SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

ZILBOVICIUS, Mônica; MERESSE, Isabelle  and  BODDAERT, Nathalie. Autismo: neuroimagem. Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr. [online]. 2006, vol.28, suppl.1, pp. s21-s28. ISSN 1516-4446.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-44462006000500004.

    1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. DSM-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 1994. [ Links ]

    2. Kanner L. Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nerv Child. 1943;2:217-50(Acta Paedopsychiatr. 1968;35(4):100-36) [ Links ]

    3. Gillberg C, Coleman M. The biology of autistic syndromes. London, UK: McKeith Press; 2000. p. 4-38. [ Links ]

    4. Gillberg C, Coleman M. Autism and medical disorders: a review of the literature. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1996;38(3):191-202. [ Links ]

    5. Fombonne E. The epidemiology of autism: a review. Psychol Med. 1999;29(4):769-86. [ Links ]

    6. Fombonne E. Epidemiological trends in rates of autism. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7(Suppl2):S4-6. [ Links ]

    7. Fombonne E. The prevalence of autism. JAMA. 2003;289(1):87-9. [ Links ]

    8. Frith Uta. Autism explaining the enigma; 2nd ed.Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers; 2005. [ Links ]

    9. Rapin I, Katzman R. Neurobiology of autism. Ann Neurol. 1998;43(1):7-14. [ Links ]

    10. Cody H, Pelphrey K, Piven J. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging of autism. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2002;20(3-5):421-38. [ Links ]

    11. Courchesne E, Karns CM, Davis HR, Ziccardi R, Carper RA, Tigue ZD, Chisum HJ, Moses P, Pierce K, Lord C, Lincoln AJ, Pizzo S, Schreibman L, Haas RH, Akshoomoff NA, Courchesne RY. Unusual brain growth patterns in early life in patients with autistic disorder: an MRI study. Neurology. 2001;57(2):245-54. [ Links ]

    12. Piven J, Arndt S, Bailey J, Havercamp S, Andreasen NC, Palmer P. An MRI study of brain size in autism. Am J Psychiatry. 1995;152(8):1145-9. [ Links ]

    13. Piven J, Nehme E, Simon J, Barta P, Pearlson G, Folstein SE. Magnetic resonance imaging in autism: measurement of the cerebellum, pons, and fourth ventricle. Biol Psychiatry. 1992;31(5):491-504. [ Links ]

    14. Piven J, Arndt S, Bailey J, Andreasen N. Regional brain enlargement in autism: a magnetic resonance imaging study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1996;35(4):530-6. [ Links ]

    15. Sparks BF, Friedman SD, Shaw DW, Aylward EH, Echelard D, Artru AA, Maravilla KR, Giedd JN, Munson J, Dawson G, Dager SR. Brain structural abnormalities in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Neurology. 2002;59(2):184-92. [ Links ]

    16. Courchesne E, Yeung-Courchesne R, Press GA, Hesselink JR, Jernigan TL. Hypoplasia of cerebellar vermal lobules VI and VII in autism. N Engl J Med. 1988;318(21):1349-54. [ Links ]

    17. Piven J, Saliba K, Bailey J, Arndt S. An MRI study of autism: the cerebellum revisited. Neurology. 1997;49(2):546-51. [ Links ]

    18. Howard MA, Cowell PE, Boucher J, Broks P, Mayes A, Farrant A, Roberts N. Convergent neuroanatomical and behavioural evidence of an amygdala hypothesis of autism. Neuroreport. 2000;11(13):2931-5. [ Links ]

    19. Aylward EH, Minshew NJ, Goldstein G, Honeycutt NA, Augustine AM, Yates KO, Barta PE, Pearlson GD. MRI volumes of amygdala and hippocampus in non-mentally retarded autistic adolescents and adults. Neurology. 1999;53(9):2145-50. [ Links ]

    20. Haznedar MM, Buchsbaum MS, Wei TC, Hof PR, Cartwright C, Bienstock CA, Hollander E. Limbic circuitry in patients with autism spectrum disorders studied with positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157(12):1994-2001. [ Links ]

    21. Piven J, Bailey J, Ranson BJ, Arndt S. No difference in hippocampus volume detected on magnetic resonance imaging in autistic individuals. J Autism Dev Disord. 1998;28(2):105-10. Erratum in: J Autism Dev Disord. 1998;28(3):271. [ Links ]

    22. Saitoh O, Courchesne E, Egaas B, Lincoln AJ, Schreibman L. Cross-sectional area of the posterior hippocampus in autistic patients with cerebellar and corpus callosum abnormalities. Neurology. 1995;45(2):317-24. [ Links ]

    23. Egaas B, Courchesne E, Saitoh O. Reduced size of corpus callosum in autism. Arch Neurol. 1995;52(8):794-801. [ Links ]

    24. Manes F, Piven J, Vrancic D, Nanclares V, Plebst C, Starkstein SE. An MRI study of the corpus callosum and cerebellum in mentally retarded autistic individuals. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1999;11(4):470-4. [ Links ]

    25. Pierce K, Haist F, Sedaghat F, Courchesne E. The brain response to personally familiar faces in autism: findings of fusiform activity and beyond. Brain. 2004;127(Pt 12):2703-16. [ Links ]

    26. Levitt JG, Blanton RE, Smalley S, Thompson PM, Guthrie D, McCracken JT, Sadoun T, Heinichen L, Toga AW. Cortical sulcal maps in autism. Cereb Cortex. 2003;13(7):728-35. [ Links ]

    27. Ashburner J, Friston KJ. Voxel-based morphometry—the methods. Neuroimage. 2000;11(6Pt1):805-21. [ Links ]

    28. Abell F, Krams M, Ashburner J, Passingham R, Friston K, Frackowiak R, Happe F, Frith C, Frith U. The neuroanatomy of autism: a voxel-based whole brain analysis of structural scans. Neuroreport. 1999;10(8):1647-51. [ Links ]

    29. Boddaert N, Chabane N, Gervais H, Good CD, Bourgeois M, Plumet MH, Barthelemy C, Mouren MC, Artiges E, Samson Y, Brunelle F, Frackowiak RS, Zilbovicius M. Superior temporal sulcus anatomical abnormalities in childhood autism: a voxel-based morphometry MRI study. Neuroimage. 2004;23(1):364-9. [ Links ]

    30. Zilbovicius M, Boddaert N, Belin P, Poline JB, Remy P, Mangin JF, Thivard L, Barthelemy C, Samson Y. Temporal lobe dysfunction in childhood autism: a PET study. Positron emission tomography. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157(12):1988-93. [ Links ]

    31. Ohnishi T, Matsuda H, Hashimoto T, Kunihiro T, Nishikawa M, Uema T, Sasaki M. Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow in childhood autism. Brain. 2000;123(Pt 9):1838-44. [ Links ]

    32. Herold S, Frackowiak RS, Le Couter A, Rutter M, Howlin P. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism of oxygen and glucose in young autistic adults. Psychol Med. 1988;18(4):823-31. [ Links ]

    33. Horwitz B., Rumsey JM, Grady CL, Rapoport SI. The cerebral metabolic landscape in autism. Intercorrelations of regional glucose utilization. Arch Neurol. 1988;45(7):749-55. [ Links ]

    34. Rumsey JM, Duara R, Grady C, Rapoport JL, Margolin RA, Rapoport SI, Cutler NR. Brain metabolism in autism. Resting cerebral glucose utilization rates as measured with positron emission tomography. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1985;42(5):448-55. [ Links ]

    35. De Volder A, Bol A, Michel C, Congneau M, Goffinet AM. Brain glucose metabolism in children with the autistic syndrome: positron tomography analysis. Brain Dev. 1987;9(6):581-7. [ Links ]

    36. Zilbovicius M, Garreau B, Tzourio N, Mazoyer B, Bruck B, Martinot JL, Raynaud C, Samson Y, Syrota A, Lelord G. Regional cerebral blood flow in childhood autism: a SPECT study. Am J Psychiatry. 1992;149(7):924-30. [ Links ]

    37. Chiron C, Leboyer M, Leon F, Jambaque I, Nuttin C, Syrota A. SPECT of the brain in childhood autism: evidence for a lack of normal hemispheric asymmetry. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1995;37(10):849-60. [ Links ]

    38. Gillberg C, Bjure J, Vestersen E, Gillbreg C. SPECT in 31 children and adolescents with autism and autistic-like conditions. European Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1993;2:50-9. [ Links ]

    39. Mountz JM, Tolbert LC, Lill DW, Katholi CR, Liu HG. Functional deficits in autistic disorder: characterization by technetium-99m-HMPAO and SPECT. J Nucl Med. 1955;36(7):1156-62. [ Links ]

    40. Friston KJ. Statistical parametric maps in functional imaging: a general linear approach. Human Brain Mapping. 1955;2:189-210. [ Links ]

    41. Pandya DN, Yeterian EH. Architecture and connections of cortical association areas. In: Cerebral Cortex. Peters A, Jones EG, editors. New York, London: Plenum Press; 1985. p. 3-61. [ Links ]

    42. Gloor P. The temporal lobe and limbic system. New York: Oxford; 1997. [ Links ]

    43. Allison T, Puce A, McCarthy G. Social perception from visual cues: role of the STS region. Trends Cogn Sci. 2000;4(7):267-78. [ Links ]

    44. Blakemore SJ, Decety J. From the perception of action to the understanding of intention. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2001;2(8):561-7. [ Links ]

    45. Baron-Cohen S, Leslie AM, Frith U. Does the autistic child have a "theory of mind"? Cognition. 1985;21(1):37-46. [ Links ]

    46. Klin A, Jones W, Schultz R, Volkmar F. The enactive mind, or from actions to cognition: lessons from autism. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2003;358(1430):345-60. [ Links ]

    47. Rizzolatti G, Fogassi L, Gallese V. Neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the understanding and imitation of action. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2001;2(9):661-70. [ Links ]

    48. Belin P, Zatorre RJ, Lafaille P, Ahad P, Pike B. Voice-selective areas in human auditory cortex. Nature. 2000,403(6767):309-12. [ Links ]

    49. Rapin I. Autism. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(2):97-104. [ Links ]

    50. Chugani HT, Da Silva E, Chugani DC. Infantile spasms: III. Prognostic implications of bitemporal hypometabolism on positron emission tomography. Ann Neurol. 1996;39(5):643-9. [ Links ]

    51. Bolton PF, Griffiths PD. Association of tuberous sclerosis of temporal lobes with autism and atypical autism. Lancet. 1997;349(9049):392-5. [ Links ]

    52. Garreau B, Zilbovicius M, Guerin P, Samson Y, Syrota A, Lelord G. Effects of auditory stimulation on regional cerebral blood flow in autistic children. Dev Brain Dysfunction. 1994;7:119-28. [ Links ]

    53. Muller RA, Behen ME, Rothermel RD, Chugani DC, Muzik O, Mangner TJ, Chugani HT. Brain mapping of language and auditory perception in high-functioning autistic adults: a PET study. J Autism Dev Disord. 1999;29(1):19-31. [ Links ]

    54. Boddaert N, Belin P, Chabane N, Poline JB, Barthelemy C, Mouren-Simeoni MC, Brunelle F, Samson Y, Zilbovicius M. Perception of complex sounds: abnormal pattern of cortical activation in autism. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160(11):2057-60. [ Links ]

    55. Boddaert N, Chabane C, Belin P, Bourgeois M, Royer V, Barthelemy C, Mouren-Simeoni MC, Philippe A, Brunelle F, Samson Y, Zilbovicius M. Perception of complex sounds in autism: abnormal auditory cortical processing in children. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161(11):2117-20. [ Links ]

    56. Haxby JV, Hoffman EA, Gobbini MI. The distributed human neural system for face perception. Trends Cogn Sci. 2000;4(6):223-33. [ Links ]

    57. Kanwisher N, McDermott J, Chun MM. The fusiform face area: a module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face perception. J Neurosci. 1997;17(11):4302-11. [ Links ]

    58. Schultz RT, Gauthier I, Klin A, Fulbright RK, Anderson AW, Volkmar F, Skudlarski P, Lacadie C, Cohen DJ, Gore JC. Abnormal ventral temporal cortical activity during face discrimination among individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;57(4):331-40. [ Links ]

    59. Critchley HD, Daly EM, Bullmore ET, Williams SC, Van Amelsvoort T, Robertson DM, Rowe A, Phillips M, McAlonan G, Howlin P, Murphy DG. The functional neuroanatomy of social behaviour: changes in cerebral blood flow when people with autistic disorder process facial expressions. Brain. 2000;123(Pt11):2203-12. [ Links ]

    60. Pierce K, Muller RA, Ambrose J, Allen G, Courchesne E. Face processing occurs outside the fusiform 'face area' in autism: evidence from functional MRI. Brain. 2001;124(Pt 10):2059-73. [ Links ]

    61. Hall GB, Szechtman H, Nahmias C. Enhanced salience and emotion recognition in Autism: a PET study. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160(8):1439-41. [ Links ]

    62. Hubl D, Bolte S, Feineis-Matthews S, Lanfermann H, Federspiel A, Strik W, Poustka F, Dierks T. Functional imbalance of visual pathways indicates alternative face processing strategies in autism. Neurology. 2003;61(9):1232-7. [ Links ]

    63. Hadjikhani N, Joseph RM, Snyder J, Chabris CF, Clark J, Steele S, McGrath L, Vangel M, Aharon I, Feczko E, Harris GJ, Tager-Flusberg H. Activation of the fusiform gyrus when individuals with autism spectrum disorder view faces. Neuroimage. 2004;22(3):1141-50. [ Links ]

    64. Gervais H, Belin P, Boddaert N, Leboyer M, Coez A, Sfaello I, Barthelemy C, Brunelle F, Samson Y, Zilbovicius M. Abnormal cortical voice processing in autism. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7(8):801-2. [ Links ]

    65. Happe F, Ehlers S, Fletcher P, Frith U, Johansson M, Gillberg C, Dolan R, Frackowiak R, Frith C. 'Theory of mind' in the brain. Evidence from a PET scan study of Asperger syndrome. Neuroreport. 1996;8(1):197-201. [ Links ]

    66. Baron-Cohen S, Ring HA, Wheelwright S, Bullmore ET, Brammer MJ, Simmons A, Williams SC. Social intelligence in the normal and autistic brain: an fMRI study. Eur J Neurosci. 1999;11(6):1891-8. [ Links ]

    67. Castelli F, Frith C, Happe F, Frith U. Autism, Asperger syndrome and brain mechanisms for the attribution of mental states to animated shapes. Brain. 2002;125(Pt8):1839-49. [ Links ]

    68. Pelphrey KA, Morris JP, McCarthy G. Neural basis of eye gaze processing deficits in autism. Brain. 2005;128(Pt 5):1038-48. [ Links ]

    69. Boddaert N, Barthelemy C, Poline JB, Samson Y, Brunelle F, Zilbovicius M. Autism: functional brain mapping of exceptional calendar capacity. Br J Psychiatry. 2005;187:83-6. [ Links ]

    70. Ring HA, Baron-Cohen S, Wheelwright S, Williams SC, Brammer M, Andrew C, Bullmore ET. Cerebral correlates of preserved cognitive skills in autism: a functional MRI study of embedded figures task performance. Brain. 1999;122(Pt7):1305-15. [ Links ]