SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

AVELLEIRA, João Carlos Regazzi  and  BOTTINO, Giuliana. Sífilis: diagnóstico, tratamento e controle. An. Bras. Dermatol. [online]. 2006, vol.81, n.2, pp. 111-126. ISSN 1806-4841.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0365-05962006000200002.

    1. Rivitti EA. Sífilis. In: Machado-Pinto J. Doenças infecciosas com manifestações dermatológicas. Rio de Janeiro: Medsi; 1994. [ Links ]

    2. Goh BT. Syphilis in adult. Sex Transm Infect. 2005;81:448-52. [ Links ]

    3. Hopkins S, Lyons F, Coleman C, Courtney G, Bergin C, Mulcahy F. Resurgence in infectious syphilis in Ireland: an epidemiological study. Sex Transm Dis. 2004;31:317-21. [ Links ]

    4. Marcus U, Kollan C, Bremer V, Hamouda O. Relation between the HIV and the re-emerging syphilis epidemic among MSM in Germany: an analisis based on anonymous surveillance data. Sex Transm Dis. 2005;81:456-7. [ Links ]

    5. Dilley JW, Klausner JD, McFarland W, Kellogg TA, Kohn R, Wong W, et al. Trends in primary and secondary syphilis and HIV infections in men who have sex with men San Francisco and Los Angeles, California. 1998-2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004,53:575-8. [ Links ]

    6. Buchacz K, Greenberg A, Onorato I, Janssen R. Syphilis epidemics and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence among men who have sex with men in the United States: implications for HIV prevention. Sex Transm Dis. 2005;32(10 Suppl):S73-9. [ Links ]

    7. Wong ML, Chan RKW, Chua WL, Wee S. Sexually transmitted diseases and condoms use among female freelance and brothel-based sex workers in Singapore. Sex Transm Dis. 1999;26:593-600. [ Links ]

    8. Mgnone CS, Passey ME, Anang J, Peter W, Lupiwa T, Russell DM, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted diseases in two major cities in Papua New Guinea. Sex Transm Dis. 2002;29:265-70. [ Links ]

    9. Centers for disease control and prevention (CDC). Sexually transmitted disease surveillance 2004. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention; 2005. [ Links ]

    10. Temmerman M, Gichangi P, Fonck K, Apers L, Claeys P, Van Renterghem L, et al. Effect of a syphilis control programme on pregnancy outcome in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex Transm Infect. 2000;76:207-11. [ Links ]

    11. Azeze B, Fantahun M, Kidan KG, Haile T. Seroprevalence of syphilis amongst pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in a rural hospital in north west Ethiopia. Genitourin Med. 1995;71:347-50. [ Links ]

    12. Leroy V, De Clercq A, Ladner J, Bogaerts J, Van de Perre P, Dabis F. Should screening of genital infection be part of antenatal care in areas of high HIV prevalence? A prospective cohort study from Kigali, Rwanda, 1992-1993. Genitourin Med. 1995;71:207-11. [ Links ]

    13. Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Diretrizes de Controle da Sífilis Congênita. Brasília (DF): Ministério da Saúde; 2005. p. 7-53. [ Links ]

    14. Codes JS, Cohen DA, Melo NA, Teixeira GG, Leal Ados S, Silva Tde J, et al. Screening of sexually transmitted diseases in clinical and non-clinical settings in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Cad Saude Publica. 2006;22:325-34. [ Links ]

    15. Szwarcwald CL, de Carvalho MF, Barbosa Junior A, Barreira D, Speranza FA, de Castilho EA. Temporal trends of HIV-related risk behavior among Brazilian military conscripts. Clinics. 2005;60:367-74. [ Links ]

    16. Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Manual de Controle das Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis. 3. ed. Brasília (DF): Ministério da Saúde; 1999. p. 44-54. [ Links ]

    17. Miranda AE, Alves MC, Neto RL, Areal KR, Gerbase AC. Seroprevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus, and syphilis in womens at their first visit to public antenatal clinics in Vitoria, Brazil. Sex Transm Dis. 2001;28:710-3. [ Links ]

    18. Singh AE, Romanowski B. Syphilis: review with emphasis on clinical,epidemiologic and some biologic features. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1999;12:187-209. [ Links ]

    19. Azulay MM, Azulay DR. Treponematoses. In: Azulay e Azulay. Dermatologia. 3.ed. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan; 2004. p. 240-51. [ Links ]

    20. Sanchez MR. Syphilis. In: Fitzpatricks Dermalotogy in general medicine. 6. ed. USA: McGraw Hill; 2003. p. 2163-88 [ Links ]

    21. Rivitti EA. Sífilis Adquirida. In: Walter Belda Júnior. Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis. São Paulo: Atheneu; 1999. p. 9-21. [ Links ]

    22. Garnett GP, Aral SO, Hoyle DV, Cates W Jr, Anderson RM. The natural history of syphilis. Implications for the transmission dynamics and control of infection. Sex Transm Dis. 1997;24:185-200. [ Links ]

    23. Sampaio SAP, Rivitti EA. Sífilis e outras Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis. In: Dermatologia. 2. ed. São Paulo: Artes Médicas; 2001. p. 489-500. [ Links ]

    24. Gjestland T. The Oslo of untreated syphilis: an epidemiological investigation of the natural course of the syphilitic infection based upon a re-study of the Boeck-Bruusgaard material. Acta Derm Venereol. 1955;35(Suppl 34):S3-368. [ Links ]

    25. Rockwell DH, Yobs AR, Moore MB Jr. The Tuskegee study of untreated syphilis; the 30th year of observation. Arch Intern Med. 1964;114:792-8. [ Links ]

    26. O Regan AW, Castro C, Lukehart SA, Kasznica JM, Rice PA, Joyce-Brady MF. Barking up the wrong tree? Use of polymerase chain reaction to diagnose syphilic aortitis. Thorax. 2002;57:917-8. [ Links ]

    27. Nitrini R, Souza MC. Neurossífilis. In: Walter Belda Júnior. Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis. São Paulo: Atheneu; 1999. p. 31-44. [ Links ]

    29. Wasserheit JN. Epidemiological synergy: interrelationships between human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. Sex Trans Dis. 1992;19:6177. [ Links ]

    30. Blocker ME, Levine WC, Stlouis ME. HIV prevalence in patients with syphilis. Sex Transm Dis. 2000;27:53-9. [ Links ]

    31. Rompalo AM, Joesoef MR, ODonnell JA, Augenbraun M, Brady W, Radolf JD, et al. Clinical manifestation of early by HIV status and gender: results of the syphilis and HIV study. Sex Transm Dis. 2001;28:158-65.
    [ Links ]

    32. Hutchinson CM, Hook EW, Shepard M, Verley J, Rompalo AM. Altered clinical presentation of early syphilis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ann Intern Med. 1994;121:94-100. [ Links ]

    33. Proença NG, Freitas THP, Gagliardi R, Alonso FF. Aspectos incomuns da sífilis em pacientes com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida. An Bras Dermatol. 1991;66:5-6. [ Links ]

    34. Romero-Gimenez MJ, Suarez Lozano I, Fajardo Pico JM, Baron Franco B. Malignant syphilis in patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): case report and literature review. An Med Interna. 2003;20:373-6. [ Links ]

    35. Criado PR, Segurado AC, Valente NYS, Sotto M, Juang JM. Sífilis secundária pustulosa em paciente HIV positivo: relato de caso. An Bras Dermatol.1996;71:217-21. [ Links ]

    36. Laskaris G. Oral manifestations of HIV disease. Clin Dermatol. 2000;18:447-55. [ Links ]

    37. Schofer H, Imhof M, Thoma-Greber E, Brockmeyer NH, Hartmann M, Gerken G, et al. Active syphilis in HIV infection: a multicentre retrospective survey. The German AIDS Study Group(GASS). Genitourin Med. 1996;72:176-81. [ Links ]

    38. Palmer HM, Higgins SP, Herring AJ, Kingston MA. Use of PCR in the diagnosis of early syphilis in the United Kingdom. Sex Transm Infect. 2003;79:479-83. [ Links ]

    39. Young H. Guidelines for serological testing for syphilis. Sex Transm Infect. 2000;76:403-5. [ Links ]

    40. Rotta O. Diagnóstico sorológico da sífilis. An Bras Dermatol. 2005;80:299-302. [ Links ]

    41. Larsen SA, Steiner BM, Rudolph AH. Laboratory, diagnosis and interpretation of tests of syphilis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1995;8:1-21. [ Links ]

    42. Sato T, Kubo E, Yokota M, Kayashima T, Tomizawa T. Treponema pallidum specific IgM haemagglutination test for serodiagnosis of syphilis. Br J Vener Dis. 1984;60:364-70. [ Links ]

    43. Ebel A, Bachelart L, Alonso JM. Evaluation of a New Competitive Immunoassay (BioElisa Syphilis) for Screening for Treponema pallidum Antibodies at Various Stages of Syphilis. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36: 358-61. [ Links ]

    44. Woznicova V, Votava M. Contradictory results of passive hemagglutination and immunoenzyme tests in the determination of specific immunoglobulin G in serodiagnosis of lues. Cas Lek Cesk. 2002;141:152-5. [ Links ]

    45. Castro R, Prieto ES, Santo I, Azevedo J, Exposto Fda L. Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay technique for detection of antibodies against Treponema pallidum. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:250-3. [ Links ]

    46. Sato NS, Suzuki T, Ueda T, Watanabe K, Hirata RD, Hirata MH. Recombinant antigen-based immuno-slot blot method for serodiagnosis of syphilis. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2004;37:949-55. [ Links ]

    47. Burstain JM, Grimpel E, Lukehart SA, Norgard MV, Radolf JD. Sensitive detection of Treponema pallidum by using the polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol. 1991;29:62-9. [ Links ]

    48. Wicher K, Noordhoek GT, Abbruscato F, Wicher V. Detection of Treponema pallidum in early syphilis by DNA amplification. J Clin Microbiol. 1992;30:497-500. [ Links ]

    49. Centurion-Lara A, Castro C, Shaffer JM, Van Voorhis WC, Marra CM, Lukehart SA. Detection of Treponema pallidum by a sensitive reverse transcriptase PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:1348-52. [ Links ]

    50. Orton SL, Liu H, Dodd RY, Williams AE, ARCNET Epidemiology Group. Prevalence of circulating Treponema pallidum DNA and RNA in blood donors with confirmed-positive syphilis tests. Transfusion. 2002;42:94-9. [ Links ]

    51. Sato NS, de Melo CS, Zerbini LC, Silveira EP, Fagundes LJ, Ueda M. Assessment of the rapid test based on an immunochromatography technique for detecting anti- Treponema pallidum antibodies. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2003;45:319-22. [ Links ]

    52. Diaz T, Almeida MG, Georg I, Maia SC, De Souza RV, Markowitz LE. Evaluation of determine rapid syphilis TP assay using sera. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004;11:98-101. [ Links ]

    53. Montoya PJ, Lukehart SA, Brentlinger PE, Blanco AJ, Floriano F, Sairosse J. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid immunochromatographic test and rapid plasma reagin test for antenatal syphilis screening in Mozambique. Bull World Heath Organ. 2006;84:97-104. [ Links ]

    54. Zarakolu P, Buchanan I, Tam M, Smith K, Hook EW 3rd. Preliminary evaluation of an immunochromatographic strip test for specific Treponema pallidum antibodies. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:3064-5. [ Links ]

    55. Siedner M, Zapitz V, Ishida M, De La Roca R, Klausner JD. Performance of rapid syphilis test in venous and fingerstick whole blood specimens. Sex Transm Dis. 2004;31:557-60. [ Links ]

    56. Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC). Sexually transmitted disease. Treatment guideline 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002;51 RR-6. [ Links ]

    57. Maya TC, Maceira JP. Sífilis. In: Dermatopatologia bases para o diagnóstico morfológico. São Paulo:Roca; 2001. p.101-2. [ Links ]

    58. Sanchez PJ, Wendel GD. Syphilis and pregnancy. Clin Perinatol. 1997;24:71-90. [ Links ]

    59. Mascola L, Pelosi R, Alexander CE. Inadequate treatment of syphilis in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1984; 150:9457. [ Links ]

    60. Mitchell SJ, Engelman J, Kent CK, Lukehart SA, Godornes C, Klausner JD. Azithromycin-resistant syphilis infection: San Francisco, California, 2000-2004. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:337-45. [ Links ]

    61. Lukehart SA, Godornes C, Molini BJ, Sonnett P, Hopkins S, Mulcahy F. Macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum in the United States and Ireland. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:154-1588. [ Links ]

    62. Riedner G, Rusizoka M, Todd J, Maboko L, Hoelscher M, Mmbando D. Single-dose azithromycin versus penicillin G benzathine for the treatment of early syphilis. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:1236-44. [ Links ]

    63. Vaughan C, Cronin CC, Walsh EK, Whelton M. The Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction in leptospirosis. Postgrad Med J. 1994;70:118-21. [ Links ]

    64. Maloy AL, Black RD, Segurola RJ. Lyme disease complicated by Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. J Emerg Med. 1998;16:437-8. [ Links ]

    65. Webster G, Schiffman JD, Dosanjh AS, Amieva MR, Gans HA, Sectish TC. Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction associated with ciprofloxacina administration for tick-borne relapsing fever. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21:571-3. [ Links ]

    66. Guggenhein JN, Haverkamp AD. Tick-borne relapsing fever during pregnancy: a case report. J Reprod Med. 2005;50:727-9. [ Links ]

    67. Klein VR, Cox SM, Mitchell MD, Wendel GD Jr. The Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction complicating syphilotherapy in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1990;75(3 pt1):375-80. [ Links ]

    68. Rompalo AM. Can syphilis be erradicated from the world? Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2001;14: 41-4. [ Links ]