and a better teaching quality.

Conclusion

The limitations of this study are centered on the period of investigation, which comprehended the years 2008 to 2011, a moment that propelled the implementation of a bolder proposal for teacher training in the state of Bahia, impacting pedagogical actions developed by teachers in Basic Education schools. Another limitation lies in the research design, supported exclusively on the analysis of documents provided by the DIREC 06.

The prerogative of systematized pedagogical actions for the quality of education and teaching promoted by educational managers subsidizes the fulfillment of the legislation and the expansion of possibilities to renew the pedagogical practice of teachers, as well as to resize affirmative educational policies. Bahia’s SEC, specifically, and the DIREC 06, articulated with higher education institutions have been seeking to overcome challenges and meet the demand of teachers. In the specificity of pedagogical actions developed by the SEC from 2008 to 2011, there was highlight to the strengthening of school Physical Education, its outcomes and the educational interface.

An aspect to underline is that the teacher qualification resulting from the actions developed comprises the expansion of the theoretical repertoire of teachers and the engagement of the state school community, driven by means of sports, a representative social phenomenon in the Brazilian reality. Besides these aspects, the diversification of school contents aimed to introduce in classes and in Physical Education planning contents such as fights, surf, skateboarding, beach volleyball and capoeira.

Finally, investments made by the SEC/BA on strengthening physical Education and on school sports are bringing positive results, involving, each day, more professionals longing to write new chapters of this story. In conclusion, school Physical Education has managed to overcome some historical ‘barriers’ through pedagogical actions that could strengthen the group’s feeling of belonging to the field of practice.

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Received: June 18, 2017; Revised: May 08, 2018; Accepted: June 26, 2018

Author address: Cristiano de Sant’ anna Bahia. Avenida Lomanto Júnior 618, Bairro Pontal, Ilhéus-,BA, CEP [Postal code] 45654-000. E-mail: csbahia1@gmail.com

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