Identification key for the genera of Syrphidae (Diptera) from the Brazilian Amazon and new taxon records

Chave de identificação para os gêneros de Syrphidae (Diptera) da Amazônia brasileira e novos registros

Gil Felipe Gonçalves MIRANDA About the author

ABSTRACT

Identification keys are essential to properly recognize taxa, and a photographic key not only addresses that issue but can also attract the interest of the general public if designed correctly. Syrphidae is one of the largest families of Diptera, and the Brazilian Amazon holds more taxon records from this family than currently reported. The aim of the current study was to provide an updated photographic identification key, of easy use and access, to the genera of Syrphidae (Diptera) from the Brazilian Amazon region, and identify previously unrecorded taxa. Through a literature review and study of collection material from several institutions, I found 36 new taxon records for the Brazilian Amazon (15 are first records for Brazil) and provided a list of references with identification keys to species from each genus. The online version of this manuscript has a photographic identification key, with diagnostic pages for each genus, as supplementary material.

Keywords:
Flower fly; live pictures; Neotropical; online; taxonomy

RESUMO

Chaves de identificação são essenciais para reconhecer táxons, e uma chave pictórica material suplementar. atende a essa demanda e também desperta o interesse do público em geral, se for desenhada apropriadamente. Syrphidae é uma das maiores famílias de Diptera, e a Amazônia brasileira possui mais táxons dessa família do que registrado atualmente. O objetivo deste estudo foi prover uma chave de identificação pictórica atualizada, de fácil uso e acesso, para os gêneros de Syrphidae (Diptera) da Amazônia brasileira, e identificar táxons ainda não registrados. Através de uma revisão da literatura e estudo de material de diversas coleções, eu encontrei 36 novas ocorrências de táxons para a Amazônia brasileira (15 sendo primeiros registros para o Brasil) e disponibilizei uma lista de referências com chaves de identificação para as espécies de cada gênero. A versão online desse manuscrito possui uma chave de identificação pictórica como material suplementar.

Palavras-chave:
Fotos; mosca das flores; Neotropical; online; taxonomia

INTRODUCTION

The general public wants to know more about natural environments and the organisms that live there (Quaresma 2003Quaresma, H.D. de A.B. 2003. O desencanto da princesa: pescadores tradicionais e turismo de proteção ambiental de Algodoal/Maiandeua. NAEA, Belém, 254 p.). Biodiversity professionals need to identify the groups that occur in the different biomes. An identification key that is updated and easy to use meets the demands of both the general and scientific audiences.

The Amazonian region holds a highly diverse fauna and flora (Hoorn and Wesselingh 2010Hoorn, C.; Wesselingh, F.P. 2010. Introduction: Amazonia, landscape and species evolution. In: Hoorn, C.; Wesselingh, F.P. (Ed.). Amazonia: Landscape and species evolution - A look into the past. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, United Kingdom, p. 1-8.). Large animals such as mammals (Sigrist 2012Sigrist, T. 2012. Mamíferos do Brasil - Uma visão artística. Avis Brasilis, Vinhedo, 448 p.) and more conspicuous plants such as orchids (Luz and Oliveira 2012Luz, F.J. de F.; de Oliveira, J.M.F. 2012. Orquídeas de Roraima. Embrapa, Brasília, 181 p.) are usually highlighted in Amazonian literature. Insects are mostly seen as a nuisance and/or risk (e.g. mosquitoes), with most people unaware of their great diversity (Rafael et al. 2009Rafael, J.A.; Aguiar, A.P.; Amorim, D.S. 2009. Insect diversity in Brazil: Challenges and advances. Neotropical Entomology, 38: 565-570.).

Syrphids, also known as flower/hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae), are an example of poorly studied fauna in the Brazilian Amazon. The diversity of syrphid forms reaches extremes where they can be mistaken for wasps and bees (Hymenoptera) (Thompson et al. 2010Thompson, F.C.; Rotheray, G.E.; Zumbado, M. 2010. Syrphidae (flower flies). In: Brown, B.V.; Borkent, A.; Cumming, J.M.; Wood, D.M.; Woodley, N.E.; Zumbado, M.A. (Ed.). Manual of Central American Diptera. NRC Research press, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, p. 763-792.). Most adults feed on nectar and pollen, with the larvae having habits and habitats much more diverse than the adults (Rotheray and Gilbert 1999Rotheray, G.E.; Gilbert, F. 1999. Phylogeny of palaearctic Syrphidae (Diptera): evidence from larval stages. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 127: 1-112.; Pérez-Lachaud et al. 2014Pérez-Lachaud, G.; Jervis, M.A.; Reemer, M.; Lachaud, J.-P. 2014. An unusual, but not unexpected, evolutionary step taken by syrphid flies: the first record of true parasitoidism of ants by Microdontinae. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 111: 462-472.). The family is currently divided into four subfamilies: Eristalinae (mainly saprophagous larvae), Microdontinae (larvae that scavenge in ant nests), Pipizinae and Syrphinae (mainly predaceous larvae) (Thompson et al. 2010; Mengual et al. 2015Mengual, X.; Ståhls, G.; Rojo, S. 2015. Phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic ranking of pipizine flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) with implications for the evolution of aphidophagy. Cladistics, 31: 491-508.). In Europe there is a long tradition in the study of syrphids, not only in academia (Bartsch 2009aBartsch, H. 2009a. Diptera: Syrphidae: Syrphinae. Artdatabanken, Uppsala, 406 p.; 2009bBartsch, H. 2009b. Diptera: Syrphidae: Eristalinae & Microdontinae. Artdatabanken, Uppsala , 478 p.), but also with many amateurs/enthusiasts providing useful information on these flies (e.g. Owen 2010Owen, J. 2010. Wildlife of a Garden: A thirty-year study. Royal Horticultural Society, Londres, 276 p.; Ball and Morris 2013Ball, S.; Morris, R. 2013. Britain's Hoverflies: An introduction to the hoverflies of Britain. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 289 p.). This encourages 'citizen-scientists' to develop an interest in the biodiversity around them, which can also aid on gathering data for ecological studies (Dickinson et al. 2010Dickinson, J.L.; Zuckerberg, B.; Bonter, D.N. 2010. Citizen science as an ecological research tool: Challenges and benefits. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 41: 149-172.). The Amazon syrphid fauna could be explored in the same way as was done in Europe and in the Nearctic (Miranda et al. 2013Miranda, G.F.G.; Young, A.D.; Locke, M.M.; Marshall, S.A.; Skevington, J.H.; Thompson, F.C. 2013. Key to the genera of nearctic Syrphidae. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification, 23. ( (http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/bsc/ejournal/mylmst_23/mylmst_23.html ). Accessed on 23/03/2015.
http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/bsc/ejour...
). Thus, the objective of the current study is to develop a photographic identification key, as supplementary material, to the genera of Syrphidae from the Brazilian Amazon and present new records of distribution.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Specimens and area studied

Material studied came from the following Brazilian institutions: Coleção de Invertebrados from the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA)-Manaus/AM, Coleção Zoológica do Maranhão (CZMA)-Caxias/MA, Museu Nacional da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ)-Rio de Janeiro/RJ and Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG)-Belém/PA. All voucher material remained at the institutions mentioned above. Terminology followed Thompson (1999Thompson, F.C. 1999. A key to the genera of the flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) of the neotropical region including descriptions of new genera and species and a glossary of taxonomic terms. Contributions on Entomology, International, 3: 321-378.) and Cumming and Wood (2009Cumming, J.M.; Wood, D.M. 2009. Adult morphology and terminology. In: Brown, B.V.; Borkent, A.; Cumming, J.M.; Wood, D.M.; Woodley, N.E.; Zumbado, M.A. (Ed.). Manual of Central American Diptera. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, p. 9-50.), with some terms simplified to ease understanding by the user (e.g. 'antennal base' instead of 'frontal prominence' or 'antennifer'). Some common terms for structures on syrphids (e.g. venation) and notes on orientation (e.g. anterior x posterior) can be found only in the supplementary material online.

The genera presented in this key were taken from the literature (Thompson et al. 1976Thompson, F.C.; Vockeroth, J.R.; Sedman, Y.S. 1976. 46 Family Syrphidae. In: Papavero, N. (Ed.). A catalogue of the Diptera of the Americas south of the United States. Edanee. São Paulo, São Paulo, p. 1-195.; Thompson 1999Thompson, F.C. 1999. A key to the genera of the flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) of the neotropical region including descriptions of new genera and species and a glossary of taxonomic terms. Contributions on Entomology, International, 3: 321-378.; Reemer and Ståhls 2013Reemer, M.; Ståhls, G. 2013a. Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae). Zookeys, 288: 1-213.a, 2013Reemer, M; Ståhls, G. 2013b. Phylogenetic relationships of Microdontinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) based on molecular and morphological characters. Systematic Entomology, 38: 661-688.b) and later supplemented with new taxon records found in the material studied. Generic classification followed updated Neotropical Syrphidae literature (e.g. Miranda 2011Miranda, G.F.G. 2011. An overview of the genus Ocyptamus Macquart, 1834 with a revision of the Ocyptamus tristis species group. PhD thesis, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. 620 p.; Reemer e Ståhls 2013aReemer, M.; Ståhls, G. 2013a. Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae). Zookeys, 288: 1-213.; 2013bReemer, M; Ståhls, G. 2013b. Phylogenetic relationships of Microdontinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) based on molecular and morphological characters. Systematic Entomology, 38: 661-688.; Miranda et al. 2014Miranda, G.F.G.; Marshall, S.A.; Skevington, J.H. 2014. Revision of the genus Pelecinobaccha Shannon, description of Relictanum gen. nov., and redescription of Atylobaccha flukiella (Curran, 1941) (Diptera: Syrphidae). Zootaxa, 3819: 1-154.). Species lists were based in the literature (Thompson et al. 1976Thompson, F.C.; Vockeroth, J.R.; Sedman, Y.S. 1976. 46 Family Syrphidae. In: Papavero, N. (Ed.). A catalogue of the Diptera of the Americas south of the United States. Edanee. São Paulo, São Paulo, p. 1-195.; Rotheray et al. 2000Rotheray, G.E.; Zumbado, M.; Hancock, E.G.; Thompson, F.C. 2000. Remarkable aquatic predators in the genus Ocyptamus (Diptera, Syrphidae). Studia Dipterologica, 7: 385-398.; Blatch et al. 2003Blatch, S.A.; Thompson, F.C.; Zumbado, M.A. 2003. A review of the Mesoamerican flower flies of the genus Meromacrus (Diptera: Syrphidae) including the description of a new species. Studia Dipterologica, 10: 13-36.; Borges and Pamplona 2003Borges, Z.M.; Pamplona, D.M. 2003. Revision of the neotropical Xanthandrus Verral (Diptera, Syrphidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 47: 155-167.; Rotheray et al. 2007Rotheray, G.E.; Hancock, E.G.; Marcos-García, M.A. 2007. Neotropical Copestylum (Diptera, Syrphidae) breeding in bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) including 22 new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 150: 267-317.; Thompson 2007aThompson, F.C. 2007a. A new Costa Rican flower fly (Diptera: Syrphidae) and a replacement name for a neotropical flower fly genus. Studia Dipterologica, 14: 167-170., bThompson, F.C. 2007b. Microdon falcatus Williston (Diptera: Syrphidae): A redescription, with lectotype designation and new synonyms. Entomological News, 118: 283-291.; Mengual and Thompson 2008Mengual, X.; Thompson, F.C. 2008. A Taxonomic review of the Palpada ruficeps species group, with the description of a new flower fly from Colombia (Diptera: Syrphidae). Zootaxa, 1741: 31-36.; Borges and Couri 2009Borges, Z.M.; Couri, M.S. 2009. Revision of Toxomerus Macquart, 1855 (Diptera: Syrphidae) from Brazil with synonymic notes, identification key to the species and description of three new species. Zootaxa, 2179: 1-72.; Mengual et al. 2009Mengual, X.; Ruiz, C.; Rojo, S.; Ståhls, G.; Thompson, F.C. 2009. A conspectus of the flower fly genus Allograpta (Diptera: Syrphidae) with description of a new subgenus and species. Zootaxa, 2214: 1-28.; Morales and Marinoni 2009Morales, M.N.; Marinoni, L. 2009. Cladistic analysis and taxonomic revision of the scutellaris group of Palpada Macquart (Diptera: Syrphidae). Invertebrate systematics, 23: 301-347.; Reemer 2010Reemer, M. 2010. A second survey of Surinam Syrphidae (Diptera): Introduction and Syrphinae. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, 153: 163-196.; Thompson 2010Thompson, F.C. 2010. Syrphidae. Systema dipterorum. ( (http://www.diptera.org/ ). Accessed on 01/05/2014.
http://www.diptera.org/...
; Miranda 2011Miranda, G.F.G. 2011. An overview of the genus Ocyptamus Macquart, 1834 with a revision of the Ocyptamus tristis species group. PhD thesis, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. 620 p.; Montoya et al. 2012Montoya, A.L.; Pérez, S.P.; Wolff, M. 2012. The diversity of flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Colombia and their neotropical distribution. Neotropical Entomology, 41: 46-56.; Reemer 2012Reemer, M. 2012. Unravelling a hotchpotch: phylogeny and classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera: Syrphidae). Tese de doutorado, Leiden University, Leida, Holanda do Sul, Holanda. 384 p.; Ricarte et al. 2012Ricarte, A.; Marcos-García, M.A.; Hancock, G.; Rotheray, G.E. 2012. Revision of the new world genus Quichuana Knab, 1913 (Diptera: Syrphidae), including descriptions of 24 new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 166: 72-131.; Reemer and Ståhls 2013a; Miranda 2014Miranda, G.F.G. 2014. Ceriomicrodon petiolatus Hull, 1937 (Diptera, Syrphidae, Microdontinae): Redescription and new records. Zootaxa, 3846: 584-590.; Miranda et al. 2014Miranda, G.F.G.; Marshall, S.A.; Skevington, J.H. 2014. Revision of the genus Pelecinobaccha Shannon, description of Relictanum gen. nov., and redescription of Atylobaccha flukiella (Curran, 1941) (Diptera: Syrphidae). Zootaxa, 3819: 1-154.; Reemer 2014Reemer, M. 2014. A review of the Microdontinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) of Surinam, with a key to the Neotropical genera. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, 157: 27-57.).

The study area was limited to the Brazilian Amazon, but took into consideration records for the Amazon of neighbouring countries (Bolivia, Colombia, French Guyana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam and Venezuela) since the taxa could occur in the Brazilian side as well. The 'Brazilian Amazon' considered in this study represents the 'Amazônia legal' (see figure 1 in Fearnside 2014Fearnside, P.M. 2014. Impacts of Brazil's Madeira river dams: Unlearned lessons for hydroelectric development in Amazonia. Environmental Science & Policy, 38: 164-172.), but limited to the rainforest areas (Acre, Amazonas, Amapá, western Maranhão, northern Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima and northern Tocantins).

For records that indicated only Maranhão, Mato Grosso or Tocantins, without indicating where in those states, they were only considered part of the Brazilian Amazon if they had records in other Amazonian areas (e.g.: for a record indicating 'Mato Grosso, Venezuela' it was assumed that the species was part of the Amazonian part of Mato Grosso). Species records from the literature that indicated only 'Brazil' were not considered.

For cases where the species was assumed to occur in the Brazilian Amazon, the species name was followed by an asterisk (*) and either a neighbouring country name or 'Amazon'. A country name was used when the record was in an Amazonian region in that neighbouring country. 'Amazon' was used when the record in the literature only mentioned 'Amazon' or 'Amazon valley'.

New records found in the material studied were indicated after the species name by 'n. rec.' followed by 'BR', if they were new records for Brazil, and/or the acronym for the state (in bold) if it was a new record for that state, i.e.: AC-Acre, AM-Amazonas, AP-Amapá, MA-Maranhão, MT-Mato Grosso, PA-Pará, RO-Rondônia, RR-Roraima, and TO-Tocantins.

Images and key development

Most images were obtained by the author using a camera set on a stereomicroscope (M205, Leica, Wetzlar, Germany), and the software Leica Application Suite (v.3.6, Leica, Wetzlar, Germany), in the Laboratório de Entomologia Sistemática, Urbana e Forense (LESUF/CBio/INPA), or in the field with a DSLR camera (D3100, Nikon, Tokio, Japan) and macro lens (Macro 105mm/f2.8, Nikon, Tokio, Japan). Some images were obtained from other sources, which were indicated in the corner of the images. Images were edited in the Adobe Photoshop software (CS4, Adobe, San Jose, USA).

The steps of the key were made in the Adobe Illustrator software (CS4, Adobe, San Jose, USA) and exported as hyper-text pages (HTML). The format of the key followed Miranda et al. (2013Miranda, G.F.G.; Young, A.D.; Locke, M.M.; Marshall, S.A.; Skevington, J.H.; Thompson, F.C. 2013. Key to the genera of nearctic Syrphidae. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification, 23. ( (http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/bsc/ejournal/mylmst_23/mylmst_23.html ). Accessed on 23/03/2015.
http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/bsc/ejour...
), with steps leading to a diagnostic taxon page or to another step. There are two types of steps: (1) Multi-optional, where the user is shown several options of different character combinations that represent a group of taxa or a specific taxon; and (2) dichotomous, where there are only two options, of character combinations, to choose from. There may be links to species lists and additional images in the diagnostic taxon pages. Some taxa occurred more than once in the key due to the diversity of forms and intermediate cases that they possess.

Some images in the key had highlighted structures, that appeared in either of two ways: (1) a red frame highlighting the position of the structure on the specimen followed by another image on the side with the structure magnified and with a red border; or (2) an orange frame, highlighting the position of the structure on the specimen, which can be clicked to reveal a magnified view of the structure.

The PDF version was assembled from the individual HTML files through the 'Create PDF' (File/Create PDF/From Web Page...) tool from the Adobe Acrobat software (9 Pro, Adobe, San Jose, USA) by selecting the first step of the key and adjusting the 'Capture multiple levels' settings to 'Get the entire site'.

RESULTS

This study reports 64 taxa (61 genera and three subgenera) for the Brazilian Amazon region, and 36 were new records for Brazil and/or the Brazilian Amazon region (Table 1 and Appendix 1).

Table 1
New records of Syrphidae (Diptera) from the Brazilian Amazon. AC: Acre; AM: Amazonas; MA: Maranhão; PA: Pará; RR: Roraima.

The most recent keys for identification of species, updated from Thompson (1999Thompson, F.C. 1999. A key to the genera of the flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) of the neotropical region including descriptions of new genera and species and a glossary of taxonomic terms. Contributions on Entomology, International, 3: 321-378.), are listed on Tables 2, 3 and 4. The key (online version and a "supplementary material" PDF version), instructions about orientation, and basic terminology can be accessed through the website http://keys.inpa.gov.br/?idkey=syrphidae.

Table 2
Available references with species keys for Eristalinae (Syrphidae) with records for the Brazilian Amazon.

Table 3
Available references with species keys for Microdontinae (Syrphidae) with records for the Brazilian Amazon.

Table 4
Available references with species keys for Pipizinae and Syrphinae (Syrphidae) with records for the Brazilian Amazon.

The study of Reemer (2010Reemer, M. 2010. A second survey of Surinam Syrphidae (Diptera): Introduction and Syrphinae. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, 153: 163-196.) found a specimen of Paragus (Pandasyophthalmus) cf. haemorrhous in Surinam. The genus is present in North America, extending south at most into Costa Rica in Central America. Due to the single record in Reemer (2010), and the absence of specimens in the collections studied, this genus is not considered to be established in the Amazonian region and was not included in the key. Microdon (Syrphipogon) was not included in the key due to lack of conclusive evidences that its distribution could range into the Amazonian region (records only for Costa Rica, Panama and one record in the state of Paraná, Brazil).

A specimen of Polybiomyia, with a complete post-metacoxal bridge, was identified as Cerioides bigotii (Williston, 1888) in Curran (1941Curran, C.H. 1941. New American Syrphidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 78: 243-304.) key. Thompson (2010Thompson, F.C.; Rotheray, G.E.; Zumbado, M. 2010. Syrphidae (flower flies). In: Brown, B.V.; Borkent, A.; Cumming, J.M.; Wood, D.M.; Woodley, N.E.; Zumbado, M.A. (Ed.). Manual of Central American Diptera. NRC Research press, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, p. 763-792.) recognizes it as Sphiximorpha bigotii (Williston, 1888), but the condition of the post-metacoxal bridge does not agree with Sphiximorpha (where it should be incomplete), so it is here placed in Polybiomyia.

DISCUSSION

This study discovered new taxon records for the Brazilian fauna of Syrphidae (Table 1), which reflects how much the fauna of this country, and specially the Amazonian region, is still underestimated. As an example, Mallota was only known from high altitude rain forests in South America, but this study found specimens in one of the few high altitude spots in the Brazilian Amazon. Another example was Carreramyia, unknown for Brazil but found in two different localities of the Amazonian lowlands (North and South of the Amazonas river), being captured only in canopy traps. These previously unknown taxa found in the Brazilian Amazon demonstrate the need to further study and definitely preserve this region and its still unknown biodiversity.

The key presented here will ease identification of syrphid genera in the Brazilian Amazon, allowing for a quicker assessment of new generic records, and also serving as an initial framework for regional taxonomic revisions and ecological studies. The compilation of references (Tables 2, 3 and 4) will direct the user to the most current species keys, and allied to the updated species lists in each taxon page, will also aid in identifying undescribed species or new records for the Brazilian Amazon.

CONCLUSIONS

Thirty-six new records of species and genera of Syrphidae are found, demonstrating the still unknown biodiversity present in the Brazilian Amazon. Furthermore, this study provides an updated identification key, and list of references to species keys, providing an initial study framework that will aid in future ecological studies and taxonomical revisions.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to thank Dr. José Albertino Rafael for logistic support during this study. Thanks also to the curators Dr. Francisco Limeira de Oliveira (CZMA), Dr. Márcio Oliveira (INPA), Dr. Cátia Mello-Patiu and Dr. Márcia Couri (MNRJ), and Dr. Orlando Tobias (MPEG), for loaning material. To colleagues Drs. Jeff Skevington, Menno Reemer, Steve Marshall and Ximo Mengual, and to the American Museum of Natural History, for sharing their pictures for use in the key. To Dr. Eduardo Abrantes for recovering label information. To colleagues at the LESUF/CBio/INPA, for comments and for testing the key online. To Thiago Andrade and Roberto Oliveira (CETIn/INPA) for hosting and maintaining the website. To INPA for the infrastructure. To the reviewers for the very helpful comments. To funding from FAPEAM/PRONEX, 016/2006 (process 1437/2007), PRONEX PRJ 12.39, and FAPEAM 062.03129/2012 granted to LESUF/INPA, and fellowships PDJ/CNPq (process 163108/2011-0) and PCI/INPA/CNPq (process 313083/2013-4) granted to the author.

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Appendix 1. Transcription of locality labels from the specimens representing new records of Syrphidae. 'GFGM' are codes from the author's personal database; '/' represents a new line in the locality label.

  1. Aristosyrphus (Aristosyrphus) sp.

  2. 1 female, "BRASIL, Amazonas, / Borba, Rio Abacaxis / 05°15'09''S - 58°41'52''W" "35m. 27-29.v.2008. J.A. / Rafael e equipe. Malaise" "INPA-DIP0000036" (INPA)

  3. 1 female, "BRA, Amazonas, Reserva / Florestal Adolpho Ducke / Igarapé Uberê. Malaise / xii.2002" "J.M.F.Ribeiro, Jo. Vidal & Ja / Vidal" "INPA-DIP0000068" (INPA)

  4. 1 female, "BRA, Amazonas, Reserva / Florestal Adolpho Ducke / 23.ix.1986 / L. Ulysses" "INPA-DIP000065" (INPA)

  5. Calostigma elnora Shannon, 1927

  6. 1 female, "BRASIL, AM, Maués, Rio / Abacaxis, Campina / Pacamiri, 04°35'49''S-" "58°13'14''W, 30-31.v.2008 / J.A.Rafael e equipe, arm / susp dossel mata" "INPA-DIP000173" (INPA)

  7. Carreramyia sp.

  8. 1 female, "BRA, Amazonas, Manaus / Reserva Adolpho Ducke, / 2°55'29''S 59°59'19''W. / 30.iii-04.iv.2012. / Malaise suspensa""PPGEnt-INPA. 2012." "INPA-DIP000001" (INPA)

  9. 1 female, "BRASIL: Amazonas / 26km NE Manaus / Reserva Ducke / 7-xii-1988" "J.A.Rafael / Arm. Suspensa / 20 metros" "0019493" (INPA)

  10. 1 female, "BRA, Amazonas, Novo / Aripuana, Guariuba, Rio / Aripuana. Armadilha suspensa / 15m em terra firme. 18- / 24.viii.1999. / J.F.Vidal & A.L.Henriques" "INPA-DIP000002" (INPA)

  11. Cepa margarita (Thompson, 1999)

  12. 1 female, "BRA, Amazonas, Fazenda / Esteio, Km41 (Res.1501). / 02°25'S-59°52'W. Suspensa 6. / 15-25.x.1995" "Projeto Dinâmica Biológica de Fragmentos Florestais" "INPA-DIP00000067" (INPA)

  13. Ceratophya carinifacies (Curran, 1934)

  14. 1 female, "Brasil (MA),C.N.Maranhão / REBIO - Res.Biol. Gurupi / 03°14'05''S / 46°41'83''W" "Armadilha suspensa / 01-06.iii.2011, F.Limeira-de- / Oliveira & D.W.A.Marques" "GFGM-CZMA0003" (CZMA)

  15. Domodon zodiacus Reemer, 2013

  16. 1 male, "BRASIL, Amazonas / S. Gabriel Cachoeira / Morro 6 lagos / 28.ix-6.x.199" "300m / Arm. Malaise / J.A. Rejael / J. Vidal" "INPA-DIP0000035" (INPA)

  17. Eosalpingogaster cochenillivora (Guérin-Méneville, 1848)

  18. 1 male, "Brasil Pará / Serra Norte / N1.C rupestre / 20.vi.1985" "Brasil Pará / M.F. Torres" "MPEG-DIP12170472" (MPEG)

  19. Hybobathus placivus (Williston, 1888)

  20. 1 male, "Brasil Pará / Benevides Faz. / Morelandia / 6.VII.1988" "Brasil Pará / J. Dias" "GFGM-MPEG0006" (MPEG)

  21. Hypselosyrphus trigonus Hull, 1937

  22. 1 female, "BRASIL. AM, Barcelos, Rio / Aracá, boca rio Curuduri / 00°05'50.2''N 63°17'22.3''W / 15-19.vi.2010, suspensa / dossel, 35m, E. Alvim, J.A. / Rafael, R. Freitas Silva""INPA-DIP0000007" (INPA)

  23. Mallota sp.

  24. 2 females, "Brasil, Amazonas / S. Gabriel da Cachoeira / Serra da Neblina / Lajero. 1780m / -65.982/0,808 / 24.viii.2005 R.L. Dias" "INPA-DIP0000760 & ...761" (INPA)

  25. Masarygus planifrons Brèthes, 1908

  26. 1 male, "Brasil Pará / Benevides Faz. / Morelandia / 29.VI.1988" "Brasil Pará / F.F. Ramos" "GFGM-MPEG0005" (MPEG)

  27. Menidon falcatus (Williston, 1887)

  28. 1 female, "BRASIL, AM, Resex Unini / Rio Unini, lago 03 bocas / 01°34'13''S, 62°58'54''W / 14-28.vii.2004" "Arm. Suspensa 25m / M.L.Oliveira, A. Silva F. / L. Aquino leg." "INPA-DIP0000046" (INPA)

  29. Meromacrus milesia Hull, 1942

  30. 1 female, "TEFÉ / Amazonas, Brasil / VIII.1959 / R. Carvalho" (MNRJ)

  31. 1 female, "TEFÉ / Amazonas, Brasil / XI.1959 / R. Carvalho" (MNRJ)

  32. M. pachypus (Wiedemann, 1830)

  33. 1 female, "TEFÉ / Amazonas, Brasil / XII.1959 / R. Carvalho" (MNRJ)

  34. Microdon (Microdon) macquartii Lynch-Arribalzaga, 1891

  35. 1 female, "BRA, Amazonas / Manaus, Res. Ducke / Igarapé Tinga / Arm. Suspensa 20m" "6-16.xii.2004 / Henriques, A. Leg." "INPA-DIP000754" (INPA)

  36. Nausigaster bonariensis Lynch-Arribalzaga, 1892

  37. 1 female, "Brasil, Pará Monte Alegre / 16 a 20.I. 1992 / A. L. Henriques" "Armadilha / Cerrado / Malayse" "Brasil, Pará / O.T. Silveira" "GFGM-MPEG 0010" (MPEG)

  38. Ocyptamus icarus Reemer, 2010

  39. 1 male, "Brasil, AC - Rio Branco / 25.X a 8.XI-91 / F.Ramos / A. Henriques / I. Gorayeb / N. Bittencourt" "Mata / Terra Firme" "GFGM-MPEG0003" (MPEG)

  40. O. obliquus (Curran, 1941)

  41. 1 female, "BRASIL, Amazonas / Barcelos, viii.2008 / Bacuquara / 0°09'09''N; 63°10'38''W" "Coleta Manual / A. Silva & R. Machado" "INPA-DIP0000248" (INPA)

  42. 3 males, "BRASIL, Amazonas / Barcelos, viii.2008 / Bacuquara / 0°09'09''N; 63°10'38''W" "Coleta Manual / A. Silva & R. Machado" (INPA)

  43. 1 female, "BRA, Amazonas, Manaus, Rio / Solimões S 01°30'205'' / W 061°31'975''. Tenda do / barco, 8:45h. L. Salvatierra" "INPA-DIP0000251" (INPA)

  44. O. prenes (Curran, 1930)

  45. 1 male, "BRASIL, Amazonas, Manaus, / Estação de Horticultura do INPA / 02°59'46.2'' S e 60°01'24.7''W 18.ii.2007 - Colleto- / Silva,A. catação / coletado no camu-camu" "INPA-DIP0000246" (INPA)

  46. 1 female, "BRASIL, Amazonas, Manaus, / Estação de Horticultura do INPA / 02°59'46.2'' S e 60°01'24.7''W / 29.x.2005 - Colleto-Silva,A. / catação no camu-camu" (INPA)

  47. Orthonevra sp.

  48. 1 female, "BRA, Amazonas, Novo / Aripuana, Res. Soka. Malaise. / seca. 05°15'53''S-60°07'08''W. / 17-25.viii.1999 / J. Vidal & A.L. Henriques""INPA-DIP0000185" (INPA)

  49. 2 females, "Brasil(MA), São P. Água / Branca, Faz. Esplanada, / Arm. Malaise, 10-16.ix. / 2001, F. Limeira-de-Oli- / veira& J.T. Câmara" (CZMA)

  50. Palpada aemula (Williston, 1891)

  51. 1 female, "BRASIL, Pará, Rio / Nhamundá, / 01°35'11'' S - 57°37'32''W" "25m. 17-20.v.2008. J.A. / Rafael e equipe. Malaise" (INPA)

  52. P. agrorum (Fabricius, 1787)

  53. 1 male and 1 female, "BRASIL, AM, Rio Solimões, Lago do José, / Prox. Manaus. 09.viii" "1979. J Adis e equipe. Fumigação (fogging)" (INPA)

  54. 1 male, "BRASIL, Amazonas / Manaus / Tarumã baixa / 3°00'17'' 60°02'20'' "25.Fev.1982 / B.W.Nelson & / G.T. Prance leg. / Rhabdodendrum macrophylum" (INPA)

  55. 1 female, "BRASIL AM, Benjamin / Constant, Ig. Crajarizinho / 042635S-695958W / 08-10.ix.2005, Malaise, / J.A.Rafael & F.F.Xavier Fo" (INPA)

  56. 1 female, "BRASIL. Amazonas / Serra do Aracá 1073 m.a. / 00°53'44.2''N / 63°26'15.9''W / 02-08.viii.2007. coleta manual / M.L.Oliveira & A.S.Filho leg" (INPA)

  57. 1 female, "BRASIL Amazonas / Barcelos, vii.2007 / Serra do Aracá, 1.100m / 0°54'35''N; 63°26'01''W" "Na luz / A. Filho leg." (INPA)

  58. P. fasciata (Wiedemann, 1819)

  59. 1 male, "BRASIL. Amazonas / Serra do Aracá 1073 m.a. / 00°53'44.2''N / 63°26'15.9''W / 02-08.viii.2007. coleta manual / M.L.Oliveira & A.S.Filho leg" (INPA)

  60. 1 female, "BRASIL Amazonas / Barcelos, vii.2007 / Serra do Aracá, 1.100m / 0°54'35''N; 63°26'01''W" "Na luz / A. Filho leg." (INPA)

  61. 1 female, "BRA, Amazonas, Novo / Aripuanã, lago Xadá / 05°15'39''S 60°42'32''W / iv.2005" "Armadilha Malaise / F. Xavier, F. Godoi / & A. Lourido leg." (INPA)

  62. 1 female, "BRASIL, Amazonas, Manaus / Estação Exper. Silvicultura / Tropical, BR-174, km43 / 24.iv.2003" "Rede entomológica / Floresta / Galinkin J." (INPA)

  63. 1 female, "BRASIL. Pará, Anapú, / Rod. Transamazônica rio / São José, 50 m" "03°24'18''S-51°16'37''W / 06.iv.2008, arm. Luz / J.A.Rafael, F.F.Xavier Fo" (INPA)

  64. Pelecinobaccha pandora (Hull, 1941)

  65. 1 female, "Brasil AC - Rio Branco / 25 - X a 8 - XI - 91 / F. Ramos / A. Henriques / I. Gorayeb / N. Bittencourt" "Armadilha / Malayse / T. Firme" "GFGM-MPEG0001" (MPEG)

  66. Polybiomyia bigotii (Williston, 1888)

  67. 1 male, "BRASIL, RR, Amajari, Serra / Tepequém 03°44'' 35.5''N - / 61°43'39''W, 10-12.vii.2010 / J.A.Rafael varredura" "INPA-DIP0000175" (INPA)

  68. Pseudomicrodon polistoides Reemer, 2013

  69. 1 female, "BRASIL, Amazonas / Carauari, 5°05'31''S / 67°10'03''. Vii.2005 / Luz mista/mercúrio" "A. Henriques & Xavier-Filho leg." "INPA-DIP0000075" (INPA)

  70. P. smiti Reemer, 2013

  71. 1 female, "BRA, Amazonas, Manaus, / Campus Universitário-UFAM / Malaise, 19.v.1979 / J.A.Rafael" "INPA-DIP0000073" (INPA)

  72. 1 male, "BRASIL, AM, Resex Unini / Rio Unini, lago 03 bocas / 01°34'13''S, 62°58'54''W / 14-28.vii.2004" "Arm. Suspensa lâmina / d'água, M.L.Oliveira, / A. Silva F. L. Aquino leg." "INPA-DIP0000075" (INPA)

  73. Quichuana longicauda Ricarte & Hancock, 2012

  74. 1 female, "BRASIL, AM, Borba, Rio / Abacaxis, Paxiúba / 04°28'48''S-59°29'34''W" "02-04.vi.2008, J.A.Rafael / e equipe, arm. Suspensa / 30mts." (INPA)

  75. Schizoceratomyia barretoi Carrera, Lopes & Lane, 1947

  76. 1 male, "Caimbé Vigia / 24.II.1968" "Brasil PA / J. Barata" (MPEG)

  77. 1 male, "Caimbé Vigia / 24.II.1968" "Brasil PA / T. Pimentel" (MPEG)

  78. 1 female, "Caimbé Vigia / 24.II.1968" "Brasil PA / T. Pimentel" "GFM-MPEG0008" (MPEG)

  79. Stipomorpha apicula (Curran, 1930)

  80. 4 males and 6 females, "BRA, Amazonas, Manaus, / Campus Universitário-UFAM/ [several dates] / J.A.Rafael" "INPA-DIP0000015-24" (INPA)

  81. S. goettei (Shannon, 1927)

  82. 1 male, "BRASIL, AM, Ipixuna, Rio / Liberdade, Estirão da Preta / 07°21'46.7''S - 71°52'07.1''W / 11-15.v.2011. Arm. Malaise" "J.A.Rafael, J.T.Câmara, R.F. / Silva, A. Somavilla, C. / Gonçalves, leg." "INPA-DIP0000011" (INPA)

  83. S. guianica (Curran, 1925)

  84. 1 female, "BRASIL, AM, Resex Unini / Rio Unini, lago 03 bocas / 01°34'13''S, 62°58'54''W / 14-28.vii.2004" "Arm. Suspensa em Igarapé / M.L.Oliveira, A. Silva F. / L. Aquino leg." "INPA-DIP0000012" (INPA)

  85. S. mackiei (Shannon, 1927)

  86. 1 male, "BRASIL, AM, Resex Unini / Rio Unini, lago 03 bocas / 01°34'13''S, 62°58'54''W / 14-28.vii.2004" "Arm. Suspensa lâmina / d'água, M.L.Oliveira, / A. Silva F. L. Aquino leg." "INPA-DIP0000025" (INPA)

  87. Surimyia minutula (Doesburg, 1966)

  88. 1 male, "BRA, Amazonas, Parque / Nacional do Jaú, Seringalzinho / (Nazaré), right margin rio Jaú, / 37m. Asl PNJ018. 01°54'45''S- / 61°35'25''W. 30.vi-06.vii.2003." "Malaise trap (N) / Campina D.M. Takiya" "INPA-DIP0000088" (INPA)

  89. Trichopsomyia polita Williston, 1888

  90. 1 female, "BRA, Roraima, Uiramutá / Rio Wailá. 04°37'50''S, / 60°09'46''W, 19- / 22.iii.2007. Xavier Fo, F.F. / Arm. Malaise" "INPA-DIP0000166" (INPA)

  91. Xanthandrus plaumanni Fluke, 1937

  92. 1 female, "BRASIL, Amazonas / Barcelos, Rio Demeni / Jalauaca, viii.2008 / 0°16'15''S, 62°44'49''W" "Armadilha suspensa 25m / Terra firme, floresta / A. Silva & R. Machado" "INPA-DIP000165" (INPA)

  93. 1 male, "BRASIL, RR, Amajari, Serra / Tepequém 03°44'' 35.5''N - / 61°43'39''W, 10-12.vii.2010 / J.A.Rafael varredura" "INPA-DIP0000138" (INPA)

Supplementary material. Supplementary material 1 - Photographic identification key to the genera of Syrphidae from the Brazilian Amazon (key.pdf)

Available at: http://keys.inpa.gov.br/?idkey=syrphidae

Supplementary material 2 - Glossary of common terms (Glossary.jpeg)

Available at: http://keys.inpa.gov.br/?idkey=syrphidae

Supplementary material 3 - Orientation of specimens (Orientation.jpeg)

Available at: http://keys.inpa.gov.br/?idkey=syrphidae

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Jan-Mar 2017

History

  • Received
    19 Apr 2016
  • Accepted
    27 June 2016
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia Av. André Araujo, 2936 Aleixo, 69060-001 Manaus AM Brasil, Tel.: +55 92 3643-3030, Fax: +55 92 643-3223 - Manaus - AM - Brazil
E-mail: acta@inpa.gov.br