SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

MATHIS, Maria Alice de et al. Gender differences in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a literature review. Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr. [online]. 2011, vol.33, n.4, pp. 390-399. ISSN 1516-4446.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-44462011000400014.

    1. Karno M, Golding J. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. In: Psychiatric Disorders in America. The epidemiological catchment area study. New York, NY: The Free Press; 1991. p. 204-19. [ Links ]

    2. Torres AR, Lima MCP. Epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2005;27(3):237-42. [ Links ]

    3. Swedo SE, Rapoport JL, Leonard H, Lenane M, Cheslow D. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. Clinical phenomenology of 70 consecutive cases. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989;46(4):335-41. [ Links ]

    4. Riddle MA, Scahill L, King R, Hardin MT, Towbin KE, Ort SI, Leckman JF, Cohen DJ. Obsessive compulsive disorder in children and adolescents: phenomenology and family history. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1990;29(5):766-72. [ Links ]

    5. Leckman JF, Grice DE, Boardman J, Zhang H, Vitale A, Bondi C, Alsobrook J, Peterson BS, Cohen DJ, Rasmussen SA, Goodman WK, McDougle CJ, Pauls DL. Symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154(7):911-7. [ Links ]

    6. Labad J, Menchon JM, Alonso P, Segalas C, Jimenez S, Jaurrieta N, Leckman JF, Vallejo J. Gender differences in obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions. Depress Anxiety. 2008;25(10):832-8. [ Links ]

    7. Miguel EC, Rauch SL, Jenike MA. Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1997;20(4):863-83. [ Links ]

    8. Miguel EC, Leckman JF, Rauch S, do Rosario-Campos MC, Hounie AG, Mercadante MT, Chacon P, Pauls DL. Obsessive-compulsive disorder phenotypes: implications for genetic studies. Mol Psychiatry. 2005;10(3):258-75. [ Links ]

    9. de Mathis MA, do Rosario MC, Diniz JB, Torres AR, Shavitt RG, Ferrão YA, Fossaluza V, de Bragança Pereira CA, Miguel EC. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: influence of age at onset on comorbidity patterns. Eur Psychiatry. 2008;23(3):187-94. [ Links ]

    10. Olinto M. Reflexões sobre o uso do conceito de gênero e/ou sexo na epidemiologia: um exemplo nos modelos hierarquizados de análise. Rev Bras Epidemiol. 1998;1(2):162-9. [ Links ]

    11. Karayiorgou M, Altemus M, Galke BL, Goldman D, Murphy DL, Ott J, Gogos JA.Genotype determining low catecholO-methyltransferase activity as a risk factor for obsessivecompulsive disorder. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1997;94(9):4572-5. [ Links ]

    12. Rasmussen SA, Eisen JL. Epidemiology of obsessive compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990;51 Suppl:10-4. [ Links ]

    13. Bellodi L, Sciuto G, Diaferia G, Ronchi P, Smeraldi E. Psychiatric disorders in the families of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res. 1992;42(2):111-20. [ Links ]

    14. Castle DJ, Deale A, Marks IM. Gender differences in obsessive compulsive disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1995;29(1):114-7. [ Links ]

    15. Rasmussen SA, Tsuang MT. Clinical characteristics and family history in DSM-III obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1986;143(3):317-22. [ Links ]

    16. Minichiello W, Baer L, Jenike MA, Holland A. Age of onset of major subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Anxiety Dis. 1990;4:147-50. [ Links ]

    17. Noshirvani HF, Kasvikis Y, Marks IM, Tsakiris F, Monteiro WO. Gender-divergent aetiological factors in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 1991;158:260-3. [ Links ]

    18. Neziroglu FA, Yaryura Tobías JA, Lemli JM, Yaryura RA. Demographic study of obsessive compulsive disorder. Acta Psiquiatr Psicol Am Lat. 1994;40(3):217-23. [ Links ]

    19. Bogetto F, Venturello S, Albert U, Maina G, Ravizza L. Genderrelated clinical differences in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Eur Psychiatry. 1999;14(8):434-41. [ Links ]

    20. Fontenelle LF, Mendlowicz MV, Marques C, Versiani M. Early- and late-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder in adult patients: an exploratory clinical and therapeutic study. J Psychiatr Res. 2003;37(2):127-33. [ Links ]

    21. Lochner C, Hemmings SMJ, Kinnear CJ, Moolman-Smook JC, Corfield VA, Knowles JA, Niehaus DJ, Stein DJ. Gender in obsessive-compulsive disorder: clinical and genetic findings. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2004;14(2):105-13. [ Links ]

    22. Tükel R, Polat A, Genç A, Bozkurt O, Atli H. Gender-related differences among Turkish patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2004;45(5):362-66. [ Links ]

    24. Jaissorya T, Janardhan R, Srinath S, Thennarasu K. Sex differences in Indian patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder [Internet]. Compr Psychiatry. 2009 [citado 2010 Dez 18] [ Links ]

    25. Torresan RC, Ramos-Cerqueira ATDA, de Mathis MA, Diniz JB, Ferrão YA, Miguel EC, Torres AR. Sex differences in the phenotypic expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder: an exploratory study from Brazil. Compr Psychiatry. 2009;50(1):63-9. [ Links ]

    26. Rosario-Campos MC, Leckman JF, Mercadante MT, Shavitt RG, Prado HS, Sada P, Zamignani D, Miguel EC. Adults with early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158(11):1899-903. [ Links ]

    27. Rapoport J, Elkins R, Langer DH, Sceery W, Buchsbaum MS, Gillin JC, Murphy DL, Zahn TP, Lake R, Ludlow C, Mendelson W. Childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1981;138(12):1545-54. [ Links ]

    28. Flament MF, Koby E, Rapoport JL, Berg CJ, Zahn T, Cox C, Denckla M, Lenane M. Childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: a prospective follow-up study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1990;31(3):363-80. [ Links ]

    29. de Mathis MA, Diniz JB, Shavitt RG, Torres AR, Ferrão YA, Fossaluza V, Pereira C, Miguel E, do Rosario MC. Early onset obsessive-compulsive disorder with and without tics. CNS Spectr. 2009;14(7):362-70. [ Links ]

    30. Lochner C, Stein D. Gender in obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. Arch Women Ment Health. 2001;4:19-26. [ Links ]

    31. Kanemura H, Aihara M, Aoki S, Araki T, Nakazawa S. Development of the prefrontal lobe in infants and children: a threedimensional magnetic resonance volumetric study. Brain Dev. 2003;25(3):195-9. [ Links ]

    32. Maia TV, Cooney RE, Peterson BS. The neural bases of obsessivecompulsive disorder in children and adults. Dev Psychopathol. 2008;20(4):1251-83. [ Links ]

    33. Sobin C, Blundell M, Weiller F, Gavigan C, Haiman C, Karayiorgou M. Phenotypic characteristics of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder ascertained in adulthood. J Psychiatr Res. 1999;33(3):265-73. [ Links ]

    34. Matsunaga H, Kiriike N, Matsui T, Miyata A, Iwasaki Y, Fujimoto K, Kasai S, Kojima M. Gender differences in social and interpersonal features and personality disorders among Japanese patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2000;41(4):266-72. [ Links ]

    35. Ratnasuriya RH, Marks IM, Forshaw DM, Hymas NF. Obsessive slowness revisited. Br J Psychiatry. 1991;159:273-4. [ Links ]

    36. Hantouche EG, Lancrenon S. Modern typology of symptoms and obsessive-compulsive syndromes: results of a large French study of 615 patients. Encephale. 1 996;22 Spec No 1:9-21. [ Links ]

    37. Lensi P, Cassano GB, Correddu G, Ravagli S, Kunovac JL, Akiskal HS. Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Familial-developmental history, symptomatology, comorbidity and course with special reference to gender-related differences. Br J Psychiatry. 1996;169(1):101-7. [ Links ]

    38. Li Y, Marques L, Hinton DE, Wang Y, Xiao Z. Symptom dimensions in Chinese patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2009;15(3):276-82. [ Links ]

    39. Samuels J, Bienvenu OJ, Riddle MA, Cullen BAM, Grados MA, Liang KY, Hoehn-Saric R, Nestadt G. Hoarding in obsessive compulsive disorder: results from a case-control study. Behav Res Ther. 2002;40(5):517-28. [ Links ]

    40. Fischer DJ, Himle JA, Hanna GL. Age and gender effects on obsessive-compulsive symptoms in children and adults. Depress Anxiety. 1996;4(5):237-9. [ Links ]

    41. Stein DJ, Andersen EW, Overo KF. Response of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder to treatment with citalopram or placebo. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2007;29(4):303-7. [ Links ]

    42. Chacon P, Rosario-Campos MC, Pauls DL, Hounie AG, Curi M, Akkerman F, Shimabokuro FH, de Mathis MA, Lopes AC, Hasler G, Miguel EC. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in sibling pairs concordant for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007;144B(4):551-5. [ Links ]

    43. Matsunaga H, Hayashida K, Kiriike N, Maebayashi K, Stein DJ. The clinical utility of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2010;180(1):25-9. [ Links ]

    44. Mataix-Cols D, Wooderson S, Lawrence N, Brammer MJ, Speckens A, Phillips ML. Distinct neural correlates of washing, checking, and hoarding symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(6):564-76. [ Links ]

    45. Goldstein JM, Seidman LJ, Horton NJ, Makris N, Kennedy DN, Caviness VS Jr, Faraone SV, Tsuang MT. Normal sexual dimorphism of the adult human brain assessed by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. Cereb Cortex. 2001;11(6):490-7. [ Links ]

    46. Wheaton M, Timpano KR, Lasalle-Ricci VH, Murphy D. Characterizing the hoarding phenotype in individuals with OCD: associations with comorbidity, severity and gender. J Anxiety Disord. 2008;22(2):243-52. [ Links ]

    47. Gentil AF, de Mathis MA, Torresan RC, Diniz JB, Alvarenga P, do Rosário MC, Cordioli AV, Torres AR, Miguel EC. Alcohol use disorders in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: the importance of appropriate dual-diagnosis. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;100(1-2):173-7. [ Links ]

    48. Hounie, AG, Brotto S, Diniz J, Chacon P, Miguel, EC. Transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo: possíveis subtipos. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2001;23(Supl 2):13-6. [ Links ]

    49. Kim SJ, Namkoong K, Kang JI, Kim C. Association of a 5-HT1Dbeta receptor gene polymorphism with obsessive-compulsive disorder in Korean male subjects. Neuropsychobiology. 2009;59(2):96-99. [ Links ]

    50. Enoch MA, Greenberg BD, Murphy DL, Goldman D. Sexually dimorphic relationship of a 5-HT2A promoter polymorphism with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2001;49(4):385-8. [ Links ]

    51. Denys D, Van Nieuwerburgh F, Deforce D, Westenberg H. Association between the dopamine D2 receptor TaqI A2 allele and low activity COMT allele with obsessive-compulsive disorder in males. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2006;16(6):446-50. [ Links ]

    52. Wendland JR, Kruse MR, Cromer KR, Cromer KC, Murphy DL. A large case-control study of common functional SLC6A4 and BDNF variants in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007;32(12):2543-51. [ Links ]

    53. Denys D, Van Nieuwerburgh F, Deforce D, Westenberg HGM. Association between serotonergic candidate genes and specific phenotypes of obsessive compulsive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2006;91(1):39-44. [ Links ]

    54. Dickel DE, Veenstra-VanderWeele J, Bivens NC, Wu X, Fischer DJ, Van Etten-Lee M, Himle JA, Leventhal BL, Cook EH Jr, Hanna GL. Association studies of serotonin system candidate genes in early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61(3):322-9. [ Links ]

    55. Voyiaziakis E, Evgrafov O, Li D, Yoon H, Tabares P, Samuels J, Wang Y, Riddle MA, Grados MA, Bienvenu OJ, Shugart YY, Liang KY, Greenberg BD, Rasmussen SA, Murphy DL, Wendland JR, McCracken JT, Piacentini J, Rauch SL, Pauls DL, Nestadt G, Fyer AJ, Knowles JA. Mol Psychiatry. 2011;16(1):108-20. [ Links ]

    56. Karayiorgou M, Sobin C, Blundell ML, Galke BL, Malinova L, Goldberg P, Ott J, Gogos JA. Family-based association studies support a sexually dimorphic effect of COMT and MAOA on genetic susceptibility to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol. Psychiatry. 1999;45(9):1178-89. [ Links ]

    57. Labad J, Menchon JM, Alonso P, Segalas C, Jimenez S, Jaurrieta N, Leckman JF, Vallejo J. Gender differences in obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions. Depress Anxiety. 2008;25(10):832-8. [ Links ]

    58. Camarena B, Rinetti G, Cruz C, Gómez A, de La Fuente JR, Nicolini H. Additional evidence that genetic variation of MAO-A gene supports a gender subtype in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Med Genet. 2001;105(3):279-82. [ Links ]

    59. Katerberg H, Lochner C, Cath DC, de Jonge P, Bochdanovits Z, Moolman-Smook JC, Hemmings SM, Carey PD, Stein DJ, Sondervan D, Boer JA, van Balkom AJ, Polman A, Heutink P. The role of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met variant in the phenotypic expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009;150B(8):1050-62. [ Links ]

    60. SchindlerKM, RichterMA, Kennedy JL, PatoMT, PatoCN. Association between homozygosity at the COMT gene locus and obsessive compulsive disorder. Am J Med Genet. 2000;96(6):721-4. [ Links ]

    61. Alsobrook JP, Zohar AH, Leboyer M, Chabane N, Ebstein RP, Pauls DL. Association between the COMT locus and obsessivecompulsive disorder in females but not males. Am J Med Genet. 2002;114(1):116-20. [ Links ]

    62. Pooley EC, Fineberg N, Harrison PJ. The met(158) allele of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder in men: case-control study and meta-analysis. Mol Psychiatry. 2007;12(6):556-61. [ Links ]

    63. Wang Z, Xiao Z, Inslicht SS, Tong H, Jiang W, Wang X, Metzler T, Marmar CR, Jiang S. Low expression of catecholamine-Omethyl-transferase gene in obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Anxiety Disord. 2009;23(5):660-4. [ Links ]

    64. Kinnear C, Niehaus DJ, Seedat S, Moolman-Smook JC, Corfield VA, Malherbe G, Potgieter A, Lombard C, Stein DJ. Obsessivecompulsive disorder and a novel polymorphism adjacent to the oestrogen response element (ERE 6) upstream from the COMT gene. Psychiatr Genet. 2001;11(2):85-7. [ Links ]

    65. Miguita K, Cordeiro Q, Siqueira-Roberto J, Shavitt RG, Castillo JCR, Castillo AR, Miguel EC, Vallada H. Association analysis between a VNTR intron 8 polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) and obsessive- compulsive disorder in a Brazilian sample. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2007;65(4A):936-41. [ Links ]

    66. Stewart SE, Fagerness JA, Platko J, Smoller JW, Scharf JM, Illmann C, Jenike E, Chabane N, Leboyer M, Delorme R, Jenike MA, Pauls DL. Association of the SLC1A1 glutamate transporter gene and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007;144B(8):1027-33. [ Links ]

    67. Dickel DE, Veenstra-VanderWeele J, Cox NJ, Wu X, Fischer DJ, Van Etten-Lee M, Himle JA, Leventhal BL, Cook EH Jr, Hanna GL. Association testing of the positional and functional candidate gene SLC1A1/EAAC1 in early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63(7):778-85. [ Links ]

    68. Arnold PD, Sicard T, Burroughs E, Richter MA, Kennedy JL. Glutamate transporter gene SLC1A1 associated with obsessivecompulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63(7):769-76. [ Links ]

    69. Shugart YY, Wang Y, Samuels JF, Grados MA, Greenberg BD, Knowles JA, McCracken JT, Rauch SL, Murphy DL, Rasmussen SA, Cullen B, Hoehn-Saric R, Pinto A, Fyer AJ, Piacentini J, Pauls DL, Bienvenu OJ, Riddle MA, Liang KY, Nestadt G. A family-based association study of the glutamate transporter gene SLC1A1 in obsessive-compulsive disorder in 378 families. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009;150B(6):886-92. [ Links ]

    70. Alonso P, Gratacòs M, Menchón JM, Saiz-Ruiz J, Segalàs C, Baca-García E, Labad J, Fernández-Piqueras J, Real E, Vaquero C, Pérez M, Dolengevich H, González JR, Bayés M, de Cid R, Vallejo J, Estivill X. Extensive genotyping of the BDNF and NTRK2 genes define protective haplotypes against obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2008;63(6):619-28. [ Links ]

    71. Hemmings SMJ, Kinnear CJ, Van der Merwe L, Lochner C, Corfield VA, Moolman-Smook JC, Stein DJ. Investigating the role of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met variant in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). World J. Biol. Psychiatry. 2008;9(2):126-34. [ Links ]

    72. Katerberg H, Cath DC, Denys DA, Heutink P, Polman A, van Nieuwerburgh FC, Deforce DL, Bochdanovits Z, van Balkom AJ, den Boer JA. The role of the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism in the phenotypic expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2010;153B(1):167-76. [ Links ]

    73. Rosario-Campos MC, Miguel EC, Quatrano S, Chacon P, Ferrao Y, Findley D, Katsovich L, Scahill L, King RA, Woody SR, Tolin D, Hollander E, Kano Y, Leckman JF. The Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS): an instrument for assessing obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions. Mol Psychiatry. 2006;11(5):495-504. [ Links ]

    74. Mataix-Cols D, Cullen S, Lange K, Zelaya F, Andrew C, Amaro E, Brammer MJ, Williams SC, Speckens A, Phillips ML. Neural correlates of anxiety associated with obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions in normal volunteers. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;53(6):482-93. [ Links ]

    75. Pujol J, Soriano-Mas C, Alonso P, Cardoner N, Menchón JM, Deus J, Vallejo J. Mapping structural brain alterations in obsessivecompulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(7):720-30. [ Links ]