Abstracts
In this paper we give some examples of surfaces in H³ with conformal normal Gauss map with respect to the second conformal structure and prove some global properties.
hyperbolic space; conformal normal Gauss map; ruled surface; translational surface
Neste trabalho, damos alguns exemplos de superfícies no espaço hiperbólico de dimensão três com aplicação de Gauss conforme relativamente à segunda estrutura conforme e provamos algumas propriedades globais.
espaço hiperbólico; aplicação normal de Gauss conforme; superfície regrada; superfície de translação
MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES
New examples of surfaces in H^{3} with conformal normal Gauss map
Shuguo Shi
School of Mathematics and System Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, P.R. China
ABSTRACT
In this paper we give some examples of surfaces in H^{3} with conformal normal Gauss map with respect to the second conformal structure and prove some global properties.
Key words: hyperbolic space, conformal normal Gauss map, ruled surface, translational surface.
RESUMO
Neste trabalho, damos alguns exemplos de superfícies no espaço hiperbólico de dimensão três com aplicação de Gauss conforme relativamente à segunda estrutura conforme e provamos algumas propriedades globais.
Palavraschave: espaço hiperbólico, aplicação normal de Gauss conforme, superfície regrada, superfície de translação.
It is well known that the Weierstrass representation formula has played an important role in studying minimal surfaces in R^{3}. To find a Weierstrasstype representation formula for simply connected immersed minimal surfaces in hyperbolic nspace, Kokubu (Kokubu 1997) considered the hyperbolic space as a Lie group G with a left invariant metric. Given a twodimensional domain D and a map (j) into the above Lie group, he considered the pullback (j^{i}) of the MaurerCartan forms to D. Using the standard harmonic map equation for such maps, and by pulling back the MaurerCartan structure equations, he derived a complete integrability condition for the 1forms (j^{i}). Also, to assure that the associated harmonic map is a minimal surface, a conformality condition is imposed. The normal Gauss map into the hyperquadric is written down, which is the usual tangential Gauss map translated to the Lie algebra of G. On the other hand, Gálvez and Martínez (Gálvez and Martínez 2000) studied the properties of the Gauss map of a surface S immersed into the Euclidean 3space R^{3}, particularly those related to the geometry of the immersion and the socalled second conformal structure of the surface, that is, the conformal structure on S induced by the second fundamental form. Motivated by their work, the author (Shi 2004) gave a Weierstrass representation formula for surfaces with prescribed normal Gauss map and Gauss curvature in H^{3} by using the second conformal structure on surfaces (see section 1 for the definition). From this, surfaces whose normal Gauss map are conformal maps have been found(see Theorem 1).
The propose of this paper is to classify locally the ruled surfaces with conformal normal Gauss map in H^{3} and also give some new examples of complete properly embedded ruled surfaces. The rest of the paper is divided into three sections. The first one describes the definitions of the normal Gauss map in context of this paper and the second conformal structure on surfaces and states Theorem 1. The second section gets two local examples within the Euclidean ruled surface and in the last section some global properties of the ruled surfaces and translational surfaces are proven.
1 PRELIMINARIES
Take the upper halfspace model of the hyperbolic 3space H^{3} = {(x_{1}, x_{2}, x_{3}) Î R^{3 }: x_{3} > 0} with the Riemannian metric ds^{2} = and constant sectional curvature 1.
Let S be a connected 2dimensional smooth surface and x : S ® H^{3} be an immersion of S into H^{3} with local coordinates u, v. The first and the second fundamental forms of the immersion are written, respectively, as I = Edu^{2} + 2Fdudv + Gdv^{2} and II = Ldu^{2} + 2Mdudv + Ndv^{2}. The unit normal vector field of x(S) in H^{3} is written as
where = 1. The Gauss equation is
Identifying H^{3} with the Lie group
the multiplication is defined as matrix multiplication and the unit element is e = (0,0,1). The Riemannian metric is leftinvariant and are the leftinvariant unit orthonormal vector fields. Now, the unit normal vector field of x(S) can be written as = e_{31}X_{1}+e_{32}X_{2}+e_{33}X_{3}. Left translating to T_{e}(H^{3}), we obtain
By the stereographic projection, we get the map S ® C{¥},
Call g_{1}(or g_{2}) the normal Gauss map of surface x(S) (Kokubu 1997). On U_{1}U_{2}, g_{1}g_{2} = 1. In this paper, we only consider g_{1} and write the normal Gauss map as g : S ® C {¥}. Then we have
Consider an immersion x : S ® H^{3} with Gauss curvature K > 1. By the Gauss equation, we can choose a suitable orientation on x(S) such that the second fundamental form II becomes a positive definite metric on S and induces a conformal structure on S, which is called the second conformal structure like (Klotz 1963). S will be considered as a Riemannian surface with the second conformal structure.
THEOREM 1 (Shi 2004). Let S be a connected Riemannian surface and x : S ® H^{3} be an immersion with Gauss curvature K > 1. Assume that the set of umbilics has no interior point. Then normal Gauss map g : S ® C{¥} of x(S) is conformal map if and only if the Gauss curvature K and the normal Gauss map g satisfy .
The Weierstrass representation formulas for these surfaces can be found in (Shi 2004).
REMARK. For the Bryant's hyperbolic Gauss map of surface in H^{3}(see (Bryant 1987) for the definition), Gálvez, Martínez and Milán (Gálvez et al. 2000) proven that the hyperbolic Gauss map is conformal if and only if the surface is either flat or totally umbilic.
Locally, the graph (u, v, f(u, v)) satisfying must satisfy the following fully nonlinear PDE of second order (Shi 2004),
2 EXAMPLES
We consider the surfaces in H^{3} as those ones in R^{3}. The simplest examples of surfaces with conformal normal Gauss map are the equidistant surfaces and horospheres x_{3} = const > 0, i.e. ordinary Euclidean planes. They are totally umbilics with constant Gauss curvature and constant normal Gauss map.
The following theorem gives all the ruled surfaces with conformal normal Gauss map in H^{3}.
THEOREM 2. Up to an isometric transformation
of H ^{3} , every ruled surface with conformal normal Gauss map in H ^{3} is locally a part of one of the following,
(1) equidistant surface with respect to a vertical hyperbolic plane,
(2) Horosphere x_{3} = constant > 0,
(3) (u cos v, c · sin v, u sin v), for a constant c ¹ 0,
(4) (c_{2 }sin v + ucos v, c_{1 }· sin v, c_{2} cos v + u sin v), for constants c_{1}¹ 0 and c_{2}¹ 0.
REMARK. We may check that, among all isometric transformations of H^{3} (Korevaar et al. 1992), the horizontal Euclidean translations and rotations (2), the hyperbolic reflections with respect to a vertical hyperplane and the vertical hyperbolic translations
(x_{1}, x_{2}, x_{3}) ® (l(x_{1 } a), l(x_{2 } b), lx_{3}), (l > 0),
preserve the concept of the ruled surfaces and the conformality of the normal Gauss map of any surface with conformal normal Gauss map and the hyperbolic reflections
preserve the conformality of the normal Gauss map of all totally umbilics but totally geodesics.
PROOF. Generally, considered as surfaces in R^{3}, the ruled surfaces in H^{3} can be represented as
x(u, v) = a(v) + ub(v) : D ® H^{3},
where D(Ì R^{2}) is a parameter domain and a(v) and b(v) are two vector value functions into R^{3} corresponding to two curves in R^{3}.
First, we assume that b is locally nonconstant and without loss of generality assume that
where á·,·ñ is the inner product in R^{3}. Write as e = (0,0,1). We have x_{3} = áx, eñ and b¢¢ ¹ 0. The unit normal vector of the surface x(u, v) : D ® H^{3} is given by
where X Ù Y is the exterior product of the vectors X and Y in R^{3} and · is the Euclidean norm in R^{3}. So
By a straight computation, we have,
By the Gauss equation and (4), we know that
is equivalent to
Expanding the above formula and noting the linearly independence of 1, u, u^{2} and u^{3}, we get
By (7), if áb Ù b¢, e ñ ¹ 0 at a point p_{0}, then áb¢¢, b Ù b¢ñ = 0 in a neighbourhood U of p_{0} and the curver b(v) is a geodesic of S^{2}. Hence, áb Ù b¢, eñ is locally constant and so is globally constant.
CASE 1. If áb Ù b¢, eñ = 0, then áb Ù b¢¢, eñ = 0. Hence b, b¢, b¢¢ and e lie on same plane. We get áb, b¢Ù b¢¢ñ = 0. So the curve b(v) is a plane curve in R^{3}, i.e. a unit circle, and the plane p on which b lies passes through the origin of R^{3}. By áb Ù b¢, eñ = 0, we know p is a vertical plane on which x_{3}axis lies. Revolving p around x_{3}axis, i.e. making an isometric transformation (x_{1}, x_{2}, x_{3}) ® (x_{1 }cos q  x_{2} sin q, x_{1 }sin q + x_{2} cos q, x_{3}), we may assume that p is the plane x_{1}ox_{3}. So b(v) = (cos v, 0, sin v). Assume a(v) = ( x_{1}(v), x_{2}(v), x_{3}(v)), then equation systems (3) and (7)(10) may be written as
Solving (11)(12)(13), we get
a(v) = (c_{2 }sin v + c_{3}, c_{1 }sin v + c_{4}, c_{2} cos v),
where c_{1}¹ 0, c_{2},c_{3} and c_{4} are constants. Making a translation (x_{1}, x_{2}, x_{3}) ® (x_{1} + c_{3}, x_{2}+c_{4}, x_{3}), we get (3) and (4) of Theorem 2.
CASE 2. If áb Ù b¢, eñ ¹ 0, then áb¢¢, b Ù b¢ñ º 0. We also get that the curve b is a plane curve in R^{3} and the plane p on which the curve b lies passes through the origin of R^{3} but is not totally geodesic. Similar to case 1, making a rotation transformation around x_{3}axis, we may assume that x_{1}axis lies on p. Now, b(v)is a unit circle on p. b(v) = (cos v, sin v cos q, sin v sin q), where constant q is the angle between plane x_{1}ox_{2} and p. By (8), we get áa¢¢, b Ù b¢ñ = 0. Multiplying (10) by áb Ù b¢, eñ and using (9), we get
áa, eñ · áb Ù b¢, e ñ · áb¢ , b Ù a¢ñ^{2} = áb Ù a¢, eñ · áb, eñ · áb¢, b Ù a¢ñ^{2}.
Then, according to whether áb¢, b Ù a¢ñ = 0 or not, we again get two cases from equation systems (3) and (7)(10),
CASE (i),
áa¢, b¢ñ = 0, áb Ù b¢, eñ ¹ 0, áa¢¢, b Ù b¢ñ = 0,
áb¢, b Ù a¢ñ = 0, áa¢¢, b Ù a¢ñ = 0,
and
CASE (ii),
áa¢, b¢ñ = 0, áb Ù b¢, eñ ¹ 0, áa¢¢, b Ù b¢ñ = 0, áb¢, b Ù a¢ñ ¹ 0,
áa, eñ · áb Ù b¢, eñ = áb, eñ · áb Ù a¢, eñ,
áb Ù b¢, eñ · áa¢¢, b Ù a¢ñ  2áa¢, bñ · áb¢, b Ù a¢ñ · áb Ù b¢, eñ
= áb, eñ · áb¢, b Ù a¢ñ^{2}.
In the case (i), taking derivative on áa¢¢, b Ù b¢ñ = 0, we get áa¢¢¢, b Ù b¢ñ = 0. So áa¢ Ù a¢¢, a¢¢¢ ñ = 0, i.e. the torsion of the curve a(v) is zero. We infer that the curve a(v) is a plane curve and the plane on which the curve a lies parallels to p. Hence x satisfies either (1) or (2) of Theorem 2. As for the case (ii), similar to the proof in the case 1, we know that this is a contradictory system of equations.
Next, when b is constant, we have b Ù e ¹ 0. Or else, by proposition 34 in chapter 7 of (Spivak 1979), we have K º 1. A contradiction. We may assume
Thus a(v) is a plane curve and (6) becomes
We have áb Ù a¢, eñ ¹ 0. Or else, a(v) is a plane curve and lies on a plane parallel to the one spanned by b and e. Then x : D ® H^{3} is totally geodesic plane H^{2} and K º 1. This is contradictory to K > 1. So áa¢¢, b Ù a¢ñ = 0. By (14) , we know that a(v) is a straight line in R^{3} and x : D ® H^{3} is either a equidistant surface or a horosphere x_{3} = constant > 0. We have proved Theorem 2.
Locally, the ruled surfaces (3) and (4) in Theorem 2 can be represented as a graph(u, v ,f(u, v)).
COROLLARY 1. f(u, v) = is a solution of equation (1), where c_{1} ¹ 0 and c_{2} are constants.
3 GLOBAL PROPERTIES
The equidistant surfaces and horosphere x_{3} = const > 0 are simply connected, complete, totally umbilics and properly embedded surfaces. Generally, we have the following global properties for the ruled surfaces obtained in theorem 2.
THEOREM 3. The following are simply connected, complete and properly embedded surfaces in H^{3},
(1) x(u, v) = (u cos v, c · sin v, u sin v) : D_{1} = {(u, v)0 < u < +¥, 0 < v < p} ® H^{3}, and
(2) x(u, v) = ( c_{2 }sin v + u cos v, c_{1 }sin v, c_{2 }cos v + u sin v):
where c > 0, c_{1} > 0 and c_{2} > 0 are constants.
PROOF.
(1) The map x : D_{1}® H^{3} is onetoone. For any compact subset S in H^{3}, it is easy to know that the relative closed set x^{1}(S)( Ì Ì D_{1}), as the subset of R^{2}, is bounded and closed set of R^{2}. Hence x^{1}(S) is a compact set. So, x : D_{1 }® H^{3} is a proper map and x(D_{1}) is a complete surface in H^{3}. On the basis of this, we can infer that x : D_{1}® r(D_{1}) is closed. So x maps D_{1} homeomorphically onto its image with the induced topology and x : D_{1 }® H^{3} is embedded.
(2) By a parameter transformation u = and v = + arctan , D_{2} is diffeomorphic to = {(,)¥ < < +¥, 0 < < p}. Then x : D_{2 }® H^{3} becomes x : ® H^{3} with
Similar to the proof of (1), we can prove (2).
We have obtained the translational surfaces with conformal normal Gauss map in nonparameter form (Shi 2004),
satisfying (1). Now, the parameter form of these translational surfaces is locally given by x(u, v) = (a cos u, b cos v, a sin u + b sin v).
THEOREM 4.
(1) The map x(u,v) = (cos u, cos v, sin u + sin v) : D_{1}® H^{3} is a simply connected, complete and properly embedded surface, where D_{1} is a simply connected open domain of R^{2} enclosed by four straight lines v = u ± p, v = u + 2p and v = u.
(2) For 0 < a < b, the image of the map x(u,v) = (a cos u, b cos v, a sin u + b sin v) : D_{2 }® H^{3} is a complete and properly embedded surface diffeomorphic to S^{1 }× R, where
PROOF.
(1) By a parameter transformation u = + and v = , D_{1} is diffeomorphic to = {(,)0 < < p,< < } Ì R^{2}. Then x : D_{1 }® H^{3} becomes x : ® H^{3} with
Similar to the proof of (1) in Theorem 3, we can prove (1).
(2) It is easy to know that image x(D_{2}) is diffeomorphic to S^{1} × R . For any divergent curve a : [0, 1) ® D_{2}, when t ® 1, a(t) tends to either the boundary curve, v = arcsin ( sin u) and v = p + arcsin ( sin u) or ¥. For the former, if the length of x(a(t)) is finite, then there exist a compact set S in H^{3} containing completely the curve x(a(t)). However, when restricting x(D_{2}) on S, there exists a positive constant e_{0} such that a sin u + b sin v > e_{0}. We may assume e_{0} < min {a,ba}. So a(t) must satisfy arcsin ( sin u  ) < v < p + arcsin ( sin u  ). So a(t) does not tend to the boundary of D_{2}, which is contradictory that a(t) tends to the boundary of D_{2}. So the length of x(a(t)) is infinite. For the latter, as t ® 1, u(t) ® ¥. The first fundamental form of x : D_{2}® H^{3} satisfies
So the length of x(a(t))
Noting that , we have L = +¥. In a word, the length of x(a(t)) is always infinite. Hence the image x(D_{2}) is complete.
Next, we prove that the image x(D_{2}) is a proper surface. When restricting x(D_{2}) on any compact set S in H^{3} mentioned above, the first fundamental form of x : D_{2 }® H^{3} satisfies ds^{2}< (du^{2} + dv^{2}), where C is constant and depend only on a and b. So, we infer that the restriction of S to x(D_{2}) is bounded closed subset of x(D_{2}) and hence is compact subset of x(D_{2}). We complete the proof.
REMARK. The curves in Theorem 3, corresponding respectively to v = on x(D_{1}) and to v = ± on x(D_{2}) and the curves in Theorem 4, corresponding to u = 0,. u = p, v = 0 and v = p on x(D_{1}) and x(D_{2}) are all geodesics of H^{3} follow which K = 1 and accordingly the second fundamental forms are degenerate. Furthermore, every such a geodesic is mapped to a point by the normal Gauss map.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author is very grateful to Professor Detang Zhou for his unending concern, support and valuable help. The author would like to express his appreciations to the referees for their interest, careful examination and valuable suggestions.
This work is supported by the starting foundation of science research of Shandong University.
Manuscript received on June 17, 2005; accepted for publication on October 26, 2005; presented by MANFREDO DO CARMO
Email: shishuguo@hotmail.com
AMS Classification(2000): 53C42, 53A10
 BRYANT RL. 1987. Surfaces of mean curvature one in hyperbolic space. Astérisque 154155: 321347.
 GÁLVEZ JA AND MARTÍNEZ A. 2000. The Gauss map and second fundamental form of surfaces in R^{3} Geometriae Dedicata 81: 181192.
 GÁLVEZ JA, MARTÍNEZ A AND MILÁN F. 2000. Flat surfaces in the hyperbolic 3space. Math Ann 316: 419435.
 KLOTZ T. 1963. Some uses of the second conformal structure on strictly convex surfaces. Proc Amer Math Soc 14: 793799.
 KOKUBU M. 1997. Weierstrass representation for minimal surfaces in hyperbolic space. Tôhoku Math J 49: 367377.
 KOREVAAR NJ, KUSNER R, MEEKS III WH AND SOLOMON B. 1992. Constant mean curvature surfaces in hyperbolic space. Amer J Math 114: 143.
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Publication Dates

Publication in this collection
08 Mar 2006 
Date of issue
Mar 2006
History

Accepted
26 Oct 2005 
Received
17 June 2005