Absence-like seizures in adult rats following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus early in life. B.L.C. Ferreira, A.C. Valle, E.A. Cavalheiro and C. Timo-Iaria. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 36 (12): 1685, 2003.
Figure 2. Three spike-wave discharge (SWD) bursts accompanied by clonic movements of the head (H), rostrum + vibrissae (R), eyes (Ey), ear (Er) and left forelimb (F). The frequency of the main spike-wave bursts is 9.5 Hz. In a, a 2-Hz delta wave period follows the first spike-wave burst, a frequent pattern after a seizure. Preceding the second burst (c) a lower frequency (7 Hz) discharge occurs that resembles the spike-wave burst. In b and d, spike potentials that seem to be aborted SWD. The potentials in R, Ey, Er and F are not due to physical projection (artifacts) of the epileptogenic potentials in the brain. In b the rostrum and eye movements lasted one second after the epileptogenic potentials. During the last spike-wave burst the eye and forelimb movements started before the epileptogenic potentials. AM = amygdala; VL and VM = ventrolateral and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. For other abbreviations, see legend to Figure 1. Calibration: 100 µV, 1 s.