Abstract in English:Abstract We propose a new four-parameter lifetime model, called the extended log-logistic distribution, to generalize the two-parameter log-logistic model. The new model is quite flexible to analyze positive data. We provide some mathematical properties including explicit expressions for the ordinary and incomplete moments, probability weighted moments, mean deviations, quantile function and entropy measure. The estimation of the model parameters is performed by maximum likelihood using the BFGS algorithm. The flexibility of the new model is illustrated by means of an application to a real data set. We hope that the new distribution will serve as an alternative model to other useful distributions for modeling positive real data in many areas.
Abstract in English:Abstract A topological group G has the Approximate Fixed Point (AFP) property on a bounded convex subset C of a locally convex space if every continuous affine action of G on C admits a net (xi), xi∈C, such that xi-gxi⟶0 for all g∈G. In this work, we study the relationship between this property and amenability.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In Mexican Traditional Medicine 187 plant species are used in the treatment of respiratory conditions that may be associated with tuberculosis. In this contribution, we review the ethnobotany, chemistry and pharmacology of 63 species whose extracts have been assayed for antimycobacterial activity in vitro. Among these, the most potent is Aristolochia brevipes (MIC= 12.5 µg/mL), followed by Aristolochia taliscana, Citrus sinensis, Chrysactinia mexicana, Persea americana, and Olea europaea (MIC<64 µg/mL). Other potent extracts (inhibition > 95%, 50 µg/mL) include: Amphipterygium adstringens, Larrea divaricata, and Phoradendron robinsoni. Several active compounds have been identified, the most potent are: Licarin A (isolated from A. taliscana), and 9-amino-9-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[h]-chromen-2-one (transformation product of 9-methoxytariacuripyrone isolated from Aristolochia brevipes), both with MIC= 3.125 µg/mL, that is 8-fold less potent than the reference drug Rifampicin (MIC= 0.5 µg/mL). Any of the compounds or extracts here reviewed has been studied in clinical trials or with animal models; however, these should be accomplished since several are active against strains resistant to common drugs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Propolis produced by selected bees Apis mellifera were collected from March to June of 2013 and in March of 2015 and analyzed in order to evaluate the influence of climate, colony of origin, and food supplementation of colonies on the content of total phenolic and flavonoid by chromatographic analysis and antioxidant activity by radical scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was carried out with propolis collected in 2013 and two clusters were formed. Propolis produced in the months of March and April showed a higher content of total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity than those produced in May and June. The results of PCA obtained from samples collected in March of 2013 and 2015 showed two clusters, and propolis collected in 2015 were more bioactive and presented a higher content of TPC. The chromatographic analysis of extracts allowed the identification of phenolic acids p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic with similar chemical profiles that could be closely related to the botanical origin of propolis. It can be concluded that the season and food supplementation of colonies influenced the chemical composition and the biological activity of samples analysed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the purification of inulinase by changing the ionic strength of the medium by addition of NaCl and CaCl2 followed by precipitation with n-propyl alcohol or iso-propyl alcohol. The effects of the concentration of alcohols and the rate of addition of alcohols in the crude extract on the purification yield and purification factor were evaluated. Precipitation caused an activation of enzyme and allowed purification factors up to 2.4-fold for both alcohols. The purification factor was affected positively by the modification of the ionic strength of the medium to 0.5 mol.L-1 NaCl before precipitation with the alcohol (n-propyl or iso-propyl). A purification factor of 4.8-fold and an enzyme yield of 78.1 % could be achieved by the addition of 0.5 mol.L-1 of NaCl to the crude extract, followed by the precipitation with 50 % (v/v) of n-propyl alcohol, added at a flow rate of 19.9 mL/min.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A new lactone, 7-epi-griffonilide (1), and six known compounds, 2, 3a - 3c, 4a and 4b, were isolated from the leaves of Bauhinia pentandra (Fabaceae). The structures elucidation of 1 and 2 were based on detailed 2D NMR techniques and spectral comparison with related compounds, leading to complete assignment of the 1H and 13C NMR spectra.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Glass microbeads are frequently used in analog physical modeling to simulate weak detachment zones but have been neglected in models of thrust wedges. Microbeads differ from quartz sand in grain shape and in low angle of internal friction. In this study, we compared the structural characteristics of microbeads and sand wedges. To obtain a better picture of their mechanical behavior, we determined the physical and frictional properties of microbeads using polarizing and scanning electron microscopy and ring-shear tests, respectively. We built shortening experiments with different basal frictions and measured the thickness, slope and length of the wedges and also the fault spacings. All the microbeads experiments revealed wedge geometries that were consistent with previous studies that have been performed with sand. However, the deformation features in the microbeads shortened over low to intermediate basal frictions were slightly different. Microbeads produced different fault geometries than sand as well as a different grain flow. In addition, they produced slip on minor faults, which was associated with distributed deformation and gave the microbeads wedges the appearance of disharmonic folds. We concluded that the glass microbeads may be used to simulate relatively competent rocks, like carbonates, which may be characterized by small-scale deformation features.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Transmissivity is an important hydraulic parameter to determine the amount of water passed horizontally across a given saturated thickness of an aquifer. The techniques to quantify this parameter, such as grain size analyses or pumping tests, can have limitations of time/spatial scale, viability, or economically. One technique that can be used, but little adopted, is the capture zone analysis. In this paper, capture zone analytical equations were used to estimate transmissivity values in order to verify the effectiveness of this methodology as alternative in situations where other traditional methods present implementation difficulties. The results were compared with field data estimated by aquifer tests conducted in the same region. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to identify possible discrepancies between the analytical and field data results. The aquifer studied was the Sete Lagoas Karst Aquifer in the urban region of the municipality of Sete Lagoas, Brazil. The method proved to be a viable and economical tool, where the analytical values compared to the aquifer tests showed similarities, being confirmed by a sensitivity analysis. However, a reliable potentiometric surface map, which enables the identification of the parameters for analytical capture zone equations, is needed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We report on the pioneering discovery of Devonian fish remains in the Paraná Basin, which represents the southernmost record of fishes from that period in mainland South America. The material comes from an outcrop at the lower portion of the São Domingos Formation, within Sequence C of the Paraná-Apucarana sub-basin in Tibagi, State of Paraná. Marine invertebrates are abundant in the same strata. The dark colored fish remains were collected in situ and represent natural moulds of partially articulated shark fin rays (radials). No elements such as teeth or prismatic cartilage have been preserved with the fins rays. This can be attributed to the dissolution of calcium-phosphatic minerals at the early stages of fossilization due to diagenetic processes possibly linked to strong negative taphonomic bias. This may have contributed to the fact that fishes remained elusive in the Devonian strata of this basin, despite substantial geological work done in the Paraná State in recent decades. In addition, the scarcity of fish fossils may be explained by the fact that the Devonian rock deposits in this basin originated in a vertebrate impoverished, cold marine environment of the Malvinokaffric Realm, as previously suspected.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Cranial crests show considerable variation within the Pterosauria, a group of flying reptiles that developed powered flight. This includes the Wukongopteridae, a clade of non-pterodactyloids, where the presence or absence of such head structures, allied with variation in the pelvic canal, have been regarded as evidence for sexual dimorphism. Here we discuss the cranial crest variation within wukongopterids and briefly report on a new specimen (IVPP V 17957). We also show that there is no significant variation in the anatomy of the pelvis of crested and crestless specimens. We further revisit the discussion regarding the function of cranial structures in pterosaurs and argue that they cannot be dismissed a priori as a valuable tool for species recognition.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Banded iron formations (BIF) have a particular vegetation type and provide a good model system for testing theories related to leaf phenology, due to unique stressful environmental conditions. As a consequence of the stressful conditions of BIF environment, we hypothesize that most species would retain at least some significant canopy cover, even at the end of the dry season, independently of growth form - trees, shrubs, and sub-shrubs. Considering the strong seasonality, we also hypothesize that photoperiod and rainfall act as triggers for leaf fall and leaf flushing in these environments. The majority of the fifteen studied species had a semi-deciduous behavior and shed their leaves mainly during the dry season, with a recovery at the end of this season. In general, leaf flushing increased around the spring equinox (end of the dry season and start of the rainy season). A trade-off between leaf loss and leaf maintenance is expected in a community in which most plants are naturally selected to be semi-deciduous. Our results suggest photoperiod as a dominant factor in predicting leaf phenology.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Despite extensive habitat fragmentation, the Neotropical region possesses 30% of the world´s bird species. Microsatellites have remained one of the most popular genetic markers and have been used in ecological and conservation studies since the 1990’s. We conducted a literature review comparing the number of papers published from January 1990 to July 2015 that used microsatellite markers for studies of wild birds in the Neotropical region, USA and some European countries. We assigned the articles to three categories of studies: population genetics, animal behavior/kinship analysis and the development of species-specific bird microsatellite markers. We also compared the studies in the Neotropics that used heterologous versus species-specific markers and provide a list of heterologous markers of utility in multiple birds. Despite the rich bird fauna in the Neotropics, the number of articles published represents only 5.6% of that published by the USA and selected European countries. Within the Neotropical region, Brazil possessed 60.5% of the total papers published, with the remaining 39.5% shared between five countries. We conclude that the lack of specialized laboratories and resources still represents a limit to microsatellite-based genetic studies of birds within the Neotropical region. To overcome these limitations, we suggest the use of heterologous microsatellite markers as a cost-effective and time-effective tool to assist ecological studies of wild birds.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Several studies have shown that a high consumption of vegetables and fruits is consistently associated with a low risk of oxidative stress-induced diseases, which includes some degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer and Parkinson. Therefore, the objective of this study is to verify the effects of conventional and organic grape juice in the modulation of the neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and astrocytic markers protein (S100B) in hippocampus and frontal cortex of Wistar rats. In this study, 24 male Wistar rats were divided into three groups. To the first one, it was given organic purple grape juice; to the second, conventional grape juice, while the last one received only saline. After 30 days, all rats were sacrificed and hippocampus and frontal cortex were dissected. The animals that received organic and conventional grape juice showed, in frontal cortex, an elevated BNDF levels in relation to saline group. However, S100B levels did not change. These results showed that grape juices are able to modulate important marker in brain tissue, and could be an important factor to prevent brain diseases.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of phosphorus (P) nutrition on arsenic (As) uptake and translocation within the seedlings of rice cultivars. The experiment occurred in three stages: I 5 days of acclimatization (nutritive solution); II 10 days under P (0.0 and 0.09 mM) and As (0.0 and 100 mM) treatments; III 5 days under recovery. The As exposure had significant effect reducing dry weights of shoots or roots, resulted in elevated concentrations of As in shoot tissues. BR-IRGA 409 showed the highest susceptibility to As in biomass production and root system parameters regardless the P level. This cultivar showed contrasting responses of As translocation to shoot tissue dependent on P levels, with the highest As concentration under low P and lowest under normal P levels. P nutrition was most striking on plants recovery for all cultivars under As exposure. Clearer separation of cultivars for phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) occurred at lower shoot P contents, that was, at higher levels of P deficiency stress. IRGA 424 showed higher PUE as compared to the others cultivars. Our results go some way to understanding the role of P nutrition in controlling the effects of As in rice shoots.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis is a type of red alga that contains seaweed polysaccharide agar. In this study, a novel non-agar seaweed polysaccharide fraction named GCP (short of crude polysaccharide obtained from Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis) was isolated from Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis. Structural analysis showed that GCP shows triple helical chain conformation when dissolved in water and has many branches and long side chains. Also, 1→3 linkage is the major linkage and the sugar structures are galactopyranose configurations linked by β-type glycosidic linkages. Two macromolecular substance fractions (GCP-1 and GCP-2) were purified by DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography. Moreover, a splenocyte damage assay and splenocyte proliferation assay were used to analyse the bioactivities of GCP, GCP-1 and GCP-2. It was demonstrated that polysaccharides could protect splenocyte damaged by H2O2; GCP-2 shows a greatest protection rate, that is, 92.8%, which significantly enhanced the splenocyte proliferation, and GCP showed the highest proliferation rate, 9.30%. The results suggested that this type of novel non-agar polysaccharide displayed remarkable antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities and early alkali treatment could decrease the activities. It may represent a potential material for health food and clinical medicines.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and nutria (Myocastor coypus) are herbivorous semi-aquatic rodents. Although these rodents occur in sympatry in southern South America, little is known about how the two species interact in relationship to food resources. In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze the food resource overlap, the feeding strategy and the diversity of the diet of capybaras and nutria. A micro-histological analysis of feces was used to study the diets. A total of 48 plant species belonging to 10 families were identified in the diet of H. hydrochaeris, and a total of 49 species belonging to 14 families were identified in the diet of M. coypus. According to the Amundsen graphical method, both rodents adopted a specialized strategy for feeding on Poaceae and a generalized strategy for other families. The results of a multivariate analysis of the dietary data showed significant differences between the two rodent species and among the seasons. These differences between diets may be related to the different proportions of each food item eaten. However, the dietary overlap between the two rodents in the Taim wetland was high, suggesting that partitioning of other resources ensured the coexistence of the species.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Linalool is the main compound of many essential oils and occurs in two isomeric forms: S-(+)- and R-(-)-linalool. This study aimed to determine if linalool isomers have different antimicrobial and anesthetic properties in fish. For this purpose, these compounds were previously isolated from Lippia alba (Mill.)N. E. Brown and Ocimum americanum L. essential oils. Antimicrobial effects were evaluated through the microdilution test against Aeromonas hydrophila, an important fish disease etiologic agent. Induction time until sedation, anesthesia and recovery time were determined in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) through bath exposure (60, 180, 300 or 500 μL L-1). The results showed different biological properties for the isomers being S-(+)-linalool the only active against A. hydrophila at 3.2 mg mL-1. The sedation was induced without differences between the compounds, however R-(-)-linalool promoted faster anesthesia. There were no differences regarding the recovery time of the animals exposed to the linalool isomers. Although both S-(+)- and R-(-)-linalool can be used for sedative purposes, their use in A. hydrophila infection is inadvisable due to the high effective concentration. Considering anesthesia as the main objective, the R-(-)-linalool demonstrated clear advantages at lower concentration.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Cichlid fishes are an important group in evolutionary biology due to their fast speciation. This group depends widely of vision for feeding and reproduction. During the evolutionary process it plays a significant role in interspecific and intraspecific recognition and in its ecology. The molecular basis of vision is formed by the interaction of the protein opsin and retinal chromophore. Long-wavelength sensitive opsin (LWS) gene is the most variable among the opsin genes and it has an ecological significance. Current assay identifies interspecific variation of Neotropical cichlids that would modify the spectral properties of the LWS opsin protein and codons selected. Neotropical species present more variable sites for LWS gene than those of the African lakes species. The LWS opsin gene in Crenicichla britskii has a higher amino acid similarity when compared to that in the African species, but the variable regions do not overlap. Neotropical cichlids accumulate larger amounts of variable sites for LWS opsin gene, probably because they are spread over a wider area and submitted to a wider range of selective pressures by inhabiting mainly lotic environments. Furthermore, the codons under selection are different when compared to those of the African cichlids.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to compare two models of swimming applied to pregnant rats born small for pregnancy age (SPA). Diabetes was chemically induced in adult female rats to develop an inadequate intrauterine environment, leading to birth of a SPA offspring. In adulthood, the female SPA rats were mated and submitted to different swimming programs. The exercise program 1 (Ex1) consisted of swimming for 15 minutes, followed by 15 minutes of rest and another 15 minutes of swimming, 3 days a week before and during pregnancy. Another program (Ex2) was applied during 60 minutes uninterrupted a day, 6 days/week during pregnancy. The pregnant rats presented no interference on body weight and glycemia. The rats submitted to Ex2 model showed decreased insulin and blood glucose levels by oral glucose tolerance test, and reduction in area under curve values. The offspring from dams submitted to both exercise protocols presented an increased rate of newborns SPA. However, the offspring from Ex2 dams showed percentage twice higher of newborns SPA than Ex1 offspring. Our data suggests that continuous exercise of 60 min/day ameliorated the enhanced peripheral insulin sensitivity in growth-restricted females. However, this protocol employed at pregnancy leads to intrauterine growth restriction.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Bone turnover markers (BTMs) are product of bone cell activity and are generally divided in bone formation and bone resorption markers. The purpose of this review was to structure the available information on the use of BTMs in studies on small ruminants, especially for monitoring their variations related to diet, exercise, gestation and metabolic lactation state, circadian and seasonal variations, and also during skeletal growth. Pre-clinical and translational studies using BTMs with sheep and goats as animal models in orthopaedic research studies to help in the evaluation of the fracture healing process and osteoporosis research are also described in this review. The available information from the reviewed studies was systematically organized in order to highlight the most promising BTMs in small ruminant research, as well as provide a wide view of the use of sheep and goat as animal models in orthopaedic research, type of markers and commercial assay kits with cross-reactivity in sheep and goat, method of sample and storage of serum and urine for bone turnover markers determination and the usefulness and limitations of bone turnover markers in the different studies, therefore an effective tool for researchers that seek answers to different questions while using BTMs in small ruminants.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Prosopis juliflora is a shrub that has been used to feed animals and humans. However, a synergistic action of piperidine alkaloids has been suggested to be responsible for neurotoxic damage observed in animals. We investigated the involvement of programmed cell death (PCD) and autophagy on the mechanism of cell death induced by a total extract (TAE) of alkaloids and fraction (F32) from P. juliflora leaves composed majoritary of juliprosopine in a model of neuron/glial cell co-culture. We saw that TAE (30 µg/mL) and F32 (7.5 µg/mL) induced reduction in ATP levels and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential at 12 h exposure. Moreover, TAE and F32 induced caspase-9 activation, nuclear condensation and neuronal death at 16 h exposure. After 4 h, they induced autophagy characterized by decreases of P62 protein level, increase of LC3II expression and increase in number of GFP-LC3 cells. Interestingly, we demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy by bafilomycin and vinblastine increased the cell death induced by TAE and autophagy induced by serum deprivation and rapamycin reduced cell death induced by F32 at 24 h. These results indicate that the mechanism neural cell death induced by these alkaloids involves PCD via caspase-9 activation and autophagy, which seems to be an important protective mechanism.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Bauhinia holophylla, commonly known as “cow’s hoof”, is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the diabetes treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was at evaluating the aqueous extract effect of Bauhinia holophylla leaves treatment on the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by Streptozotocin (40 mg/Kg) in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Bauhinia holophylla leaves was given to non-diabetic and diabetic rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg during 21 days. On day 17 of treatment, the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test was performed to determine the area under the curve. At the end of the treatment, the animals were anesthetized and blood was collected for serum biochemical parameters analysis. After treatment with Bauhinia holophylla extract, non-diabetic and diabetic rats presented no glycemic changes. On the other hand, the plant treatment decreased body weight and increased ALT and AST activities. In conclusion, the treatment with aqueous extract of B. holophylla leaves given to diabetic rats presented no hypoglycemic effect in nondiabetic animals and no antidiabetic effect in diabetic animals with the doses studied. In addition, the diabetic animals treated with the B. holophylla extract showed inconvenient effects and its indiscriminate consumption requires particular carefulness.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Tryptophan is the only precursor of serotonin and mediates serotonergic activity in the brain. Previous studies have shown that the administration of tryptophan or tryptophan depletion significantly alters cognition, mood and anxiety. Nevertheless, the neurobiological alterations that follow these changes have not yet been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a tryptophan-enriched diet on immunoreactivity to Fos-protein in the rat brain. Sixteen male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups that either received standard chow diet or a tryptophan-enriched diet for a period of thirty days. On the morning of the 31st day, animals were euthanized and subsequently analyzed for Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei and in regions that receive serotonin innervation from these two brain areas. Treatment with a tryptophan-enriched diet increased Fos-ir in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, paraventricular hypothalamus, arcuate and ventromedial hypothalamus, dorsolateral and dorsomedial periaqueductal grey and dorsal and median raphe nucleus. These observations suggest that the physiological and behavioral alterations that follow the administration of tryptophan are associated with the activation of brain regions that regulate cognition and mood/anxiety-related responses.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Human aging is characterized by both physical and physiological frailty that profoundly affects the immune system. In this context aging is associated with declines in adaptive and innate immunity established as immunosenescence. Immunosenescence is a new concept that reflects the age-associated restructuring changes of innate and adaptive immune functions. Thus elderly individuals usually present chronic low-level inflammation, higher infection rates and chronic diseases. A study of alterations in the immune system during aging could provide a potentially useful biomarker for the evaluation of immune senescence treatment. The immune system is the result of the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity, yet the impact of aging on this function is unclear. In this article the function of the immune system during aging is explored.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study investigated the frequency of infection by Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs submitted to animal health centers in Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. E. canis and A. platys showed infection frequencies of 55.75% and 16.96%, respectively. The identity of the two species was confirmed by DNA sequencing.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The origin and dispersion of the first Americans have been extensively investigated from morphological and genetic perspectives, but few studies have focused on their health and lifestyle. The archaeological site of Lapa do Santo, central-eastern Brazil, has exceptionally preserved Early Holocene human skeletons, providing 19 individuals with 327 permanent and 122 deciduous teeth dated to 9,250 to 7,500 years BP. In this study, we test whether the inhabitants of Lapa do Santo had high prevalence of dental caries as previous studies of Lagoa Santa collection have indicated, using individual and tooth as units of analyses. The results show a high prevalence of dental caries in the permanent dentition (5.50%, n=327 teeth; 69.23%, n=13 individuals) compared to other samples of hunter-gatherers worldwide. In addition, dental caries in deciduous teeth start occurring as early as 3 to 4 years old, suggesting an early start to caries. Compared with other samples from Lagoa Santa, Lapa do Santo shows statistically similar prevalence of overall caries but different caries location pattern. We believe that a subsistence adaptation to a tropical environment rich in sources of carbohydrates, such as fruits, is the best explanation for the overall caries prevalence.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Mansoa hirsuta (Bignoniaceae) is a native plant from caatinga in Brazilian semiarid. This plant has been locally used as antimicrobial and hypoglycemiant agents, but their action mechanisms and toxicity remain largely unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the composition and antioxidant, cytoprotective and hypoglycemiant effects of raw extract, fractions and compounds from leaves of M. hirsuta. The cytogenotoxic effects of ursolic and oleanolic acids, the main phytotherapic components of this plant, were assessed. The raw extract and fractions presented steroids, saponins, flavonols, flavanonols, flavanones, xanthones, phenols, tannins, anthocyanins, anthocyanidins and flavonoids. The ethyl acetate fraction inhibited efficiently the cascade of lipid peroxidation while the hydroalcoholic fraction was richer in total phenols and more efficient in capturing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (·DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS·+) radicals. The isolated fraction of M. hirsuta also inhibited the α-amylase activity. Cytotoxic effects were absent in both raw extract and fractions while ursolic+oleanolic acids were efficient in protecting cells after exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, this mixture of acid shad no significant interference on the mitotic index and frequency of nuclear and/or chromosomal abnormalities in Allium cepa test. Therefore, M. hirsuta represents a potential source of phytochemicals against inflammatory and oxidative pathologies, including diabetes.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The Brazilian Poplar Moth, Condylorrhiza vestigialis (Guenée), compromises the wood productivity of poplar trees (Populus sp.), mainly affecting the matchstick industry in southern Brazil. Considering the lack of information on rearing techniques for this insect, the objective of this study was to develop an artificial diet to rear C. vestigialis with biological characteristics similar to the wild insects. A properly diet will enable bio-ecological studies and biological control programs using the baculovirus Condylorrhiza vestigialis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (CvMNPV). To attain this objective, first, three artificial diets were tested. Only the diet based on corn, wheat germ and yeast as a protein source (Diet 3) was able to supply the nutritional requirements of the moth and support completion of its life cycle. In the second experiment, Diet 3 was compared to the natural diet of C. vestigialis. The artificial diet supported a viability of 81% of the eggs, while only 40% developed on the natural diet. Life-table data showed the same pattern: the net reproductive rate (Ro) of C. vestigialis reared on the artificial diet was 401.70, and on the natural diet was 151.22. The artificial diet is adequate for mass rearing of C. vestigialis, to support biological control programs using the baculovirus.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Four soybean meal-based diets containing increasing levels of an enzyme complex (E50, E100, E150 and E200 at 50, 100, 150 and 200 g ton-1, respectively) and one soybean meal-based diet without the enzyme complex (E0) were fed in triplicate to M. liza juveniles in a semi-static flow system with 20 fish per tank for 75 days. There were no differences between the treatments for animal performance parameters, but fish fed the enzyme complex treatment exhibited significantly (P<0.05) higher values of calcium bone retention compared with control fish. Although there was no relationship between bacterial counts in different sections of the gastrointestinal tract or enzyme levels, filamentous bacteria were increased in E50 compared with E150. All of the treatments resulted in higher bacterial counts in the stomach than in intestinal segments. Histological screening showed serious to moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells, modification in villus morphology and necrosis in some cases in fish fed the E0 diet. In addition, fish from the E0 treatment exhibited significantly (P<0.05) lower lipid deposition in the peritoneal cavity. Therefore, the use of low levels of exogenous enzyme is recommended in diets for M. liza when soybean meal is used as the main source of protein.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to verify the richness and density of aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates after exposure to fungicides and insecticides of the rice paddy fields. In the crop seasons of 2012/13 and 2013/14, field experiments were performed, which consisted of single-dose applications of the fungicides trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole and tricyclazole, and the insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam and diflubenzuron, in 10 m2 experimental plots, over rice plants in the R3 stage. Control plots with and without rice plants were maintained in order to simulate a natural environment. Soil samples were collected during rice cultivation for assessment of the macroinvertebrate fauna. Chemical-physical parameters assessed in the experiments included temperature, pH and oxygen dissolved in the water and pesticide persistence in the water and in the soil. The application of a single dose of the pesticides and fungicides in the recommended period does not cause significant negative effects over the richness and density of the macroinvertebrates. Tebuconazole, tricyclazole and thiamethoxam showed high persistence in the irrigation water of rice paddy fields. Thus, the doses and number of applications of these products in crops should be carefully handled in order to avoid contamination of the environment.