Range extension of Diclidurus scutatus (Chiroptera, Emballonuridae) to southwestern Amazonia

Extensão da distribuição de Diclidurus scutatus (Chiroptera, Emballonuridae) para o sudoeste da Amazônia

Roberto Leonan Morim NOVAES Vinícius Cardoso CLÁUDIO Adriana Akemi KUNIY About the authors

ABSTRACT

Diclidurus scutatus is an aerial insectivore bat endemic of South America and considered rare throughout its distribution range. We present the first record of this species in Rondônia State, northern Brazil, expanding its distribution more than 1000 km into southwestern Amazonia. Including this record, D. scutatus is known for 20 localities from eight countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela), and two biomes-Amazonia and Atlantic Forest.

KEYWORDS:
distribution; lesser ghost bat; western Amazon; Rondônia

RESUMO

Diclidurus scutatus é um morcego insetívoro aéreo, endêmico da América do Sul e considerado raro em toda sua área de distribuição. Apresentamos o primeiro registro dessa espécie para o estado de Rondônia, norte do Brasil, expandindo sua distribuição em mais de 1000 quilômetros para o sudoeste da Amazônia. Incluindo o presente registro, D. scutatus é conhecido para 20 localidades em oito países (Brasil, Colômbia, Equador, Guiana Francesa, Guiana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela) e dois biomas-Amazônia e Mata Atlântica.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE:
Amazônia ocidental; distribuição; morcego; Rondônia

The determination of a taxon’s distribution is important to understand evolutionary and biogeographic processes, and provides information about the ecology and natural history of a species (Whittaker et al. 2005Whittaker, R.; Araújo, M.B.; Jepson, P.; Ladle, R.J.; Watson, J.E.M.; Willis, K.J. 2005. Conservation biogeography: assessment and prospect. Diversity and Distribution, 11: 3-23.). Studies that contribute to the knowledge of the distributional limits of a species, especially rare ones, are also important for conservation biology initiatives (Teixeira et al. 2014Teixeira, T.S.M.; Weber, M.M.; Dias, D.; Lorini, M.L.; Esbérard, C.E.L.; Novaes, R.L.M.; Cerqueira, R.; Vale, M.M. 2014. Combining environmental suitability and habitat connectivity to map rare or Data Deficient species in the Tropics. Journal for Nature Conservation, 22: 384-390.).

The bat genus Diclidurus Wied-Neuwied, 1820 has four species, all endemic to the Neotropics (Simmons 2005Simmons, N.B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. In: Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. (Eds.). Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, p.312-529.). They are insectivorous bats with fast flight ability that forage at great heights in the forest canopy, open areas and above water courses (Kalko et al. 1996Kalko, E.K.V.; Handley, C.O.; Handley, D. 1996. Organization, diversity, and long-term dynamics of a neotropical bat community. In: Cody, M.L.; Smallwood, J.A. (Eds.). Long-term studies of vertebrate communities. Academic Press, New York, p.503-553.; Lim et al. 1999Lim, B.K.; Engstrom, M.D.; Timm, R.M.; Anderson, R.P.; Watson, L.C. 1999. First records of 10 bat species in Guyana and comments on diversity of bats in Iwokrama Forest. Acta Chiropterologica, 1: 179-190.). Diclidurus species are rare in inventories due to the difficulty in capturing the animals using traditional mist-net methodology, and most of their records come from manual capture, collection with firearms, and mist-nets placed in the forest canopy or near foraging areas, such as lampposts (Handley 1976Handley, C.O., Jr. 1976. Mammals of the Smithsonian Venezuelan Project. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin, Biological Series, 20: 1-89.; Dalponte and Aguiar 2009Dalponte, J.C.; Aguiar, L.M.S. 2009. The first record of Diclidurus ingens Hernandez-Camacho, 1955 (Emballonuridae) in Central Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 9: 249-252.; Escobedo and Velazco 2012Escobedo, M.; Velazco, P.M. 2012. First confirmed record for Peru of Diclidurus scutatus Peters, 1869 (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae). Check List, 8: 554-556.; Ferreira et al. 2013Ferreira, A.P.; Melo, D.C.; Loures-Ribeiro, A. 2013. Diclidurus albus Wied-Neuwied, 1820 (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae): first record of the species in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Check List, 9: 793-796.).

The lesser ghost bat, Diclidurus scutatusPeters, 1869Peters, W. 1869. Bemerkungen über neue oder weniger bekannte Flederthiere, besonder des Pariser Museums. Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1869: 391-406., is an endemic bat from South America, with widespread occurrence in the Amazon and a single record for the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil (Sodré and Uieda 2006Sodré, M.M.; Uieda, W. 2006. First record of the ghost batDiclidurus scutatus Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Emballonuridae) in São Paulo city, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 23: 897-898.; Escobedo and Velazco 2012Escobedo, M.; Velazco, P.M. 2012. First confirmed record for Peru of Diclidurus scutatus Peters, 1869 (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae). Check List, 8: 554-556.). As conventional methods have small capture success for this species, the distribution limits of D. scutatus are not well established (Sampaio et al. 2016Sampaio, E.; Lim, B.; Peters, S. 2016.Diclidurus scutatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species ( The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/6564/0 ). Accessed on 06 October 2016.
http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/6564/...
). We report the first record of D. scutatus in Rondônia State and present a distribution review of this species.

Bats were sampled between January and February 2014 in forest areas around the locality of Vila Tabajara, Machadinho D’Oeste Municipality, Rondônia State, Brazil (08º56’S, 62º03’W, 82 m). Vila Tabajara is a small village on the margin of the Machado River. The local vegetation is classified as open ombrophilous forest, within the Amazonian domain (IBGE 2012).

On February 5, 2014 a group of bats, easily distinguished due to their white coloration, were seen foraging around a lamppost in an open area nearby the village. The capture of a D. scutatus non-reproductive adult female (Figure 1) happened around 01:45 am using a mist-net (6 x 3 m, 20 mm mesh), which was manually launched on the foraging bats. This specimen was identified according to characters supported by the literature (Jones and Hood 1993Jones, J.; Hood, C. 1993. Synopsis of South American bats of the family Emballonuridae. Occasional Papers of Museum of the Texas Tech University, 155: 1-32.; Lim and Engstrom 2001Lim, B.K.; Engstrom, M.D. 2001. Species diversity of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Iwokrama Forest, Guyana, and the Guianan subregion: implications for conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation, 10: 613-657.): general white coloration; unicolored ventral fur; forearm 54.2 mm; greatest length of skull 15.0 mm; large palatine foramina that is confluent with posterior palatal emargination; and no space between the premolars (Figure 2). The specimen was incorporated into the mammal collection of São Paulo University [Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo] (MZUSP 35681).

Figure 1
Specimen of Diclidurus scutatus (MZUSP 35681) from Machadinho D’Oeste, Rondônia, Brazil (Credit: Roberto Leonan Morim Novaes). This figure is in color in the electronic version.

Figure 2
Skull (lateral, dorsal, and ventral profiles) and mandible (lateral and dorsal profiles) of Diclidurus scutatus (MZUSP 35681) from Machadinho D’Oeste, Rondônia, Brazil (Credit: José Eduardo Serrano Villavicencio). Scale bar = 10 mm. This figure is in color in the electronic version.

With this record, D. scutatus has been recorded in 20 locations in eight South American countries, in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela (Figure 3, Table 1). Geographical coordinates in Table 1 were recovered directly from the studies used in the distribution review or from the gazetteer available in Gardner (2008Gardner, A.L. 2008 [2007]. Mammals of South America, volume 1. Marsupials, xenarthrans, shrews, andbats. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 690p.). Diclidurus scutatus has now been registered in five Brazilian states: one in the Atlantic Forest (São Paulo) and four in the Amazon (Amapá, Amazonas, Pará and Rondônia). Our record from Rondônia represents the southernmost occurrenc of the species in the Amazon, extending its known distribution range by more than 1000 km in southwestern direction.

Figure 3
Distribution of Diclidurus scutatus (circles), including the type locality (square) and a new record for Machadinho D’Oeste, Rondônia, Brazil (star; this study). For more details, see Table 1. This figure is in color in the electronic version.

Table 1
Locality records for the lesser ghost bat, Diclidurus scutatus.

Diclidurus scutatus is known from only a few records but is unlikely to suffer a fast population decline, considering its wide distribution range and variety of environments occupied (Sampaio et al. 2016Sampaio, E.; Lim, B.; Peters, S. 2016.Diclidurus scutatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species ( The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/6564/0 ). Accessed on 06 October 2016.
http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/6564/...
). The species is classified as of Least Concern in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2017).

Our fieldwork efforts support the conclusion of Escobedo and Velazco (2012Escobedo, M.; Velazco, P.M. 2012. First confirmed record for Peru of Diclidurus scutatus Peters, 1869 (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae). Check List, 8: 554-556.) in that the application of unusual sampling methodologies in bat surveys, such as active search and manual capture, canopy nets, and acoustic monitoring, are necessary to improve the knowledge about this species.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

To the team of JGP Consultoria e Participações Ltda. for the help in fieldwork; to Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) and Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade e Biologia Evolutiva (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ) for a master’s scholarship for RLMN; to Programa de Pós-Graduação em Conservação de Fauna (Universidade Federal de São Carlos - UFSCar) and Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo for a master’s scholarship for VCC; to T.S. Teixeira and G. Jacob for the review of the manuscript. J.E.S. Villavicencio photographed the skull of the specimen.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Oct-Dec 2017

History

  • Received
    01 Mar 2017
  • Accepted
    23 July 2017
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