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Figure 2. Effect of an ip Escherichia coli inoculum on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) in bronchoalveolar lavage of rats treated with 107 and 109 colony forming units (CFU)/100 g body weight. Bronchoalveolar lavage was collected after 2, 6, 12, and 24 h from different groups of animals that received an ip injection of saline (control) or the E. coli inoculum, and TNF levels were measured by ELISA. Data are reported as mean ± SD for 5 animals in each group. *P < 0.05 indicates a significant difference between 107 and 109 CFU/100 g body weight and control group at the same time. +P < 0.05 indicates a significant difference between 107 and 109 CFU/100 g body weight groups at the same time (ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons test).